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Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the main stadium of an Olympic Games. An Olympic stadium is the site of the opening and closing ceremonies. Many, though not all, of these venues actually contain the words Olympic Stadium as part of their names, such as stadiums in Amsterdam, Berlin, Helsinki and Paris. Olympic Stadium may also be named a multi-purpose stadium which hosts Olympic sports.[1]

In the case of the Summer Olympic Games, athletics competitions and the football final are traditionally held in the Olympic Stadium. Exceptions to this have occurred though at the 1900, 1996 and 2016 Summer Olympics as well as at the 2010 and 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games.

Early Winter Olympic Games often used figure skating venues as focal points. These were often designated as the Olympic Stadium, usually hosting the opening and closing ceremonies.

A number of stadiums have been used in more than one Olympics, in those cities that have held the Games more than once.

Lysgårdsbakken was the main stadium of a Winter Olympics and a Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG). Bergiselschanze was the main stadium of two Winter Olympics and one Winter YOG. Olympiahalle jointly shared the Olympic Stadium role with Bergiselschanze during the two Winter Olympics, but not during the Winter YOG. Only one stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, has been the main stadium of two Summer Olympics (and it will be a main stadium a third time during the 2028 games). In addition to the inaugural Summer Olympics, Panathinaiko Stadio was also the main stadium of the only Intercalated Games held. The other, National Stadium in Tokyo was the main stadium hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics (the first in Asia), when the 2020 games chosen to be as the main stadium and was decided to rebuild a new one. Beijing National Stadium was the main stadium being hosted at two Olympics, but with a special distinction: it would become the only stadium to have been such at both a Summer and a Winter Olympics.

A number, including both the Panathinaiko Stadio and the Vélodrome de Vincennes, have hosted events at subsequent Olympics. The London Games of 2012 were not opened and closed at the rebuilt Wembley Stadium, the site of the 1948 Olympic Stadium, but instead at a new stadium in Stratford. Wembley was, however, the venue for some 2012 Olympic football matches. Likewise, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was the centrepiece stadium for the 1956 games, later hosted the first games of the Sydney 2000 football tournament. Lake Placid's 1932 Olympic Stadium was utilized in the 1980 Lake Placid games as the speed skating venue. Olympiahalle hosted figure skating and short-track speed skating during the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. Stockholm Olympic Stadium hosted equestrian events for the 1956 Summer Olympics (while the 1956 games were held in Melbourne, Australia, quarantine restrictions prevented equestrian events from being held domestically, thus Stockholm, Sweden hosted the 1956 equestrian competitions).

