OneWeb satellite constellation
KSC-20170316-PH KLS01 0007~orig.jpg
Model of a OneWeb satellite
ManufacturerOneWeb Satellites
(OneWeb and Airbus)
Country of originUnited Kingdom
OperatorOneWeb
ApplicationsInternet service
Website
Specifications
Spacecraft typeSmall satellite
Launch mass150 kg [1]
EquipmentKu-band antennas
RegimePolar low Earth orbit
(1,200 km (750 mi))
Production
StatusActive
Launched428/648 (66%)
Maiden launch27 February 2019
Last launch10 February 2022
OneWeb Logo.png

The OneWeb satellite constellation is a planned initial 648-satellite internet constellation which is in the process of being completed in 2022,[2] with a goal to provide global broadband internet services to people everywhere by the end of 2023.[3] The constellation is being deployed by OneWeb, headquartered in London, with offices in California, Florida, Virginia, Dubai and Singapore.

OneWeb's first six satellites were launched in February 2019,[4] the first large batch of 34 satellites was launched in February 2020,[5] and another 34 were put into orbit in March 2020.[6] These were followed by more launches in 2021. The small satellites were built by OneWeb Satellites, a joint venture between Airbus and OneWeb.[7] The satellites are in a circular low Earth orbit, at approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) altitude,[8] transmitting and receiving in the Ku-band of the radio frequency spectrum.[9]

In late March 2020, after securing its global satellite spectrum and orbital rights with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and launching 74 satellites, OneWeb filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection due to financial difficulties caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, but maintained the satellite operations center for the satellites already in orbit while the court determined the disposition of OneWeb's assets. The company exited bankruptcy in November 2020, after being sold to the Government of the United Kingdom and Bharti Global.[10]

History

Google participation and transfer of the spectrum

Early reports of the potential involvement of Google in offering broadband internet services surfaced in February 2014, when a "very large [satellite] constellation" was rumored to be in the plans with as many as 1600 satellites.[11] In May 2014, the early concept had been to have at least 20 satellites operating in each of 20 orbital planes to provide consistent internet coverage over the surface of the Earth.[9] By June 2014, WorldVu (later to be renamed to OneWeb) had acquired the satellite spectrum that was formerly owned by SkyBridge, a company that went bankrupt in 2000,[12] in a much earlier attempt to offer broadband Internet services via satellite.[13]

By September 2014, the WorldVu company had 30 employees, and several Google employees who had joined Google as part of the acquisition of O3b Networks in 2013 — Greg Wyler, Brian Holz and David Bettinger — left Google to become a part of WorldVu Satellites Ltd. They took with them the rights to a certain radio frequency spectrum that could be used to provide Internet access. At the time, WorldVu was working closely with SpaceX and SpaceX's founder Elon Musk to explore satellite internet services,[14] although no formal relationship had been established and no launch commitments had been made in 2014.[15]

SpaceX, initial manufacturing plans

By November 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that Musk and Wyler were considering options for building a factory to manufacture high-volume low-cost satellites, and that "initial talks had been held with state officials in Florida and Colorado" about potentially locating a factory in those states,[16] as well as that SpaceX would likely launch the satellites.[16] Also in November 2014, WorldVu issued a tender "to satellite manufacturers for 640 125-kg satellites", asking for responses by mid-December 2014, having secured regulatory approval for use of the requisite electromagnetic spectrum communication frequencies in mid-2014.[17][18]

The 2014 OneWeb solicitation to satellite manufacturers was for a total build of approximately 900 small Internet-delivery satellites, including ground and on-orbit spares. Responses were received from both European and American manufacturers including Airbus Defence and Space, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, OHB SE, SSL and Thales Alenia Space, and discussions focused on how each of these companies might "escape their status-quo histories as major space hardware contractors and remake themselves into producers capable of producing multiple satellites per month, each with a cost of fewer than US$500,000".[19] OneWeb announced that it planned to form a joint venture with the winning bidder and open a new facility for manufacturing the new smallsats.[19]

