Portugal has a system of orders, decorations, and medals as a means of honouring individuals for personal bravery, achievement, or service to Portugal.

The honorific orders are currently regulated by Law 5/2011.[1] The decorations are given by the President of the Portuguese Republic, currently Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa. In addition the Portuguese government, through the Portuguese Red Cross legal framework, regulates and recognizes[2] the Portuguese Red Cross Decorations.

Ancient military orders

Order of the Tower and Sword

(Portuguese: Torre e Espada)

Main article: Order of the Tower and Sword

Military Order of Christ

Main article: Order of Christ (Portugal)

The Military Order of Christ (Portuguese: Ordem Militar de Cristo) is one of the ancient military orders. It was created by request of King D. Dinis to the pope, upon the extinction of the Order of the Temple. The Templars had been granted important jurisdictions over the Portuguese territory, as well as being of strategic importance in its protection, in the end of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula. So, when the Order of the Temple was extinguished, King Dinis requested, and was granted, that all the possessions of this order in Portugal be attributed to a new order, to be created: the order of Christ. In essence, the Templars in Portugal simply changed name.

The headquarters of the Order were established in Tomar. The Order had a major role in the Portuguese discoveries. In the course of the subsequent centuries, the King of Portugal became the grand-master of this and all of the military orders, which acquired a simple honorific role.

The Order of Christ is now conferred by relevant services to the country in the exercise of functions related to the government or public administration (e.g., courts, diplomacy, armed forces)

Military Order of Aviz

(Portuguese: Ordem Militar de Avis)

Main article: Order of Aviz

Military Order of St. James of the Sword

(Portuguese: Ordem Militar de Sant'Iago da Espada)

Main article: Order of St. James of the Sword

National orders

Order of Prince Henry

(Portuguese: Ordem do Infante D. Henrique)

Main article: Order of Prince Henry

Order of Liberty

(Portuguese: Ordem da Liberdade)

Main article: Order of Liberty

Order of Camões

(Portuguese: Ordem de Camões)

Main article: Order of Camões

Orders of civil merit

Order of Merit

(Portuguese: Ordem do Mérito)

Main article: Order of Merit (Portugal)

Order of Public Instruction

(Portuguese: Ordem da Instrução Pública)

Main article: Order of Public Instruction (Portugal)

Orders of Entrepreneurial Merit

(Portuguese: Ordem do Mérito Empresarial)

Main article: Order of Entrepreneurial Merit

Portuguese Red Cross Decorations

Main article: Portuguese Red Cross Decorations

Extinct orders

Order of the Colonial Empire

(Portuguese: Ordem do Imperio)

Main article: Order of the Colonial Empire

Royal Dynastic Orders

During Portugal's time as a monarchy, several orders were created by the sovereign as honorific orders and not military orders. As such, when Portugal became a republic, these orders remained with the House of Braganza as dynastic orders and were not nationalized by the Portuguese Republic. Their Grand-Masters are Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and Isabel, Duchess of Braganza.

Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa

(Portuguese: Ordem de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Vila Viçosa)

Main article: Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa

Order of Saint Michael of the Wing

(Portuguese: Ordem de São Miguel da Ala)

Main article: Order of Saint Michael of the Wing

Order of Saint Isabel

(Portuguese: Ordem da Rainha Santa Isabel)

Main article: Order of Saint Isabel

Order of Merit of the Portuguese Royal House

(Portuguese: Ordem do Mérito da Causa Monárquica)

Main article: Order of Merit of the Portuguese Royal House

Decorations

Medals

Orders of Precedence

Current Order of Precedence

(Established by Decree-Law No 316/2002 of 27 December 2002)

  1. Order of the Tower and Sword
  2. Military Valor Medal
  3. War Cross
  4. Military Order of Christ
  5. Military Order of Aviz
  6. Distinguished Service Medal
  7. Military Merit Medal
  8. Military Order of St James of the Sword
  9. Order of Infante D. Henrique
  10. Order of Liberty
  11. Distinguished services or relevant overseas services
  12. Exemplary Behaviour Medal
  13. Distinguished Achievement on Operations Medal
  14. Wounded in Battle Medal
  15. Recognition Medal
  16. Campaign Service Medal
  17. Special Service Commissions Commemorative Medal
  18. Other National Orders
  19. Other National Medals
  20. Foreign Orders, Decorations and Medals

Notes

  1. Distinguished services or relevant overseas services: the National Defense Medal, the St George's Cross, Navy Cross, D. Afonso Henriques Medal, Army Merit Medal, and Aeronautical Merit Medal.
  2. Other National Orders: Order of Merit, Order of Public Instruction, Order of Agricultural Merit, Order of Commercial Merit, Order of Industrial Merit
  3. Other National Medals: 500th Anniversary of the Death of the Infante Commemorative Medal

Former Order of Precedence

(As prior to the 1974 Carnation Revolution[14])

  1. Order of the Tower and Sword
  2. Military Valor Medal
  3. War Cross
  4. Distinguished Service Medal
  5. Military Merit Medal
  6. Military Order of Aviz
  7. Military Order of Christ
  8. Military Order of St James of the Sword
  9. Order of the Colonial Empire (no longer awarded)
  10. Order of Infante D. Henrique
  11. Distinguished Services or Relevant Overseas Services
  12. Exemplary Behaviour Medal
  13. Distinguished Achievement on Operations Medal
  14. Wounded in Battle Medal
  15. Campaign Service Medal
  16. Victory Medal
  17. Special Service Commissions Commemorative Medal
  18. Other National Orders
  19. Other National Medals
  20. Foreign Orders, Decorations and Medals

Notes

  1. Other National Orders: Order of Merit, Order of Public Instruction, Order of Agricultural, Commercial or Industrial Merit
  2. Other National Medals: 500th Anniversary of the Death of the Infante Commemorative Medal

References

  1. ^ http://www.ordens.presidencia.pt/?idc=163
  2. ^ "Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa - Condecorações" (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  3. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–19, 32. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  4. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–20, 32. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  5. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–18, 20–21. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  6. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–18, 22–23. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  7. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–18, 23–24. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 24–26. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  9. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 24–26. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  10. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. p. 26. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  11. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. p. 26. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  12. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. p. 27. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  13. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. pp. 17–18, 26. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Ordens Honorificas e Condecoracoes Militares Portugeusas" (Acrobat) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Estado-Maior do Exercito. 1972. p. 27. Retrieved 23 June 2012.