The National Decorations System of Romania (Romanian: Sistemul Național de Decorații) is divided into six categories, listed below. It was re-established in 1998 after a 50-year period in which Romania used a Soviet-style system of decorations. It is very similar to the system used in Romania during the interwar period.

The list is ordered in descending order of the awards' rank in the National System of Decorations.

The system

National decorations

  1. Order of the Star of Romania
  2. Ordinul național "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Order "Faithful Service");
  3. National Order of Merit (Romania);
  4. Crucea națională "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Cross "Faithful Service");
  5. Medalia națională "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Medal "Faithful Service");
  6. Medalia națională "Pentru Merit" – (National Medal "For Merit").

Commemorative decorations

  1. Ordinul "Victoria Revoluției Române din Decembrie 1989" – (Order Victory of the Romanian Revolution of December 1989);
  2. Crucea Comemorativa a celui de-al doilea Război Mondial, 1941-1945 – (Commemorative Cross of the Second World War, 1941–1945);
  3. Crucea Comemorativa a Rezistenței Anticomuniste – (Commemorative Cross of the Anti-communist Resistance);
  4. Medalia Comemorativă "150 de ani de la naşterea lui Mihai Eminescu" – (Commemorative Medal "150 Years from the birth of Mihai Eminescu").

Military decorations in time of peace

  1. Ordinul "Virtutea Militară" – (The Order "The Military Virtue");
  2. Ordinul "Virtutea Aeronautică" – (The Order "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  3. Ordinul "Virtutea Maritimă" – (The Order "The Matitime Virtue");
  4. Ordinul "Bărbăție şi Credință" – (The Order "Valour and Faith");
  5. Medalia "Virtutea Militară" – (The Medal "The Military Virtue");
  6. Medalia "Virtutea Aeronautică" – (The Medal "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  7. Medalia "Virtutea Maritimă" – (The Medal "The Matitime Virtue");
  8. Medalia "Bărbăție şi Credință" – (The Medal "Valour and Faith").

Civil decorations on domains of activity

  1. Ordinul "Meritul Agricol" – (The Order "The Agricultural Merit");
  2. Ordinul "Meritul Cultural" – (The Order "The Cultural Merit");
  3. Ordinul "Meritul Diplomatic" – (The Order "The Diplomatic Merit");
  4. Ordinul "Meritul Industrial şi Comercial" – (The Order "The Industrial and Commercial Merit");
  5. Ordinul "Meritul pentru Învățământ" – (The Order "Merit for the Education");
  6. Ordinul "Meritul Sanitar" – (The Order "The Sanitary Merit");
  7. Ordinul "Meritul Sportiv" – (The Order "The Sports Merit");
  8. Medalia "Meritul Agricol" – (The Medal "The Agricultural Merit");
  9. Medalia "Meritul Cultural" – (The Medal "The Cultural Merit");
  10. Medalia "Meritul Diplomatic" – (The Medal "The Diplomatic Merit");
  11. Medalia "Meritul Industrial şi Comercial" – (The Medal "The industrial and Commercial Merit");
  12. Medalia "Meritul pentru Învățământ" – (The Medal "Merit for the Education");
  13. Medalia "Meritul Sanitar" – (The Medal "The Sanitary Merit");
  14. Medalia "Meritul Sportiv" – (The Medal "The Sports Merit")

The "Cultural Merit" Order and Medal are divided into nine equal classes (A to I), corresponding to the cultural field it is awarded in. The ribbon of both the Order and the Medal have the same general design but stripes of different colors, to identify respective class:

categoria A – literatura – category A – literature
categoria B – muzica – category B – music
categoria C – artele plastice – category C – visual arts
categoria D – arta spectacolului – category D – performing acts
categoria E – patrimoniu cultural național – category E – national cultural patrimony
categoria F – promovarea culturii – category F – promoting of culture
categoria G – cultele – category G – religion
categoria H – cercetarea ştiințifică – category H – scientific research
categoria I – arhitectura – category I – architecture