Funding from Virgin Group and Qualcomm

In January 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported that WorldVu, now operating under the name OneWeb Ltd, had secured funding from Virgin Group and Qualcomm to build and launch the constellation.[20][21] OneWeb also divulged that the planned satellites would weigh approximately 125 kg and that the plans were to deploy approximately 650 of them in low Earth orbit to operate at 1,200 km (750 mi) altitude.[20][21] Just a few days later, Elon Musk announced the rival Starlink venture, with the opening of the SpaceX satellite development facility in Seattle, Washington, with the intent of taking SpaceX itself into the business of internet provision and internet backhaul services, initially announced as aiming to build an approximately 4000-satellite constellation, with the first generation becoming operational in approximately 2020.[22]

The satellites for the OneWeb constellation were initially announced to be in the 110 kg (240 lb) class, about the same size as the two Earth-imaging satellites that were then operated by Skybox Imaging, which Google acquired in August 2014.[21][23][24] However, by the following year, sources put the satellites nearer 175–200 kg (386–441 lb) in mass.[19][25]

Arianespace and Virgin Galactic as planned launch operators

In March 2015, OneWeb indicated that they intended to select a launch service provider by mid-2015[19] and in June 2015 announced that Arianespace was contracted to provide 21 multi-satellite launches on Soyuz beginning in 2017 with Virgin Galactic under contract to provide 39 single-satellite launches using its LauncherOne smallsat launch vehicle.[26][27]

By 2015, there was also an option to use Ariane 6 for up to three launches after 2021, making this the first potential contract announced for that launch vehicle.[25][28][29]

By June 2015, the company had modified their plan somewhat to orbit a larger constellation of 720 satellites, operating in low Earth orbit at 1,200 km (750 mi) altitude,[25] with that plan reduced by early 2016 back to just 640 satellites.[8]

Manufacturers selected

In June 2015, Airbus Defence and Space was selected to build the satellites,[30][31] and development was kept on the schedule one year later with the first ten satellites still headed for a 2017 launch on a "Europeanized Soyuz launch vehicle".[32] That same month, Hughes Communications made an equity investment in OneWeb, and agreed to produce the ground network system for OneWeb.[33][34][35]

Largest SoftBank investment

In December 2016, SoftBank Group Corp. agreed to invest US$1 billion in OneWeb, thus becoming OneWeb's largest shareholder, with a roughly 40% stake. Another US$200 million was funded at that time by its current investors, which include Qualcomm Inc., Airbus Group and Virgin Group. The transaction was expected to close in the first quarter of 2017.[36][37]

Plans extension and buildup deadlines

In February 2017, OneWeb announced that it had sold most of the communication capacity of its initial 648 satellites, and was considering nearly quadrupling the size of the satellite constellation by adding 1,972 additional satellites that it has priority spectrum license rights for.[37] With the original capital raise of US$500 million in 2015, plus the US$1 billion investment of SoftBank in 2016, previous "investors committed to an additional US$200 million, bringing OneWeb's total capital raised to US$1.7 billion".[37]

In March 2017, OneWeb filed with the US regulatory authorities (FCC) plans to field a constellation of an additional 2,000 "V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services" in an electromagnetic spectrum that had not previously been "heavily employed for commercial communications services". This would include "720 LEO V-band satellites at 1200 kilometers, and another constellation in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) of 1,280 satellites".[38] Some controversy arose in 2015–2017 with regulatory authorities on licensing the communications spectrum for these large constellations of satellites. The traditional and historical regulatory rule for satellites licensing of communications spectrum has been that satellite operators could "launch a single spacecraft to meet their in-service deadline [from the regulator], a policy subsequently seen as allowing an operator to block the use of valuable radio spectrum for years without deploying its fleet".[39] By 2017, the FCC had set a six-year deadline, requiring an entire large constellation to be deployed within that timeframe to comply with licensing terms. OneWeb received approval under that ruling.[39] By 2019, the ruling was adjusted to state that half of a constellation must be in orbit within six years of the licensing date, with the full system in orbit within nine years.[40]

First launches

In August 2018, it was announced that the first test satellite launch might move into 2019, and would be no earlier than mid-December 2018.[41] By December 2018, the start was rescheduled to be no earlier than March 2019.[42] The satellite system is now planned to be fully online by 2027.[43] After OneWeb had built the initial satellites and done ground testing where they found the as-built sats "demonstrated better than expected performance", OneWeb announced in December 2018 that the company will need only 600 satellites rather than 900 previously planned for the initial constellation.[42]