Stadia

Image Olympics Season Stadium Native name City Country New/old Capacity Existing?
Kallimarmaron stadium.JPG
1896 Summer Panathenaic Stadium Παναθηναϊκό στάδιο Athens  Greece Existing 80,000 Yes
Btv1b8433332t-p014 (cropped)1A Square.jpg
1900 Vincennes Velodrome (ceremony) Vélodrome de Vincennes Paris  France 50,000 Yes
Croix-Catelan Stadium (athletics) Stade Croix-Catelan No
Francis Field 1904.jpg
1904 Francis Field St. Louis  United States New 19,000 Yes
1906 Athens stadium.jpg
1906 Intercalated Panathenaic Stadium Παναθηναϊκό στάδιο Athens  Greece Existing 80,000 Yes
White City Stadium 1908.jpg
1908 White City Stadium London  United Kingdom New 68,000 No
Olympic opening ceremony 1912.jpg
1912 Olympic Stadium Stockholms Olympiastadion Stockholm  Sweden New 20,000 Yes
Olympisch Stadion Antwerp 1.jpg
1920 Olympic Stadium Olympisch Stadion Antwerp  Belgium New 12,771 Yes
Hockey chamonix 1924.jpg
1924 Winter Olympic Stadium Stade Olympique de Chamonix Chamonix  France New 45,000 Yes
StadeolympiqueColombesJO1924.jpg
1924 Summer Olympic Stadium Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir Paris Existing 45,000 Yes
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12670, St. Moritz, Eishockeyspiel.jpg
1928 Winter St. Moritz Olympic Ice Rink Badrutts Park St. Moritz   Switzerland New 4,000 Yes
Olympic Stadium Amsterdam 1928.jpg
1928 Summer Olympic Stadium Olympisch Stadion Amsterdam  Netherlands Existing, renovated 31,600 Yes
Cérémonie d
1932 Winter Lake Placid Speedskating Oval Lake Placid  United States New 7,500 Yes
LA Memorial Coliseum aerial.jpg
1932 Summer Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles Existing, expanded 101,574 Yes
Bundesarchiv R 8076 Bild-0020, Olympische Winterspiele.- Eröffnung.jpg
1936 Winter Große Olympiaschanze Garmisch-Partenkirchen  Germany Existing 40,000 Yes
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R82532, Berlin, Olympia-Stadion (Luftaufnahme).jpg
1936 Summer Olympic Stadium Olympiastadion Berlin New 110,000 Yes
Eisstadion Badrutts Park.JPG
1948 Winter St. Moritz Olympic Ice Rink Badrutts Park St. Moritz   Switzerland Existing 4,000 Yes
Old Wembley Stadium (external view).jpg
1948 Summer Wembley Stadium London  United Kingdom Existing 82,000 No (replaced)
Bislett stadion1.jpg
1952 Winter Bislett Stadium Bislett stadion Oslo  Norway Existing 20,000 No (replaced)
Estadio Olímpico de Helsinki, Estadio, 1943-08-13 (50).jpg
1952 Summer Olympic Stadium Olympiastadion Helsinki  Finland Existing 70,000 Yes
Cortina 1971 2.jpg
1956 Winter Stadio Olimpico Del Ghiaccio Cortina d'Ampezzo  Italy Existing, renovated 12,000 Yes
Collectie Fotocollectiie Afdrukken ANEFO Rousel, fotonummer 157-0456, Bestanddeelnr 157-0456.jpg
1956 Summer Melbourne Cricket Ground Melbourne  Australia Existing 115,000 Yes
Squaw-Valley-Blyth-Arena-1960.jpg
1960 Winter Blyth Arena Squaw Valley  United States New 8,500 No
Squaw-Valley-Speed-Skating-Venue-1960.jpg
Squaw Valley Olympic Skating Rink Temporary No
Rome Olympics 1960 - Opening Day.jpg
1960 Summer Stadio Olimpico Rome  Italy Existing 90,000 Yes
Sprungschanze am Bergisel 05.jpg
1964 Winter Bergiselschanze (opening ceremony) Innsbruck  Austria Existing 26,000 Yes
Olympiahalle Innsbruck.jpg
Olympiahalle (closing ceremony) New 10,836 Yes
KokuritshuKasumigaoka-6.JPG
1964 Summer National Stadium 国立競技場 Tokyo  Japan Existing 71,556 No (replaced)
Stade olympique - Grenoble 1968.jpg
1968 Winter Olympic Stadium (opening ceremony) Stade olympique Grenoble  France Temporary 60,000 No
Allee parc Paul-Mistral - Grenoble.JPG
Le Stade de Glace (closing ceremony) New 12,000 Yes
Estadio Olimpico Universitario CU.jpg
1968 Summer Estadio Olímpico Universitario Mexico City  Mexico Existing 83,700 Yes
Makomanai Open Stadium.jpg
1972 Winter Makomanai Open Stadium (opening ceremony) 真駒内屋外競技場 Sapporo  Japan New 30,000 Yes
Makomanai Ice Arena.jpg
Makomanai Ice Arena (closing ceremony) 真駒内屋内競技場 New 11,500 Yes
Olympiastadion Muenchen.jpg
1972 Summer Olympiastadion Munich  West Germany New 80,000 Yes
Gleich geht es abwärts... (5898737523).jpg
1976 Winter Bergiselschanze (opening ceremony) Innsbruck  Austria Existing 26,000 Yes
Innsbruck - Olympische Halle.jpg
Olympiahalle (closing ceremony) Existing 10,836 Yes
Le Stade Olympique 3.jpg
1976 Summer Olympic Stadium Stade olympique Montreal  Canada New 70,000 Yes
Ceremony 1980 Winter Games.jpg
1980 Winter Lake Placid Equestrian Stadium (opening ceremony) Lake Placid  United States Temporary stadium at existing equestrian grounds 30,000 No
HerbBrooksArena.jpg
Olympic Center Arena (closing ceremony) New 10,000 Yes
RIAN archive 487039 Opening ceremony of the 1980 Olympic Games.jpg
