Order of Australia
Insignia of knights and dames of the Order of Australia
Awarded by the Governor-General of Australia
TypeNational order
EligibilityAll living Australian citizens (non-citizens eligible for honorary awards)
Awarded forAchievement and merit in service to Australia or humanity
FounderElizabeth II on the advice of Gough Whitlam
Sovereign HeadCharles III, King of Australia
Chancellor and Principal CompanionSamantha Mostyn, Governor-General
Grades
Former gradesKnight/Dame (AK/AD)[note 1]
WebsiteOfficial website and nomination portal
Statistics
First induction14 April 1975
Last induction2024 King's Birthday Honours
Total inducteesTotal as of July 2024
  • AK/AD – 19
  • AC – 647
  • AO – 3593
  • AM – 13,099
  • OAM – 30,511
More info below
 
Ribbons: general division; military division

The Order of Australia is an Australian honour that recognises Australian citizens and other persons for outstanding achievement and service.[1] It was established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, on the advice of then prime minister Gough Whitlam. Before the establishment of the order, Australians could receive British honours, which continued to be issued in parallel until 1992.

Appointments to the order are made by the governor-general, "with the approval of The Sovereign",[a] according to recommendations made by the Council for the Order of Australia.[3] Members of the government are not involved in the recommendation of appointments, other than for military and honorary awards.

The King of Australia is the sovereign head of the order,[1][4] and the governor-general is the principal companion and chancellor of the order. The governor-general's official secretary, Paul Singer (appointed August 2018), is secretary of the order.

Levels of membership

The order is divided into a general and a military division. The five levels of appointment to the order in descending order of seniority are:

  1. Knight and Dame of the Order of Australia (AK and ADno longer awarded);[note 1][5][6][7]
  2. Companion of the Order of Australia (AC – quota of 35 per year);[7]
  3. Officer of the Order of Australia (AO – quota of 140 per year);[7]
  4. Member of the Order of Australia (AM – quota of 605 per year);[7][8]
  5. Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM – no quota).[note 2]

Honorary awards at all levels may be made to non-citizens. These awards are made additional to the quotas.

Insignia

The order's insignia was designed by Stuart Devlin.

The badge of the Order of Australia is a convex disc (gold for AKs, ADs and ACs, gilt for AOs, AMs and OAMs) representing a single flower of mimosa. At the centre is a ring, representing the sea, with the word Australia below two branches of mimosa. The whole disc is topped by the Crown of St Edward. The AC badge is decorated with citrines, blue enamelled ring, and enamelled crown. The AO badge is similar, without the citrines. For the AM badge, only the crown is enamelled, and the OAM badge is plain. The AK/AD badge is similar to that of the AC badge, but with the difference that it contains at the centre an enamelled disc bearing an image of the coat of arms of Australia.[note 1] The colours of royal blue and gold are taken from the livery colours of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms, the then national colours.

The star for knights and dames is a convex golden disc decorated with citrines, with a blue royally crowned inner disc bearing an image of the coat of arms of Australia.

The ribbon of the order is royal blue with a central stripe of mimosa blossoms. Awards in the military division are edged with 1.5 mm golden bands.[9] AKs, male ACs and AOs wear their badges on a necklet and male AMs and OAMs wear them on a ribbon on the left chest. Women usually wear their badges on a bow on the left shoulder, although they may wear the same insignia as males if so desired.

A gold lapel pin for daily wear is issued with each badge of the order at the time of investiture; AK/AD and AC lapel pins feature a citrine central jewel, AO and AM lapel pins have a blue enamelled centre and OAM lapel pins are plain.

Membership

The order currently consists of four levels (one discontinued) and the medal, in both general and military divisions. Since 2015, the knight/dame level has been discontinued on the advice of then prime minister Malcolm Turnbull. Awards of knight and dame of the order were made in the general division only.[note 3]

Award criteria in detail

The different levels of the order are awarded according to the recipients' levels of achievement:

Award Criteria (general division) Criteria (military division) Quota
Knight/Dame (AK/AD) (No longer awarded)[7] "Extraordinary and pre-eminent achievement and merit of the highest degree in service to Australia or to humanity at large." Not awarded
  • 4 (2014 to 2015)
  • 2 (1976 to 1986)
Companion (AC) "Eminent achievement and merit of the highest degree in service to Australia or to humanity at large." "Eminent service in duties of great responsibility."
  • 35 (2016 to present)[10]
  • 30 (2003 to 2016)[11]
  • 25 (1975 to 2003)
Officer (AO) "Distinguished service of a high degree to Australia or to humanity at large." "Distinguished service in responsible positions."
  • 140 (2016 to present)[10]
  • 125 (2003 to 2016)[11]
  • 100 (1975 to 2003)
Member (AM) "Service in a particular locality or field of activity or to a particular group." "Exceptional service or performance of duty."
  • 365 (2018 to present)[12]
  • 340 (2016 to 2018)[10]
  • 300 (2003 to 2016)[11]
  • 225 (1975 to 2003)
Medal (OAM) "Service worthy of particular recognition." "Meritorious service or performance of duty." No quota

Nomination and appointment

Queen Elizabeth II wearing the insignia of the Sovereign of the Order of Australia

Since 1976 any Australian citizen may nominate any person for an Order of Australia award. People who are not Australian citizens may be awarded honorary membership of the order at all levels. Nomination forms are submitted to the Director, Honours Secretariat, a position within the Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General of Australia, at Government House, Canberra,[13][14] which are then forwarded to the Council for the Order of Australia.[7] The prime minister of the day appoints the Council chair and seven "community representatives", while each state and territory appoints its representative and there are other ex officio members. The Council chair as of January 2023 is Shelley Reys.[15]

The Council makes recommendations to the governor-general.[7] Awards are announced on Australia Day and on the King's Birthday public holiday in June, on the occasion of a special announcement by the governor-general (usually honorary awards), and on the appointment of a new governor-general. The governor-general presents the order's insignia to new appointees.[7]

Appointments to the order are not made posthumously; however, if a nominee dies after accepting an appointment but before the relevant announcement date, the appointment stands and it is announced as having effect from no later than the date of the nominee's death. Awardees may subsequently resign from the order, and the Council may advise the governor-general to remove an individual from the order, who may cancel an award.[note 4] [16][17]

Announcements of all awards, cancellations and resignations appear in the Commonwealth Gazette. Nomination forms are confidential and not covered by the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (Cth).[18] The reasoning behind a nomination being successful or unsuccessful—and even the attendees of the meetings where such nominations are discussed—remains confidential.[19]

History

Establishment

Several insignias for the Member of the Order of Australia (AM) to be granted

The Order of Australia was established on 14 February 1975 by letters patent of Queen Elizabeth II, acting as Queen of Australia, and countersigned by then prime minister, Gough Whitlam. The original order had three levels: Companion (AC), Officer (AO) and Member (AM) as well as two divisions: Civil Division and Military Division. At the time it was also announced that Australian prime ministers would no longer nominate persons for British Imperial honours, but this new practice did not extend to nominations by state premiers. According to the governor general's then-secretary Sir David Smith, Whitlam was furious when he first saw Devlin's design for the insignia of the order, due to the inclusion of a representation of the states (with whom Whitlam's government was constantly in dispute) through the state badges within the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.[20]

On 24 May 1976, the level of Knight (AK) and Dame (AD) and the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM), were created by the Queen on the advice of Whitlam's successor, Malcolm Fraser, and the Civil Division was renamed the General Division. The level of Knight/Dame was awarded only in the General Division.

The original three-level structure of the Order of Australia was modelled closely upon the Order of Canada,[21][22] though the Order of Australia has been awarded rather more liberally, especially in regard to honorary awards to non-citizens. As of July 2024 only 30 non-Canadians have been appointed to the Order of Canada, while 537 non-Australians have been appointed to the Order of Australia, with 46 to the Companion level.

Yvonne Kenny AM represented the Order at the 2023 Coronation.[23]

Knights and dames

King Charles III (then Prince of Wales) wearing the insignia of a Knight of the Order of Australia, 1983
The neck badge of a Knight of the Order of Australia appeared at the base of the coat of arms of Sir Ninian Stephen.

Main article: List of knights and dames of the Order of Australia

Following the 1983 federal election, Prime Minister Bob Hawke advised the abolition of the knight/dame level. On 3 March 1986, the Queen co-signed letters patent revoking the level, with existing knights and dames not being affected by the change. In the period 1976–1983, twelve knights and two dames were created.