In February and March 2020, OneWeb completed two successful launches of 34 satellites into orbit on a Soyuz rocket from Baikonur, Kazakhstan.[5][6]

Bankruptcy and bankruptcy exit

OneWeb and all its affiliates filed for bankruptcy on 27 March 2020, after experiencing difficulties raising capital to complete the building and deployment of network due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[44][45] The company maintained its satellite operational capabilities while the company was being restructured by the court.[46][47] On 3 July 2020, OneWeb was purchased by Bharti Global (a former OneWeb partner) and the Government of the United Kingdom.[48][49] The sale closed in November and OneWeb exited Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[50]

Additional investment in 2020 and 2021

In July 2020, Bharti Global and the UK government each announced a plan to invest US$500 million into OneWeb for a combined investment of US$1 billion.[51][52][53][54]

On 15 January 2021, OneWeb announced it had secured additional funding from SoftBank Group Corp and Hughes Network Systems LLC, bringing OneWeb's total funding to US$1.4 billion for the first-generation satellite fleet, totalling 648 satellites.[55] A further US$550m was invested by Eutelsat, the French Global satellite operator, on 27 April 2021. This increased total fresh equity since emergence from Chapter 11 to US$1.9 billion with no debt. This brought the company to 80% of is previously announced US$2.2 billion funding goal,[56] and fund raising is actively continuing.

Active internet services

In May 2021, OneWeb said that its then current constellation (218 spacecraft) as well as an additional 36 satellites planned to launch on 1 July 2021, would be ready to provide internet services to regions north of 50° latitude by the end of 2021. This includes the United Kingdom, Alaska, Northern Europe, Greenland, Iceland, the Arctic Seas, and Canada.[57]

The company's 648-satellite network was planned for completion by late 2022, with OneWeb making global internet services available at that time.[57] Owing to launch delays from Roscosmos (see below) the constellation is now expected to be completed in early 2023 following three launches early that year. [58]

Roscosmos suspension and SpaceX/ISRO launch services

In March 2022, following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Roscosmos director Dmitry Rogozin demanded that the United Kingdom sell its stake in OneWeb, and of OneWeb itself that it guarantee that its satellite constellation be used for non-military purposes exclusively. OneWeb and the United Kingdom rejected these demands, and subsequently OneWeb suspended all remaining Soyuz launches.[59]

On 21 March 2022, OneWeb announced that it had signed a launch agreement with United States launch provider SpaceX to launch the remaining satellites on Falcon 9 rockets, with the first launch expected no earlier than summer 2022.[60][61] On 20 April 2022 OneWeb announced a similar deal with NewSpace India Limited, the commercial arm of the Indian Space Research Organisation,[62]

Launches

On 27 February 2019, OneWeb successfully launched the first 6 of the 648 planned satellites (600 active plus 48 on-orbit spares) into low Earth orbit from the Centre Spatial Guyanais using a Russian Soyuz ST-B rocket.[4][63]

List of launches

In November 2019, OneWeb planned monthly launches to begin in January 2020,[64] although the first of these launches was delayed to early February 2020,[5] and bankruptcy and subsequent reorganization delayed the third launch to December 2020.[65] Since December 2020, OneWeb has launched 72 additional satellites from Vostochny, Siberia on 25 March and on 26 April 2021. On 1 July 2021, OneWeb launched a further 36 satellites, to take its in-orbit mega-constellation to 254[66] and making OneWeb the second largest satellite fleet in orbit.[67]