1980 Summer Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium Большая спортивная арена центрального стадиона имени Ленина Moscow  Soviet Union Existing, renovated 103,000 Yes
1984 Winter Olympics opening ceremony at Koševo Stadium, Sarajevo.jpg
1984 Winter Olympic Stadium (opening ceremony) Olimpijski stadion Sarajevo  Yugoslavia Existing 50,000 Yes
View of Koševo and Zetra.jpg
Zetra Olympic Hall (closing ceremony) Olimpijska dvorana Zetra New 12,000 Yes
LA Memorial Coliseum aerial.jpg
1984 Summer Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles  United States Existing 92,516 Yes
McMahon Stadium 6.jpg
1988 Winter McMahon Stadium Calgary  Canada Existing, renovated 38,205 Yes
View from COEX Tower.jpg
1988 Summer Seoul Olympic Stadium 서울올림픽주경기장 Seoul  South Korea Existing 100,000 Yes
1992 Winter Theatre of Ceremonies Théâtre des Cérémonies Albertville  France Temporary 35,000 No
Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys - Barcelona, Spain - Jan 2007.jpg
1992 Summer Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys Barcelona  Spain Existing 60,713 Yes
Lysgård.JPG
1994 Winter Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena Lysgårdsbakkene hoppanlegg Lillehammer  Norway New 35,000 Yes
Athletics venue during the 1996 Paralympic Games.jpg
1996 Summer Centennial Olympic Stadium Atlanta  United States 85,000 Yes (reconfigured)[a]
Nagano Olympic Stadium.jpg
1998 Winter Nagano Olympic Stadium 長野オリンピックスタジアム Nagano  Japan 30,000 Yes
Womens-long-jump-final.jpg
2000 Summer Stadium Australia Sydney  Australia 114,714 Yes
RSL at Rice-Eccles.jpg
2002 Winter Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium Salt Lake City  United States Existing, replacement 45,017 Yes
Olympic stadium,Athens 18.JPG
2004 Summer Olympic Stadium Ολυμπιακό Κεντρικό Στάδιο Αθήνας "Σπύρος Λούης" Athens  Greece Existing, renovated 72,000 Yes
Stadio Olimpico in Turin, 2007, Torino v Peñarol.jpg
2006 Winter Stadio Olimpico di Torino Turin  Italy Existing 28,000 Yes
Beijing national stadium.jpg
2008 Summer Beijing National Stadium 国家体育场 Beijing  China New 91,000 Yes
BC Place 2015 Women
2010 Winter BC Place Stadium Vancouver  Canada Existing, renovated 54,500 Yes
Ndp-2007.JPG
2010 Youth Summer The Float@Marina Bay Pentas Terapung Teluk Marina
滨海湾浮动舞台
மரீனா பே மிதக்கும் மேடை (Tamil)
Marina Bay  Singapore Existing 30,000 Yes
Sprungschanze am Bergisel 02.jpg
2012 Youth Winter Bergiselschanze Innsbruck  Austria 26,000 Yes
Olympic Stadium (London), 8 August 2012.jpg
2012 Summer Olympic Stadium London  United Kingdom New 80,000 Yes
Fisht Olympic Stadium 2017.jpg
2014 Winter Fisht Olympic Stadium Олимпийский стадион Sochi  Russia 40,000 Yes
Nanjing Olympic Sports Center main gym.jpg
2014 Youth Summer Olympic Stadium 南京奥林匹克体育中心 Nanjing  China Existing 61,443 Yes
Lillehammer Ski Jump.jpg
2016 Youth Winter Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena (opening ceremony) Lysgårdsbakkene hoppanlegg Lillehammer  Norway 35,000 Yes
Håkons hall.JPG
Håkons Hall (closing ceremony) 11,500 Yes
Maracanã 2014 e.jpg
2016 Summer Maracanã Stadium (opening and closing ceremony, football) Estádio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 74,738 Yes
Rio2016 Gerais 030 8069 -c-2016 GabrielHeusi HeusiAction.jpg
João Havelange Olympic Stadium (athletics and football) Estádio Olímpico João Havelange Existing, expanded 60,000[2] Yes
Pyeongchang Olympic Stadium at day for 2018 Winter Paralympics opening ceremony - 1.jpg
2018 Winter Pyeongchang Olympic Stadium 평창 올림픽 스타디움 Pyeongchang  South Korea Temporary 35,000 No
9 de julio - panoramio.jpg
2018 Youth Summer Obelisco de Buenos Aires (opening ceremony) Obelisco de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires  Argentina Existing, temporary N/A Yes
OHBA17 - Torre Espacial (08).jpg
Buenos Aires Youth Olympic Village (closing ceremony)[3] Existing, expanded 15,500 Yes
2020 Winter Youth Olympics opening ceremony 7.jpg
2020 Youth Winter Vaudoise Arena Vaudoise Aréna Lausanne   Switzerland New 9,600 Yes
New national stadium tokyo 1.jpg
2020 Summer Japan National Stadium 国立競技場 (tentative name) Tokyo  Japan Existing, replacement 68,000 Yes
Beijing national stadium.jpg
2022 Winter Beijing National Stadium 国家体育场 Beijing  China Existing 80,000 Yes
Bercy, Paris 01.jpg
2024 Summer River Seine (Opening ceremony) Paris  France Temporary 600,000 Yes
Jardins du Trocadéro 1986-152.jpg
Jardins du Trocadéro (Closing ceremony) N/A Yes
StadeFranceNationsLeague2018.jpg
Stade de France (Athletics, rugby sevens) Existing 77,083 Yes
Alpensia 20170202 08 (32537578151).jpg
2024 Youth Winter Alpensia Ski Jumping Stadium (Opening ceremony) SCJ 올림픽 스타디움 Gangwon  South Korea Existing,

