Order of the Cross of Liberty
  • Vapaudenristin ritarikunta
  • Frihetskorsets orden
Vapaudenristin 1lk rintatähti mk.png
Order of the Cross of Liberty breast star with swords
Awarded by  Finland
TypeState order
EstablishedMarch 4, 1918; 104 years ago (1918-03-04)
CountryFinland
SeatDefence Command, Helsinki[1]
MottoIsänmaan puolesta ('For the Fatherland')
EligibilityFinnish nationals and foreigners, Finnish Defence Force units and other organizations[2]
CriteriaMerits for the Finnish Defence Forces[2]
StatusCurrently constituted
FounderCarl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Grand MasterSauli Niinistö
ChancellorAri Puheloinen[1]
Vice-ChancellorSakari Honkamaa [fi][1]
Classes
  • Grand Cross
  • 1st Class
  • 2nd Class
  • 3rd Class
  • 4th Class
Websitevapaudenristinritarikunta.fi Edit this at Wikidata
Statistics
First inductionSpring 1918[3]
Precedence
Next (higher)None
Next (lower)Order of the White Rose of Finland
FIN Order Krzyża Wolności- Krzyż Wolności II klasy (baretka).svg

Ribbon of the Order of the Cross of Liberty

The Order of the Cross of Liberty (Finnish: Vapaudenristin ritarikunta; Swedish: Frihetskorsets orden) is one of three official state orders in Finland, along with the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland.

Organisation

The President of Finland is the Grand Master of the Order of the White Rose of Finland and of the Order of the Lion of Finland, and usually of the Order of the Cross of Liberty as well, Grand Mastership of which is attached to the position of Commander-in-chief.[2] All of these orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.

History

The Order of the Cross of Liberty was founded on March 4, 1918, upon the initiative of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. The Finnish artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela was commissioned to design the Order's insignia with the Old-Scandinavian Fylfot.

At its foundation there were seven classes: grand cross, cross of liberty (1st to 4th Class) and the medal of liberty (1st and 2nd Class). The decorations of the Order of the Cross of Liberty were initially conferred only in time of war. A decree was issued on 18 August 1944 enabling the decorations to be awarded in peacetime. Also in 1944, Mannerheim (1867–1951) was designated as Grand Master for life.[2]

Decorations of the order were awarded in great numbers during the World War II, partly due to Marshal Mannerheim having issued an order that wounded soldiers were to be awarded for their sacrifice, and Finland has no separate decoration for wounded. The Cross of Liberty is usually reserved for commissioned officers, with the Medal of Liberty being awarded for soldiers of junior rank and NCOs.

The Cross of Liberty has a red ribbon when it is granted in wartime and a yellow ribbon when it is awarded in peacetime. Associated with the Cross of Liberty is the Mannerheim Cross.

Classes

The Presidential Standard of Finland has a Cross of Liberty, 3rd Class on its upper left corner
The Presidential Standard of Finland has a Cross of Liberty, 3rd Class on its upper left corner

The classes of the Order of the Cross of Liberty, in descending order, with abbreviations are:

Other special decorations awarded during the Second World War include:

The awards above are for civilian accomplishments, signaled by the blue color in the 3rd and 4th Classes, and in peacetime, as shown by the yellow ribbon. Awards for military accomplishments in the 3rd and 4th Classes have a dark gray color replacing the blue, and are awarded with a red ribbon in wartime.

Notable recipients

Grand Crosses

1st Class with a Star

1st Class

2nd Class

3rd Class

Other or unknown classes

Institutions

Order of the Day № 60 (1942) awarding Order of the Cross of Liberty, 4th Class to all mothers of Finland
Order of the Day № 60 (1942) awarding Order of the Cross of Liberty, 4th Class to all mothers of Finland

The statutes allow the order to be conferred collectively. The following have been awarded:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Hallitus". Vapaudenristin Ritarikunta (in Finnish). Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d "Asetus Vapadenristin ritarikunnasta. 550/1944". FINLEX (in Finnish). Retrieved September 23, 2022.
  3. ^ Tiainen, Jani (2010). Suomen kunniamerkit / The orders, decorations, and medals of Finland (in Finnish and English). Tampere: Apali. p. 25. ISBN 978-952-5877-03-8.
  4. ^ a b Tetri 1994, p. 47.
  5. ^ a b Tetri 1994, p. 49.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Castrén, Klaus (1982). "Yhteisöille suodut vapauden ristit". Sotahistoriallinen aikakauskirja (in Finnish). 2: 205–217. ISSN 0357-816X.
  7. ^ a b "Presidentti myönsi vapaudenristit Päällystöopistolle ja Ilmasotakoululle". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). June 4, 1988. p. 18.

Sources

Further reading