Flight No. Date/Time (UTC) Launch site Launch vehicle Number deployed Outcome
1 27 February 2019 [68] Kourou, ELS Soyuz ST-B / Fregat-MT 6 (test satellites) Success
2 6 February 2020 [5] Baikonur Cosmodrome, Site 31 Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 34 (first launch of operational satellites) Success
3 21 March 2020 [6] Baikonur Cosmodrome, Site 31 Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 34 Success
4 18 December 2020 [69][65] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
5 25 March 2021 [70] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
6 25 April 2021 [71] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
7 28 May 2021 [72] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
8 1 July 2021 [73] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
9 21 August 2021 [74] Baikonur Cosmodrome, Site 31 Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 34 Success
10 14 September 2021 [75] Baikonur Cosmodrome, Site 31 Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 34 Success
11 14 October 2021 [76] Vostochny Cosmodrome, Site 1S Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
12 27 December 2021 Baikonur Cosmodrome, Site 31 Soyuz 2.1b / Fregat-M 36 Success
13 10 February 2022 Kourou, ELS Soyuz ST-B / Fregat-MT 34 Success
1x NET December 2022 [77] Cape Canaveral Falcon 9 Block 5 ~48[78] Planned
2x 2023[78] Cape Canaveral Falcon 9 Block 5 ~48[78] Planned
3x 2023[78] Cape Canaveral Falcon 9 Block 5 ~48[78] Planned
1GSLV NET October 2022[78] Satish Dhawan Space Center GSLV Mk III 36 Planned
2GSLV NET January 2023[78] Satish Dhawan Space Center GSLV Mk III 36 Planned

Total operational satellites launched: 428 as of 10 February 2022.[79]

Design characteristics

The satellites in the OneWeb constellation are approximately 150 kg (330 lb) in mass,[1] a bit smaller than the 2015 design estimate of 175–200 kg (386–441 lb).[19][25] The 648 operational satellites are to operate in 12 near polar orbit planes at 1,200 km (750 mi) altitude, at 86.4° orbital inclination. Initially 18 orbital planes with 49 satellites per plane was planned, requiring 882 satellites plus some spares, but improved satellite coverage capability allowed this to be reduced to 12 planes of 49 satellites requiring 588 satellites plus some on-orbit spares.[80][81][82]

The first-generation satellites do not have inter-satellite data links, so will only provide a user service when also in the range of a gateway ground station.[82]

The satellites will provide user service in the Ku-band, communicating in the microwave range of frequencies in the 12–18 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.[9][21] Links to gateway ground stations will be in the Ka-band.[82] The satellites use a technique called "progressive pitch" in which the satellites are slightly turned to avoid interference with Ku-band satellites in geostationary orbit. The user terminal antenna on the ground are either phased array antenna measuring approximately 36 by 16 cm (14.2 by 6.3 in) or dual motorised tracking antennas and will provide Internet access at 50+ megabits/second downlink bandwidth [21] and 10-20 megabits/second uplink bandwidth.[citation needed] The satellites will be designed to comply with "orbital debris-mitigation guidelines for removing satellites from orbit and, for low-orbit satellites, assuring that they reenter the Earth's atmosphere within 25 years of retirement".[31]

Intended markets

In March 2021, OneWeb stated its market will be primarily to businesses, governments including defence, phone network operators and clusters of communities, rather than to individual domestic customers which its competitor Starlink primarily targets.[83][84] The users willing to connect were advised to contact their local telecoms for additional info.[85]

Manufacturing and constellation rollout

OneWeb satellite manufacturing facility in Merritt Island, Florida
OneWeb satellite manufacturing facility in Merritt Island, Florida

The constellation was originally announced in June 2014 to be just half of the total of approximately 720 satellites. A quarter of the satellites were to make up the initial constellation, and these would operate in the lower of the two proposed orbits, at approximately 850 km (530 mi).[13] The initial constellation would presumably be raised or lowered into its final orbital altitude of either 800 km (500 mi) or 950 km (590 mi) as consumer and business use of the broadband service grows over time.[9] By early 2015, OneWeb indicated that the first launches would occur no earlier than 2017.[21]

In February 2016, OneWeb announced that they would set up an assembly and test facility in Florida with plans to assemble and launch the majority of the satellites by the end of 2019, while manufacturing an additional 250 of the 140 kg-satellites as spares to be used in later years.[8]

By the time the actual orbital deployment of the constellation began, in February 2019, the planned constellation size had settled once again at 648, near the original projection, with 600 active satellites with 48 on-orbit spares.[1]

In January 2020, OneWeb reached a production rate of two satellites per day. In February 2020, the company launched its first large batch of satellites.[86][87]

In January 2021, OneWeb amended its application with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to change the number of satellites planned for its Phase Two constellation to 6,372.[88][89]

