|Operation Guardian of the Walls|
|Part of the Gaza–Israel conflict and the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis|
|Commanders and leaders|
(Chief of General Staff)
(Air Force Commander)
(Leader of Hamas)
Ziyad al-Nakhalah (Leader of PIJ)
|Casualties and losses|
53 civilians and militants killed, 304 wounded
Operation Guardian of the Walls (Hebrew: מבצע שומר החומות), dubbed by Hamas as Operation Sword of Jerusalem (Arabic: سيف القدس), is an ongoing armed conflict between Israel and the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip.
Main article: 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis
In May 2021, Israeli police had been clashing with Palestinian protestors over possible evictions of Palestinians from Sheikh Jarrah. On May 9, the final Friday of Ramadan, there was a massive presence of Muslim worshippers on the Temple Mount. Among the tens of thousands present, some stockpiled and threw stones at the Israeli police who were present to maintain order. As the conflict escalated, the outnumbered police stormed the Al-Aqsa mosque compound. 
Hamas demanded Israel remove its forces from Al-Aqsa mosque by 10 May 6pm. Minutes after the deadline passed, Hamas began firing rockets towards Israeli cities. From 9-10 May 2021, over 200 rockets were fired from the Gaza Strip towards Israel. On the night of the 10th, Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister of Israel, announced that the attacks would be met with "great force" from the Israeli Air Force in order to ensure the safety of the Israeli civilians that Hamas rockets were targeting.
Later the same day, the cabinet confirmed the beginning of Operation Guardian of the Walls.
On 11 May, Hamas, Islamic Jihad and other Islamist groups, had fired more than 500 rockets, with an Israeli military spokesman saying about one-third of the rockets fell short and landed in Gaza, and at one point reported 137 rockets in under five minutes.
53 Palestinians were killed, fourteen of whom were children, three women and five farmers; while 304 more were wounded. Several were killed when residential civilian buildings were bombed. Twenty-four died on May 10, eight the next day, and twenty-one two days later.
On 10 May, a Hamas commander, identified as Mohammed Abdullah Fayyad, was killed. The Israel Defense Forces have also confirmed that the commander of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad rocket unit, identified as Sameh Abed al-Mamluk, and another Islamic Jihad militant, were killed in an airstrike with collaboration from the Israel Security Agency (Shin Bet) on 11 May. The deaths of other Hamas and PIJ militants are suspected but not confirmed. In the evening, Hamas anti-tank missile unit commander, Iyad Fathi Faik Sharir, was reportedly also killed by Israeli Air Force aircraft.
An elderly woman and her Indian caregiver were killed after being unable to reach a shelter in time, when a rocket fired from the Gaza Strip landed on their home in Ashkelon.
Over 130 rockets had been launched towards Sharon plain and Gush Dan at 20:46 local time on 11 May from Gaza, resulting in the death of a woman in Rishon LeZion. Two more civilians and a soldier died the next day.