This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (January 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,042 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:勲章 (日本)]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|勲章 (日本))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Chrysanthemum of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Order of the Precious Crown.
Order of the Golden Kite, 1st and 2nd class plaque.
Order of the Golden Kite, 1st and 2nd class plaque.

The Japanese honours system originated in the 1870s, shortly after the Meiji Restoration, and was modeled on European honour systems. The first order, the Imperial Order of Meiji was established in 1875, and was later renamed as the Order of the Rising Sun.[1]

Current Orders

Criteria for awards (Japanese nationals)

Statistics

As of November 2021, a total of 150,632 orders have been conferred upon living Japanese nationals since 2003, when the honours system was overhauled. These include 19 awards of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, 34,593 awards of the Order of the Rising Sun and 116,020 awards of the Order of the Sacred Treasure.[5][note 1] Of those decorations, the Order of the Sacred Treasure (77.02% of the total, all classes) is the most commonly conferred decoration, followed by the Order of the Rising Sun (22.97% of the total, all classes). The Order of the Paulownia Flowers is conferred the most rarely, at only 0.13% of the total number of decorations awarded since 2003.[5]

Per class of decoration, excluding the Order of the Chrysanthemum, the breakdown of decorations awarded by level since 2003 is as follows:

Since 2003, the most commonly conferred decorations by class and level in the top five categories as of 2021 have been:[5]

  1. Silver Rays of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (40,564 awards; 26.93% of total)
  2. Gold and Silver Rays of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (38,268 awards; 25.40% of total)
  3. Gold Rays with Rosette of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (25,692 awards; 17.06% of total)
  4. Gold and Silver Rays of the Order of the Rising Sun (20,198 awards; 13.41% of total)
  5. Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (10,104 awards; 6.71% of total)

For the year 2021, 8,172 decorations were conferred in the following numbers upon living Japanese:[5]

Past system

2003 revision

In the system before the 2003 revision, titles consisted of two parts, the class number (kuntō [ja]) and the decoration. For example:

although their official English translations did not have these class numbers.[6] The 2003 revision removed the class part from the titles, thus:

Notes

  1. ^ The highest Japanese decoration, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, has not been conferred upon a living Japanese national who is not a member of the Imperial Family since 1997, when former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order.

References

  1. ^ a b "Supreme Orders of the Chrysanthemum".
  2. ^ Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers
  3. ^ Orders of the Rising Sun
  4. ^ "勲章の種類及び授与対象" (in Japanese).
  5. ^ a b c d e Cabinet Office Decorations and Medals Bureau. "春秋叙勲受章者数(勲章別、年別、春秋別)(平成15年~)" (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved 2016-03-12.
  6. ^ a b c d 勲章及び褒章の英訳名 [English translations of Orders and Honours]. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2003-02-19. (pre-2003 codes)
  7. ^ a b c 勲章及び褒章の英訳名 [English translations of Orders and Honours]. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2003-12-11. (post-2003 codes)