In November 2021, OneWeb says it has suffered a failure of one of its broadband satellites. The craft, which orbits at 1200km, was said by OneWeb to be one of a batch launched early last year and the failure is blamed on a software problem[90]

Concerns

End-of-life concerns

With such a large number of satellites being added to the already crowded low Earth orbit, plans for handling the satellites once the operational life of each satellite is completed are an important consideration. Concerns about adding to the existing space debris problem have been expressed.[13]

With OneWeb satellites having higher orbits than the competing Starlink megaconstallation satellites (which will deorbit in ~5 years without action due to atmospheric drag), OneWeb satellites will not passively deorbit in a reasonable timeframe. As such, each OneWeb satellite has fuel allocated to be able to actively deorbit at its end of life.[91] OneWeb satellites are also equipped with an Altius DogTag magnetic grappling fixture, to make it possible for another spacecraft to attach and change the orbit of satellites whose built-in deorbit functionality fails, though there does not currently exist commercial services to carry out this active debris removal service.[92] The risk of a OneWeb satellite becoming a source of debris was determined to be <0.01, which meets NASA's Technical Standard.[93]

Interference with other Earth-bound transceivers

OneWeb competitor, satellite fleet operator ABS, has expressed concerns about the amount of electromagnetic interference that the OneWeb constellation could add to existing terrestrial transceivers.[94]

Russian security concerns

Vladimir Sadovnikov of the Federal Security Service (FSB) stated in 2018 that the FSB was opposed to OneWeb covering Russia, saying that OneWeb could be used for espionage purposes.[95] OneWeb's request for a frequency band was previously rejected by the Ministry for Digital Development and Communications, purportedly due to outstanding legal issues.[95] FSB also proposed increasing scrutiny on other satellite Internet equipment in Russia.[96]

Competition

Competition to OneWeb for producing smaller and lower-cost satellites, in general, is thought to come "from other makers of small satellites, thought to include companies such as Nevada-based Sierra Nevada Corp. and Britain's Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd." as of 2014.[16]

Amazon announced a large broadband internet satellite constellation proposal in April 2019, planning to launch up to 3,236 satellites in the next decade in what Amazon calls "Project Kuiper", a satellite constellation that will work in concert[97] with Amazon's previously-announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018.[98]

As of June 2022, the major competitor is SpaceX's Starlink satellite network with around 500,000 customers. While OneWeb will only work with partner telephone companies,[99] SpaceX is also serving consumers directly.