On 19 March 2014, monarchist prime minister Tony Abbott advised the Queen to reinstate the level of knight/dame and the Queen co-signed letters patent to bring this into effect. The change was publicly announced on 25 March, and gazetted on 17 April 2014.[24] Up to four knights or dames could be appointed each year, by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the prime minister after consultation with the chairman of the Order of Australia Council.[5][25]

Five awards of knight and dame were then made, to the outgoing governor-general, Quentin Bryce; her successor, Peter Cosgrove; a recent chief of the Defence Force, Angus Houston; a recent governor of New South Wales, Marie Bashir; and Prince Philip. This last award was widely met with ridicule and dismay by many in the Australian media.[26][27] The award was also heavily criticised in the community, with 72% disapproving and 12% in favour in a ReachTEL poll.[28]

The Australian Labor Party continued to oppose knighthoods and damehoods. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten stated in March 2014 that the party would again discontinue the level if it were to win the next Australian federal election.[29]

The knighthood decision was a significant factor that caused Liberal party members to question Abbott's leadership,[30][31] with Malcolm Turnbull succeeding in a challenge to take the prime ministership in September 2015. Two months after coming into office, the new republican prime minister announced that the Queen had approved his request to amend the Order's letters patent and cease awards at this level.[32][33] Existing titles would not be affected.[6] The move was attacked by monarchists[34] and praised by republicans.[35][36] The amendments to the constitution of the Order were gazetted on 22 December 2015.[37]

Current membership

Officials of the order

King Charles III, when he was Prince of Wales, was appointed a Knight of the Order of Australia (AK) on 14 March 1981. As he is not an Australian citizen, even though he was the heir to the Australian throne at the time, this would have required the award to be honorary. To overcome this issue, his appointment was created by an amendment to the constitution of the Order of Australia by special letters patent signed by the Queen, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser.[38]

In March 2014 the knight and dame levels, which had been abolished in 1986 by Prime Minister Bob Hawke, were reintroduced to the Order of Australia by Tony Abbott. At the same time, Abbott announced that future appointments at this level would be recommended by the prime minister alone, rather than by the Council of the Order of Australia, as is the case with all lower levels of the order. In accordance with the statutes of 2014, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was created a Knight of the Order by letters patent signed by the Queen on 7 January 2015, on Abbott's advice.[39] Prince Philip's knighthood was announced as part of the Australia Day Honours on 26 January 2015 and his appointment attracted criticism of what Abbott described as his "captain's call". Abbott responded by announcing that future recommendations for appointments as Knights and Dames of the Order would be determined by the Council of the Order of Australia.[citation needed]

Honorary awards

Awards of the Order of Australia are sometimes made to people who are not citizens of Australia to honour extraordinary achievements. These achievements, or the people themselves, are not necessarily associated with Australia, although they often are. On 1 July 2024, the Australian Honours website listed appointments for 46 Honorary Companions, 118 Honorary Officers, 174 Honorary Members of the Order of Australia and the award of 199 Honorary Medals of the Order of Australia.[40] Notable honorary awards include:

Gender breakdown

Chart of the percentage of Order of Australia honours awarded to women in each year since 1975

Since 1975, just over 30 per cent of recipients of an Order of Australia honour have been women.[44] The number of nominations and awards for women is trending up, with the 2023 Australia Day Honours resulting in the highest percentage of awards for women to date (47.1 per cent, 47.9 per cent in the general division).[45] Advocacy groups such as Honour a Woman and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency have called for greater effort to be made to reach equal representation of men and women in the order.[44][46]

Sociology of recipients of highest levels

In December 2010, The Age reported a study of the educational backgrounds of all people who had received Knight/Dame and Companion level awards at that time. It reported: "An analysis of the 435 people who have received the nation's top Order of Australia honours since they were first awarded in 1975, shows they disproportionately attended a handful of elite Victorian secondary schools. Scotch College alumni received the highest number of awards, with 19 former students receiving Australia's [then] highest honour".[47][note 5]

Lists of recipients in categories

Dames of the Order of Australia Australian dames
Knights of the Order of Australia Australian knights
Companions of the Order of Australia Honorary Companions Former Companions
Officers of the Order of Australia Honorary Officers Former Officers
Members of the Order of Australia Honorary Members Former Members
Recipients of the Medal of the Order of Australia       Honorary Recipients of the Medal       Former Medal Recipients

Order of Australia Association

On 26 January 1980 the Order of Australia Association was created as an incorporated body that award recipients could become members. Its stated purpose is to support the "community and social activities" of members while also promoting and encouraging the nomination of other Australians to the Order.[48] The Order also runs a foundation that provides scholarships to tertiary students that show potential as future leaders and are involved in community activities.[49] Branches of the association are in all the states and territories of Australia as well as the UK and the USA.[50]

Total inductees

Total inductees as of July 2024.[51]