replacement

8,500 Yes
SCJ Olympic Stadium (closing ceremony) New
StadioSanSiroMilanInter.png
2026 Winter San Siro (opening ceremony) Milan  Italy Existing 75,923 Yes
Arena Anfiteatro.XE3F1912a.jpg
Verona Arena (closing ceremony) Verona 15,000 Yes
2026 Youth Summer Diamniadio Olympic Stadium Stade olympique de Diamniadio Dakar  Senegal New 50,000 Yes
USC vs University of Oregon November 2019.png
2028 Summer Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (cultural opening and formal closing ceremony, athletics) Los Angeles  United States Existing, renovated 60,000 Yes
SoFi Stadium.jpg
SoFi Stadium[†] (formal opening and cultural closing ceremony, possible exhibition sports and football) Inglewood, California Existing 70,240-100,240 Yes
The Gabba Panorama.jpg
2032 Summer Brisbane Cricket Ground Brisbane  Australia Existing, to be demolished then rebuilt [4] 50,000 Yes
Notes
  1. ^ Following the 1996 Summer Paralympics, Centennial Olympic Stadium was reconfigured as designed into Turner Field to serve as the home of the Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball from 1997 until 2016, after of which the team moved to Truist Park in suburban Cobb County. In 2017, Georgia State University acquired Turner Field and its surrounding parking lots and reconfigured the stadium for the second time into Center Parc Stadium for the university's football team.