Historically, earlier companies that have attempted to build satellite internet service networks and provide space-based internet connections have not fared well, as these services were hobbled by high costs which consequently attracted few users. Iridium SSC filed for bankruptcy protection in 1999, Globalstar did the same in 2002, and Teledesic suspended its satellite construction work in the same year.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Henry, Caleb (27 February 2019). "OneWeb's first six satellites in orbit following Soyuz launch". SpaceNews. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  2. ^ "OneWeb secures investment from Softbank and Hughes Network Systems". OneWeb. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  3. ^ Jeff Foust [@jeff_foust] (23 June 2022). "Vanotti on OneWeb launch plans: we have an agreement with SpaceX for a few Falcon 9 launches and NSIL for GSLV Mark III. Our plan is to be back on the pad in the 4th quarter and complete deployment by the 2nd quarter of 2023. Full global service by the end of 2023" (Tweet). Retrieved 23 June 2022 – via Twitter.
  4. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (27 February 2019). "First six OneWeb satellites launched from French Guiana". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Wattles, Jackie. "The race for space-based broadband: OneWeb launches 34 more internet satellites". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Henry, Caleb (21 March 2020). "Soyuz launches 34 OneWeb satellites". spacenews.com. SpaceNews. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  7. ^ "What Airbus learned from building satellites with OneWeb". spacenews.com. SpaceNews. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "OneWeb Satellite Startup to Set up Manufacturing in Florida". The Wall Street Journal. 3 January 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d de Selding, Peter B. (30 May 2014). "Google-backed Global Broadband Venture Secures Spectrum for Satellite Network". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  10. ^ "UK government buys chunk of bankrupt Starlink competitor, OneWeb". Ars Technica. 22 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  11. ^ Messier, Doug (16 February 2014). "Is Google Planning Son of Teledesic?". Parabolic Arc. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  12. ^ Fernholz, Tim. "Satellite internet is a space business widow-maker—so why does Elon Musk want in? — Quartz". qz.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b c Boucher, Marc (3 June 2014). "Will Google Build a Satellite Constellation?". SpacRef Business. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  14. ^ "Google Satellite Employee Greg Wyler Leaves Company". The Wall Street Journal. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014. A key employee leading Google Inc.'s efforts to beam Internet access from satellites has left the company and is now working closely with Space Exploration Technologies Corp. and its founder Elon Musk, according to people familiar with the matter... It isn't clear why the WorldVu team departed Google.
  15. ^ "WorldVu, a Satellite Startup Aiming To Provide Global Internet Connectivity, Continues To Grow Absent Clear Google Relationship". SpaceNews. 3 August 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d Winkler, Rolfe; Pasztor, Andy (7 November 2014). "Elon Musk's Next Mission: Internet Satellites SpaceX, Tesla Founder Explores Venture to Make Lighter, Cheaper Satellites". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  17. ^ Messier, Doug (11 November 2014). "WorldVu Satellites Issues RFP for 640 Satellites". Parabolic Arc. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  18. ^ Rolfe Winkler, "Elon Musk Confirms SpaceX Is Building Internet Satellites", The Wall Street Journal, 11/11/2014
  19. ^ a b c d e de Selding, Peter B. (19 March 2015). "Competition To Build OneWeb Constellation Draws 2 U.S., 3 European Companies". SpaceNews. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  20. ^ a b Winkler, Rolfe (14 January 2015). "Greg Wyler's OneWeb Satellite-Internet Company Secures Funding". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  21. ^ a b c d e f de Selding, Peter B. (15 January 2015). "Virgin, Qualcomm Invest in OneWeb Satellite Internet Venture". SpaceNews. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  22. ^ Petersen, Melody (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk and Richard Branson invest in satellite-Internet ventures". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Skybox Imaging + Google" (Press release). Skybox Imaging. 1 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  24. ^ "Google buys startup Skybox Imaging for US$500 million". Spaceflight Now. 10 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  25. ^ a b c d "OneWeb satellite operator eyes huge rocket campaign". BBC. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Virgin Galactic Signs Contract with OneWeb to Perform 39 Satellite Launches" (Press release). Long Beach, California: Virgin Galactic. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  27. ^ Burn-Callander, Rebecca (22 August 2015). "Virgin Galactic boldly goes into small satellites, telling future astronauts "you have to wait"". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  28. ^ "OneWeb signs agreement with Arianespace for the deployment of the OneWeb Constellation" (Press release). Évry, Essonne: Arianespace. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  29. ^ "OneWeb takes pole-position in global satellite Internet race". Space Digest. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015. Stéphane Israël, Chairman and CEO of Arianespace, noted that this was the first order for new European Ariane 6 launcher