All levels Knight/Dame (AK/AD) Companion (AC) Officer (AO) Member (AM) Medal (OAM)
Civil/General division 15,360[b] 19 577 3182 11,582
Military division 1660[b] Not awarded 24 293 1343
Honorary general division 311[b] 0 45 95 171
Honorary military division 27[b] Not awarded 1 23 3
Total honorary awards 537 0 46 118 174 199
Total substantive awards 47,332 19 601 3475 12,925 30,312
Total awards 47,869 19 647 3593 13,099 30,511

Precedence

The order of wearing Australian and other approved honours is determined by the government.[52]

Preceding Level Following
Member of the Order of Merit (OM) Knight/Dame Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) Companion Companion of Honour (CH)
Knight Bachelor Officer Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Member Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order (LVO)
Australian Intelligence Medal (AIM) Medal Order of St John

References in popular culture

The award is parodied in the play Amigos, where the central character is determined to be awarded the AC, and uses persuasion, bribery and blackmail in his (ultimately successful) attempts to get himself nominated for the award.[53]

During the 1996 season of the popular television programme Home and Away, the character Pippa Ross was awarded a Medal of the Order of Australia for her years of service as a foster carer.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Before 1992 honours were presented to the Queen for her prior approval. Since changes implemented by the Keating government, the monarch is only informed after awards have been presented.[2]
  2. ^ a b c d Not including medals of the Order of Australia.
  1. ^ a b c The level of Dame/Knight was established in 1976, disestablished in 1986, re-established in 2014 and again disestablished in 2015; neither disestablishment affected existing awards.
  2. ^ The Medal of the Order of Australia was established in 1976.
  3. ^ The constitution of the order has been amended via Letters Patent to allow the appointment of Prince Charles and Prince Philip as substantive members of the order.)
  4. ^ Resignation and cancellation have occurred up to the companion level – see List of companions of the Order of Australia#Former Companions.
  5. ^ The hard-copy article also published a table of the schools which were ranked in the top ten places:

References

General references

  • "Order of Australia Handbook" (PDF) (16th ed.). Government House, Canberra: Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General. August 2023.
  • "Constitution of the Order of Australia". Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. 16 April 2018.
  • "Australian honours system". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Australian Government. Retrieved 25 June 2024.

