Order of the Red Eagle
Roter Adlerorden
REO-GC breast star.JPG
Grand Cross breast star
TypeState Order
Awarded forMerit
Presented bythe Kingdom of Prussia
EligibilityCivilians and military, Prussian and foreign, with rank/status determining which grade one received
StatusObsolete
Established12 June 1792 (in Prussia)
PRU Roter Adlerorden BAR.svg
Ribbon of the order
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown
Next (lower)Order of the Crown

The Order of the Red Eagle (German: Roter Adlerorden) was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was awarded to both military personnel and civilians, to recognize valor in combat, excellence in military leadership, long and faithful service to the kingdom, or other achievements. As with most German (and most other European) orders, the Order of the Red Eagle could only be awarded to commissioned officers or civilians of approximately equivalent status. However, there was a medal of the order, which could be awarded to non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, lower ranking civil servants and other civilians.

History

The predecessor to the Order of the Red Eagle was founded on 17 November 1705, by the Margrave Georg Wilhelm of Brandenburg-Bayreuth as the Ordre de la Sincerité. This soon fell into disuse but was revived in 1712 in Brandenburg-Bayreuth and again in 1734 in Brandenburg-Ansbach, where it first received the name of "Order of the Brandenburg Red Eagle". The statutes were changed in 1777 and the order named therein as the "Order of the Red Eagle". The order was conferred in one class, limited to fifty knights.[1]

The Kingdom of Prussia absorbed both Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach in January 1792, and on 12 June 1792, King Frederick William II again revived the order as a Prussian royal order. After the Order of the Black Eagle, the Order of the Red Eagle was the second highest order of the kingdom in order of precedence.[1]

In 1810, King Frederick William III revised the statutes of the order, expanding it into three classes. In 1830, a breast star was authorized for the Second Class and the First Class General Honor Decoration became the Fourth Class of the order.[1] The statutes were further revised in 1861, and a Grand Cross was established as the highest class of the order. By change to the statutes of the Order of the Black Eagle, every member of that order was automatically invested with the new Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle, as well as with the Order of the Prussian Crown. By 1918, an affiliated soldier's medal had been made available to commoners and enlisted men.

Following the Kaiser's abdication at the close of the First World War, a new German constitution was signed into law on 11 August 1919, effectively putting a legal end to the monarchy. All orders and decorations formally conferred by the monarchy ceased to exist, but recipients of the Order of the Red Eagle continued to wear it with their other decorations during the eras of the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and the restored republic.

Classes

By the time of World War I, the order had evolved into six classes:

Within these six classes, however, were a bewildering array of variations. Among these were:

There were also a set of special versions, the Stars 1st through 4th Class, for non-Christians.

Insignia

The badge of the order for the Grand Cross was a gold (gilt after 1916) Maltese Cross enameled in white, with red enameled eagles between the arms of the cross; the gold central disc bore the Royal monogram, surrounded by a blue enameled ring bearing the motto of the Order, Sincere et Constanter.

The badge for the 1st to 3rd classes was a gold (gilt after 1916) cross pattée, enameled in white; that for the 4th class was similar but with smooth, plain silver arms. After 1879 the silver arms of the 4th class cross were pebbled in texture and appearance. The central disc bore the red eagle on a white enamel background on the obverse, with the royal cipher of King Friedrich Wilhelm surmounted by the Prussian crown on the reverse. The enlisted man's medal was of a relatively simple, round design, topped with the Prussian crown, with a depiction of the regular badge in the center of the medal on the obverse, with the royal cipher of the reigning monarch on the reverse.

The breast star of the order was (for the Grand Cross) a golden eight-pointed star, (for 1st Class) a silver eight-pointed star, or (for 2nd Class) a silver four-pointed star with a white enameled cross pattée, all with straight rays. The central disc bore the red eagle on a white enamel background, surrounded by a ring (enameled blue for Grand Cross, white for the others) bearing the motto of the Order, Sincere et Constanter.

After September 16, 1848, awards of all classes (except the medal) bestowed for military merit had two golden swords crossed through the central medallion.