  30. ^ "OneWeb selects Airbus to build 900 Internet satellites". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  31. ^ a b "OneWeb Taps Airbus To Build 900 Internet Smallsats". SpaceNews. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  32. ^ "One year after kickoff, OneWeb says its 700-satellite constellation is on schedule". SpaceNews. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Echostar, now building OneWeb ground network, says company not a competitor". SpaceNews. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  34. ^ "OneWeb signs US$190 million contract with Hughes for ground network to support LEOs". fierceWireless.com. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  35. ^ Knapp, Alex. "Branson-Backed OneWeb Raises US$500 Million To Build Satellite Internet". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  36. ^ Pasztor, Andy (19 December 2016). "Japan's SoftBank Invests US$1 Billion in Satellite Startup OneWeb". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  37. ^ a b c "OneWeb weighing 2,000 more satellites". SpaceNews. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  38. ^ "FCC gets five new applications for non-geostationary satellite constellations". SpaceNews. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  39. ^ a b "SES asks ITU to replace "one and done" rule for satellite constellations with new system". Space Intel Report. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  40. ^ "FCC OKs lower orbit for some Starlink satellites". SpaceNews. 27 April 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  41. ^ OneWeb, Arianespace target December-February for first Soyuz launch, 27 August 2018.
  42. ^ a b Henry, Caleb (13 December 2018). "OneWeb scales back baseline constellation by 300 satellites". SpaceNews. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  43. ^ Kolomychenko, Maria. Balmforth, Richard; Williams, Alison (eds.). "Russia opposes United States OneWeb satellite service, cites security concerns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  44. ^ "SoftBank's OneWeb Is Said to Mull Bankruptcy as Cash Dwindles". Bloomberg Law. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  45. ^ "OneWeb files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy". SpaceNews. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  46. ^ "SpaceX Competitor OneWeb Is Reportedly Bankrupt". Wired (San Francisco, Calif.). Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  47. ^ Clark, Stephen. "OneWeb files for bankruptcy". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  48. ^ "UK government takes £400m stake in satellite firm OneWeb". BBC News. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  49. ^ "Sunil Mittal's Bharti Global, UK govt win bid for bankrupt satellite firm OneWeb". Business Today. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  50. ^ "OneWeb emerges from Chapter 11 with new CEO". SpaceNews. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  51. ^ "Sunil Mittal's Bharti Global, UK govt win bid for bankrupt satellite firm OneWeb". businesstoday.in. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  52. ^ "UK takes £400 million stake in satellite firm OneWeb". BBC News. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  53. ^ O'Callaghan, Jonathan. "U.K. Government Wins Controversial Bid For Bankrupt Mega Constellation Firm OneWeb". Forbes. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  54. ^ "Press release: UK government to acquire cutting-edge satellite network". gov.uk. Cabinet Office Government Digital Service. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  55. ^ "OneWeb Secures Investment from Softbank and Hughs Network Systems". oneweb.world. OneWeb. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  56. ^ Space News
  57. ^ a b "OneWeb surpasses 200 satellites with Soyuz launch". Spaceflight=1.0. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  58. ^ "OneWeb confirms launch schedule into 2023". PaxEx.Aero. 7 June 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  59. ^ "OneWeb leaves Baikonur Cosmodrome after Roscosmos ultimatum". SpaceNews. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  60. ^ "OneWeb agrees satellite programme with SpaceX". OneWeb. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  61. ^ Michael Sheetz [@thesheetztweetz] (21 March 2022). "On the sidelines of #SATShow, OneWeb senior advisor Ruth Pritchard-Kelly tells press that the "soonest" the first launch with SpaceX can happen "would be this summer." "But we don't know yet" a more specific timeframe" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  62. ^ "OneWeb agrees satellite launch programme with New Space India". OneWeb. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  63. ^ "OneWeb makes history as first launch mission is a success". OneWeb. 28 February 2019. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  64. ^ "OneWeb's first big deployment launch slips to January". SpaceNews. 8 November 2019.
  65. ^ a b https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-55365434, BBC, 18 December 2020, accessed 19 December 2020.