Specific references

  1. ^ a b "Companion of the Order of Australia". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Australian Government. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  2. ^ Taylor, Greg (2020). "Knighthoods and the Order of Australia". Australian Bar Review. 49: 332–3.
  3. ^ "Constitution of the Order of Australia". Federal Register of Legislation. 16 April 2018. section 9. Appointments (including honorary appointments) to the Order and awards of the Medal of the Order shall be made, with the approval of The Sovereign, by Instrument signed by the Governor‑General and sealed with the Seal of the Order.
  4. ^ "Order of Australia". gg.gov.au. 21 September 2021. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Knights, dames return under Abbott". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  6. ^ a b Bourke, Latika (2 November 2015). "Malcolm Turnbull scraps Tony Abbott's Knights and Dames". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Order of Australia". gg.gov.au. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Order of Australia Booklet - Chapters - Fourteenth Edition - 2020" (PDF). gg.gov.au. p. 10, 49. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Order of Australia – Military Division". Australian Government: Defence. Retrieved 24 June 2024.
  10. ^ a b c "Schedule—Amendments: Constitution of the Order of Australia" (pdf). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  11. ^ a b c "Government Notices" (pdf). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 18 June 2003. GN 24. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  12. ^ Constitution of the Order of Australia (Number of Appointments in the General Division) Ordinance 2018 Archived 28 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, 19 April 2018.
  13. ^ "FAQs". The Order of Australia Association. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  14. ^ "Nominating for Awards". Itsanhonour.gov.au. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  15. ^ Governor General of Australia (25 March 2023). "Council for the Order of Australia". gg.gov.au. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  16. ^ "Termination of Appointment of Member of the Order of Australia in the General Division made to Dr Leslie Howard". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
    "Termination of Appointment of Member of the Order of Australia in the General Division made to Mr Clinton Edward Condon". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Terminations and Cancellations Ordinance – Order of Australia – Amendment – 11/09/2007". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  18. ^ "Terry Romaro's Order of Australia". Right To Know. February–April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2014. A Freedom of Information request to Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General
    "Andrew Laughton's Freedom of Information requests". Right To Know. February–April 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
    "Terry Romaro's Medal of the Order of Australia". Itsanhonour.gov.au. Australian Government. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2014. For service to the commercial fishing industry
  19. ^ "Cancellation or Termination of Order of Australia Awards". Right To Know. February–March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2014. A Freedom of Information request to Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General
  20. ^ Smith, David (22 July 2007). "The Chameleon Crown: The Queen and Her Australian Governors". Australians for Constitutional Monarchy. Archived from the original on 6 November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  21. ^ Barwick, Garfield (1995). A Radical Tory: Garfield Barwick's Reflections and Recollections. Federation Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-1-86287-236-3.
  22. ^ Duke, Suzanne (1984). Debrett's Handbook of Australia and New Zealand. Debrett's Peerage. p. 47. ISBN 0-313-26126-1.
  23. ^ "Coronation order of service in full". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  24. ^ "Letters Patent amending the Constitution of the Order of Australia". Government Notices Gazette C2014G00635. Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  25. ^ "A new honour for pre-eminent Australians". Media release. Office of the Prime Minister of Australia. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  26. ^ Safi, Michael (3 February 2015). "How giving Prince Philip a knighthood left Australia's PM fighting for survival". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  27. ^ "Australian media scorn Prince Philip 'Knightmare'". BBC News. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2024.
  28. ^ Beaumont, Adrian (28 January 2015). "Abbott's Ratings Slump Following "Knightmare" Affair". The Conversation. Retrieved 1 July 2024.
  29. ^ Knott, Matthew (28 March 2014). "Bill Shorten would reverse reinstatement of knights and dames if elected prime minister". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  30. ^ Grattan, Michelle (7 February 2015). "Explainer: why is Australian prime minister Tony Abbott facing a leadership crisis?". The Conversation. Retrieved 1 July 2024.
  31. ^ ABC News (Australia) (29 January 2024). "When Tony Abbott Gave Prince Phillip a Knighthood". Instagram. Nemesis.
  32. ^ Norman, Jane; Iggulden, Tom (2 November 2015). "Knights and dames scrapped from Order of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull says". Australia: ABC News. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  33. ^ Medhora, Shalailah (2 November 2015). "Knights and dames removed from Order of Australia by Malcolm Turnbull". The Guardian. Australia. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  34. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull's 1999 referendum loss behind dumping knights and dames: David Flint". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 November 2015. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  35. ^ FitzSimons, Peter (2 November 2015). "By scrapping knights and dames, the Age of Turnbull has returned us to 2015". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  36. ^ Kenny, Mark (2 November 2015). "Malcolm Turnbull clears the royal barnacle and starts a debate Tony Abbott never could have". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  37. ^ Amendments to the Constitution of the Order of Australia Archived 2 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Commonwealth of Australia Gazette C2015G02163, 22 December 2015.
  38. ^ "Order of Australia – Constitution – Letters Patent – Amendment – 14/03/1981". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  39. ^ "Amendments to the Constitution of the Order of Australia". Government Notices Gazette C2015G00155. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  40. ^ "Search Australian Honours – Advanced Search". It's an Honour. Awards and Culture Branch, Australian Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 1 July 2024. Archived from the original on 7 June 2024. Retrieved 1 July 2024. Separate searches conducted for Knights, Companions, Officers, Members and Medals of the Order.
  41. ^ Lisa Millar, Order of Australia for General Petraeus Archived 4 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine, 4 November 2009, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  42. ^ Honorary Officer (AO) in the Military Division Archived 2 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 3 November 2009, Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Special Issue No. S172
  43. ^ "Officer of the Order of Australia (H) entry for Mr Julius Tahija". Australian Honours Database. Canberra, Australia: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 6 February 2002. Retrieved 10 September 2019. For service to Australian-Indonesian business relations.
  44. ^ a b "When it comes to Order of Australia honours, women are largely left out". ABC News. 7 June 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  45. ^ "Australia Day 2023 Honours List". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 26 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  46. ^ Whyte, Sally (7 June 2019). "Women still less recognised than men". The Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  47. ^ Topsfield, Jewel (4 December 2010). "Ties that bind prove a private education has its awards". The Age. p. 11. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  48. ^ "The Order of Australia". The Order of Australia Association. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  49. ^ "Foundation". The Order of Australia Association. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  50. ^ "FAQ's". The Order of Australia Association. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  51. ^ "Australian Honours Search Facility". Australian Government: Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
  52. ^ "Wearing awards". Australian Government: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 24 June 2016.
  53. ^ Amigos Archived 11 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Reviewer Helen Thomson, 29 June 2004, ArtsReviews – The Age

Further reading