The traditional ribbon of the order was white with two orange stripes at the edges, but combat awards were frequently conferred with a black and white ribbon similar to that of the Iron Cross. Numerous variations of the ribbon existed, depending on the nature of the specific award.

Sovereigns (1705–1918)

Georg Wilhelm, Markgraf of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, who founded the Ordre de la Sincerité
Georg Wilhelm, Markgraf of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, who founded the Ordre de la Sincerité

Recipients

List of notable recipients
Grand Crosses
1st Class
2nd Class
3rd Class
Other or Unknown Classes

What follows are some additional details on a fair cross section of individuals who were known to be conferred with the order in its several classes, in order of precedence. The Order of the Red Eagle was conferred frequently upon foreign nationals, both royal and non-royal, to honor their individual position or work and to further the diplomatic relations with their respective nations, in much the same way that the Order of the Bath is still conferred by the British monarchy.

Grand Cross (1861–1918)

Großadmiral Alfred von Tirpitz, wearing his Order of the Red Eagle, Grand Cross
Großadmiral Alfred von Tirpitz, wearing his Order of the Red Eagle, Grand Cross

German / Prussian

Foreign

Knights 1st Class (1705–1918)

Karl August Fürst (Prince) von Hardenberg, ca 1822, by Friedrich Georg Weitsch. Hardenberg wears the badge of the Order of the Red Eagle, 1st Class, above his other orders
Karl August Fürst (Prince) von Hardenberg, ca 1822, by Friedrich Georg Weitsch. Hardenberg wears the badge of the Order of the Red Eagle, 1st Class, above his other orders

German

Foreign

Giustino Fortunato, Prime minister of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Giustino Fortunato, Prime minister of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Knights 2nd Class (1810–1918)

Order of the Red Eagle, 2nd Class, badge & neck ribbon
Order of the Red Eagle, 2nd Class, badge & neck ribbon
ADM Curt von Prittwitz, wearing the badge & star of the 2nd Class
ADM Curt von Prittwitz, wearing the badge & star of the 2nd Class

German

Foreign

Knights 3rd Class (1810–1918)

Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class, with Crown and Swords
Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class, with Crown and Swords
Admiral Sir William De Salis, R.N., awarded the Cross, second class, in 1904.
Admiral Sir William De Salis, R.N., awarded the Cross, second class, in 1904.

Knights 4th Class (1830–1918)

Order of the Red Eagle, 4th Class
Order of the Red Eagle, 4th Class

Medal for Enlisted Men

Order of the Red Eagle Medal (for enlisted men)
Order of the Red Eagle Medal (for enlisted men)

Sources

References

  1. ^ a b c Burke, Bernard (1858). The book of orders of knighthood and decorations of honour of all nations. London: Hurst and Blackett. pp. 200–202.
  2. ^ a b "The German Emperor´s birthday". The Times. No. 36676. London. 28 January 1902. p. 3.
  3. ^ "Latest intelligence - Germany". The Times. No. 36639. London. 16 December 1901. p. 6.
  4. ^ a b c d "Latest Intelligence - The German Army Maneuvres". The Times. No. 36900. London. 16 October 1902. p. 4.
  5. ^ "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36721. London. 21 March 1902. p. 8.
  6. ^ a b "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36068. London. 17 February 1900. p. 11.
  7. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence". The Times. No. 36773. London. 21 May 1902. p. 10.
  8. ^ k. k. Armeeverordnungsblatt No. 40, S 137 vom 10. Oktober 1861
  9. ^ Youngstown Vindicator, 13 October 1917, p. 2 D. Online reference https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=vShKAAAAIBAJ&sjid=roUMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1602,3583587&dq=highcliffe+castle&hl=en
  10. ^ "The medals of brigadier general (hon) g.l. sclater-booth | Lawrences Auctioneers". www.lawrences.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  11. ^ "Records of the Family of Sclater". sclater.com. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  12. ^ Rangliste der königlich Preussischen Armee. 1909.