  66. ^ "OneWeb launch opens route to commercial service". BBC News. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  67. ^ May 2021, Amy Thompson (28 May 2021). "Arianespace launches 36 OneWeb internet satellites on Soyuz rocket". Space.com. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  68. ^ Bergin, Chris (27 February 2019). "OneWeb kick starts massive constellation with Soyuz ST-B launch". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  69. ^ "OneWeb resumes deployment of 650-satellite broadband network". Spaceflight Now. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  70. ^ Clark, Stephen (25 March 2021). "Soyuz launch adds 36 satellites to OneWeb's global internet network". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  71. ^ "Flight ST31: Arianespace successfully deploys OneWeb constellation satellites". Arianespace. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  72. ^ "Flight ST32: Arianespace successfully deploys OneWeb constellation satellites" (Press release). Arianespace. 29 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  73. ^ "Flight ST33: Arianespace successfully deploys 36 OneWeb constellation satellites" (Press release). Arianespace. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  74. ^ "Following VA254 and VV19, Flight ST34 marks Arianespace's third successful launch in less than one month" (Press release). Arianespace. 22 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  75. ^ Israël, Stéphane [@arianespaceceo] (22 August 2021). "We will be back on September 14 for our next @OneWeb launch, #ST35 - with one important milestone to @Arianespace's teams at this occasion 🤫. #MissionToSuccess" (Tweet). Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via Twitter.
  76. ^ "With Flight ST36, Arianespace sets a new mark; more than half of the OneWeb constellation now successfully deployed" (Press release). Arianespace. 14 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  77. ^ Peter B De Selding [@pbdes] (8 July 2022). ".@OneWeb gets @ITU Ok for 8-month extension, to July 2023, to deploy Q/V-band payload after @SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in December" (Tweet). Retrieved 8 July 2022 – via Twitter.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g @pbdes (26 July 2022). "@Eutelsat_SA @OneWeb combination 2: 3 @SpaceX launches (equivalent to 4 Soyuz OneWeb launches) & 2 Indian GSLV missions will complete Gen 1 deployment between Sept and March. OneWeb chairman Sunil Bharti thanked US & Indian govts for their influence in securing these launches" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  79. ^ "OneWeb Confirms Successful Launch of 34 Satellites, Delivering Ongoing Momentum at the Start of 2022".
  80. ^ Mohney, Doug (7 October 2019). "OneWeb talks satellite broadband speeds, constellation configs". Space IT Bridge. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  81. ^ "Why OneWeb is Eager To Be the "Clean-up Crew of Connectivity"". SpaceNews. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  82. ^ a b c del Portillo, Inigo; Cameron, Bruce G.; Crawley, Edward F. (1 October 2018). "A Technical Comparison of Three Low Earth Orbit Satellite Constellation Systems to Provide Global Broadband" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. IAC-18-B2.1.7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2021.
  83. ^ The Satellite Business. The Bottom Line. Interviewed by Davis, Evan. BBC Radio 4. 4 March 2021. Event occurs at 16m30s. Retrieved 6 March 2021. Chris McLaughlin (OneWeb):So it is going to be price sensitive so I think a lot of what happens in LEO will be both a function of government and of defence needs, and also of connectivity for network operators, so I am not certain in OneWeb's case we will be primarily focused on broadband to every individual but rather to businesses and governments and to clusters of communities.
  84. ^ Sheetz, Michael (29 March 2021). "OneWeb CEO: Here's why our product is different than Elon Musk's SpaceX Starlink". CNBC News. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  85. ^ OneWeb Launch#7. OneWeb. 28 May 2021. Event occurs at 36m17s. Retrieved 29 May 2021. It's simple: just ask your preferred local telecom operator... We are working with local telecom operators, who invest locally,.. so that we can connect users at scale.
  86. ^ "OneWeb plans April launch break to tweak satellite design". 6 February 2020.
  87. ^ "First satellites off OneWeb's new Florida assembly line set for Launch this week". Spaceflight Now. 6 February 2020.
  88. ^ March 2021, Samantha Mathewson (24 March 2021). "Arianespace to launch new fleet of OneWeb internet satellites tonight. Here's how to watch". Space.com. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  89. ^ "OneWeb launches 36 more satellites for LEO broadband fleet". Fierce Wireless. June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  90. ^ "OneWeb loses a satellite at 1200km". 17 November 2021.
  91. ^ "OneWeb vouches for high reliability of its deorbit system". SpaceNews. 10 July 2017.
  92. ^ MacLay, Timothy; Goff, Jonathan; Sheehan, J.P.; Han, Earl (2020). "The development of commercially viable ADR services: Introduction of a small-satellite grappling interface". Journal of Space Safety Engineering. 7 (3): 364–368. doi:10.1016/j.jsse.2020.08.002. S2CID 208652675.
  93. ^ Brodkin, Jon (4 October 2017). "SpaceX and OneWeb broadband satellites raise fears about space debris". Ars Technica. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  94. ^ OneWeb Gets Slide Decked by Competitor at CASBAA SpaceNews, 28 October 2015, accessed 2015-10-29
  95. ^ a b Kolomychenko, Maria (24 October 2018). Balmforth, Richard; Williams, Alison (eds.). "Russia opposes U.S. OneWeb satellite service, cites security concerns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  96. ^ "Спутниковый интернет vs ФСБ: развитие технологий или самоизоляция?". roskomsvoboda.org. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  97. ^ Sheetz, Michael (4 April 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  98. ^ Sheetz, Michael (27 November 2018). "Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service". CNBC. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  99. ^ Amos, Jonathan (20 November 2020). "OneWeb satellite internet company is officially reborn". BBC News. Retrieved 13 January 2021.

Literature