^ †: Under present IOC policy, non-sponsoring corporate naming rights are disallowed on venues during the duration of the Games.[5]

Other major events held at Olympic Stadiums

Venue City Events
Olympic Stadium Netherlands Amsterdam 1962 European Cup Final, 1977 European Cup Winners' Cup Final, 1981 UEFA Cup Final, 1987 Individual Speedway World Championship Finals, 1992 UEFA Cup Final, 2016 European Athletics Championships
Panathenaic Stadium Greece Athens 1967–68 FIBA European Cup Winners' Cup, 2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games
Olympiako Stadio Athinas 'Spyros Louis' 1983, 1994 and 2007 UEFA Champions League Finals, 1991 Mediterranean Games 1997 World Championships in Athletics, 2005 and 2006 WRC Acropolis Rally SuperSpecial Stage, 2006 IAAF World Cup
Centennial Olympic Stadium United States Atlanta as Turner Field: 1999 World Series, 2000 MLB All-Star Game
as Center Parc Stadium: annual MEAC/SWAC Challenge, annual GHSA football championships
Olympic Stadium Spain Barcelona 1989 IAAF World Cup, 2003 World Police and Fire Games, 2010 European Athletics Championships
Beijing National Stadium China Beijing 2009 Race of Champions, 2015 World Championships in Athletics, 2017 League of Legends World Championship
Olympic Stadium Germany Berlin 1974 FIFA World Cup, 1994 IPC Athletics World Championships, annual IAAF Golden League (1998–2009), 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2009 World Championships in Athletics, 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, 2015 UEFA Champions League Final, 2018 European Athletics Championships, annual DFB-Pokal final
Brisbane Cricket Ground Australia Brisbane 2020 AFL Grand Final
McMahon Stadium Canada Calgary Five Grey Cups, 1972 and 1978 CFL All-Star Games, 1997 World Police and Fire Games
Olympic Stadium Finland Helsinki 1957 Bandy World Championship, 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics, 1971, 1994, and 2012 European Athletics Championships, UEFA Women's Euro 2009, 2022 UEFA Super Cup[‡].
Bergisel Ski Jump Austria Innsbruck 1968 and 2005 Winter Universiades, 1933, 1985, and 2019 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, annual FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
Olympic Stadium United Kingdom London 2015 Race of Champions, 2015 Rugby World Cup, 2017 World Para Athletics Championships, 2017 World Championships in Athletics, 2018 Athletics World Cup, 2021 Rugby League World Cup[‡]
Wembley Stadium Original stadium: 1963, 1968, 1971, 1978, and 1992 European Cup Finals, 1966 FIFA World Cup, 1989-1992 Rugby League World Cup, WWF SummerSlam 1992, 1995 Rugby League World Cup, UEFA Euro 1996, annual FA Cup final, League Cup final, and FA Charity Shield
Current stadium: 2007 and 2008 Race of Champions, 2011, 2013, and 2024 UEFA Champions League Finals[‡], 2013 Rugby League World Cup, 2015 Rugby World Cup, UEFA Euro 2020, 2021 Rugby League World Cup, annual FA Cup final, NFL International Series, EFL Cup final, and FA Community Shield
White City Stadium 1934 British Empire Games, 1966 FIFA World Cup
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum United States Los Angeles 1959 World Series, second 1959 MLB All-Star Game, Super Bowl I (1967), Super Bowl VII (1973), 23 Pro Bowls, 1982 Individual Speedway World Championship, 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games, (historically) AMA Supercross Championships, 2022 Busch Clash, (historically) Mickey Thompson Off Road Grand Prix
SoFi Stadium Super Bowl LVI (2022), 2023 College Football Playoff National Championship[‡], annual LA Bowl
Melbourne Cricket Ground Australia Melbourne 1992 and 2015 Cricket World Cup Finals, 2006 Commonwealth Games, annual AFL Grand Final (except 2020 & 2021)
Estadio Olímpico Universitario Mexico Mexico City 1955 Pan American Games, 1986 FIFA World Cup
San Siro Italy Milan 1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cups
Olympic Stadium Canada Montreal 1979 IAAF World Cup, 1982 MLB All-Star Game, six Grey Cups, 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup, 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup
Luzhniki Stadium Russia Moscow 1973 Summer Universiade, 1999 UEFA Cup Final, 2008 UEFA Champions League Final, 2013 World Championships in Athletics, 2018 FIFA World Cup
Olympic Stadium Germany Munich 1974 FIFA World Cup, 1979 European Cup Final, UEFA Euro 1988, 1993 and 1997 UEFA Champions League Finals, 1989 Individual Speedway World Championship, 2002 European Athletics Championships, 2012 UEFA Women's Champions League Final
Bislett Stadium Norway Oslo 1946 European Athletics Championships, annual IAAF Golden League (1998–2009), annual Diamond League
Lysgårdsbakken Norway Lillehammer annual FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and FIS Nordic Combined World Cup
Vélodrome de Vincennes France Paris 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, and 1974 Tour de France closing stages
Stade Olympique de Colombes 1938 FIFA World Cup
Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup, 1999 Rugby World Cup, annual IAAF Golden League (1999–2009), 2000 UEFA Champions League Final, 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup Final, 2003 IAAF World Championships in Athletics Final, 2006 UEFA Champions League Final, 2007 Rugby World Cup Final, UEFA Euro 2016, annual Coupe de France final, annual Top 14 final, annual Diamond League
Estádio do Maracanã Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, 1989, 2019 and 2021 Copas América, 2000 FIFA Club World Championship, 2007 Pan American Games, 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup
Estádio Olímpico Nilton Santos 2007 Pan American Games, 2011 Military World Games, 2021 Copa América
Stadio Olimpico Italy Rome UEFA Euro 1968, 1980 and 2020, 1974 European Athletics Championships, 1975 Summer Universiade, 1977 and 1984 European Cup Finals, 1981 IAAF World Cup, 1987 World Championships in Athletics, 1990 FIFA World Cup, 1996 and 2009 UEFA Champions League Finals, annual IAAF Golden League (1998–2009), annual Diamond League
Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium United States Salt Lake City annual AMA Supercross Championships
Makomanai Open Stadium Japan Sapporo 1991 Winter Universiade
Olympic Stadium South Korea Seoul 1986 Asian Games, 2013 EAFF East Asian Cup finals
Fisht Olympic Stadium Russia Sochi 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2018 FIFA World Cup
Stockholm Olympic Stadium Sweden Stockholm 1958 European Athletics Championships, 1999 World Police and Fire Games, 2001, 2002 and 2004 Speedway Grand Prix of Sweden, annual Diamond League
Stadium Australia Australia Sydney 2003 Rugby World Cup, 2015 AFC Asian Cup, 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup[‡], annual NRL Grand Final
National Stadium Japan Tokyo Original stadium: 1958 Asian Games, 1967 Summer Universiade, 1991 World Championships in Athletics, annual Intercontinental Cup, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 FIFA Club World Cups, 2012 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup, annual Emperor's Cup final
Current stadium: annual Emperor's Cup final
Stadio Olimpico di Torino Italy Turin 1934 European Athletics Championships, 1934 FIFA World Cup, 1959 and 1970 Summer Universiades
BC Place Canada Vancouver Nine Grey Cups, 1983 CFL All-Star Game, 1989 World Police and Fire Games, 1990 Gay Games, 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup

^ ‡: Future event scheduled to take place at venue.

References

  1. ^ Olympic Stadium Archived 2014-03-13 at the Wayback Machine. Big Olympic Encyclopedia. Moscow 2006.
  2. ^ "João Havelange Olympic Stadium". Rio 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  3. ^ "El gobierno porteño gastará $15 millones en la Ceremonia de Clausura de los Juegos Olímpicos de la Juventud". Revista Qué. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  4. ^ https://brisbanedevelopment.com/new-1b-stadium-gabba-to-be-rebuilt-as-main-olympic-stadium/
  5. ^ Murphy, Bill, Jr. (4 February 2018). "United Airlines Spent $69 Million on This Stadium Naming Deal, But They're Not Getting This 1 Important Thing". Inc. Retrieved 17 September 2019.