Wartime military decorations

  1. Ordinul "Mihai Viteazul" – (The Order "Mihai Viteazul");
  2. Ordinul național "Steaua României" – (Order of the Star of Romania);
  3. Ordinul național "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Order "Faithful Service");
  4. Ordinul național "Pentru Merit" – (National Order "For Merit");
  5. Crucea națională "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Cross "Faithful Service");
  6. Medalia națională "Serviciul Credincios" – (National Medal "Faithful Service");
  7. Medalia națională "Pentru Merit" – (National Medal "For Merit");
  8. Ordinul "Virtutea Militară" – (The Order "The Military Virtue");
  9. Ordinul "Virtutea Aeronautică" – (The Order "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  10. Ordinul "Virtutea Maritimă" – (The Order "The Maritime Virtue");
  11. Ordinul "Bărbăție şi Credință" – (The Order "Valour and Faith");
  12. Ordinul "Meritul Sanitar" – (The Order "Sanitary Merit");
  13. Medalia "Virtutea Militară" – (The Medal "The Military Virtue");
  14. Medalia "Virtutea Aeronautică" – (The Medal "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  15. Medalia "Virtutea Maritimă" – (The Medal "The Maritime Virtue");
  16. Medalia "Bărbăție şi Credință" – (The Medal "Valour and Faith");
  17. Medalia "Meritul Sanitar" – (The Medal "The Sanitary Merit").

Honorific signs

  1. Honorific Sign "The Eagle of Romania";
  2. Honorific Sign "The Reward for the Work in the Public Service";
  3. Honorific Sign "In the Service of the Country" for officers and special statute public functionaries;
  4. Honorific Sign "In the Service of the Country" for warrant officers and special statute public functionaries.

Community medals

Romanian Jewish community

Kingdom of Romania

Orders

Order of Michael the Brave

See Order of Michael the Brave

Order of Carol I

See Order of Carol I

Order of the Star of Romania

See Order of the Star of Romania

Order of the Crown

See Order of the Crown

Order of Ferdinand I

Order of Ferdinand I
Ordinul Ferdinand I
Litera F.jpg
Emblem of the Order
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeState decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonNavy Blue with a Gold stripe in the middle and a thin Red stripe between the Gold.
EligibilityExclusively for Romanian citizens only.
Awarded for(1) Outstanding contributions to the Union of Transylvania with Romania;
(2) National activity or Military deeds contributing to the union of all Romanians;
(3) Meritorious service to the nation.
Status18 February 1937 (Dormant)
Abolished
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesKnight Grand Cross with Collar
Knight/Dame Grand Cross
Knight/Dame Grand Officer
Knight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of the Crown
Next (lower)Royal Order for Merit
Order of Ferdinand I.gif

The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of Ferdinand I (Romanian: Ordinul Ferdinand I) was instituted on 10 May 1929 by the Regency of King Michael I, then a minor, in memory of the late King Ferdinand I. It was created to reward those who contributed to the building of The Greater Romania. The Order was the fifth highest ranking of the Romanian Decorations of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolition of the monarchy in 1947. The Order was not reinstated as a Dynastic Order by the Romanian Royal Family as they had done with two other Orders.

Star of the Order
Star of the Order

During its time as a National Order it was widely awarded to members of the Romanian Royal Family, Romanian Prime Ministers, Romanian politicians, people who contributed to the union of all Romanians through national activity or military deeds, those who would have contributed extraordinary merits to the country in the future, and those thought to be worthy of receiving the order by the King of Romania.

With the death of the former King Michael I, there are currently no living members of the Order.

Grades

Order for Merit

See Order for Merit

Romanian House Order of Hohenzollern

See House Order of Hohenzollern

Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House

Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House
Ordinul Bene Merenti al Casei Domnitoare
Ordinul Bene Merenti cl 2.jpg
Officer Badges of the Order
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeState decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonSilver with a thin black stripe in the middle and either side
Eligibility(1) Civil, Military;
(2) Foreign Citizens
Awarded for(1) Achievements in the fields of Culture, Science, Industry, Agriculture and Services to the King;
(2) Services to the King
StatusAbolished on 8 September 1940
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesKnight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Medal
Precedence
Next (higher)Romanian Order of the House of Hohenzollern
Next (lower)Order of Agricultural Merit
EquivalentOrder of St. George
RelatedHouse Order of Hohenzollern
Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House of Romania.jpg

The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House (Romanian: Ordinul Bene Merenti al Casei Domnitoare) was instituted as a Decoration on 20 February 1876 by Prince Carol I (later King Carol I of the Kingdom of Romania) during his tenth year of reign as Domnitor or Sovereign Prince of the United Principalities of Romania. The Decoration was changed into an Order on 16 December 1915 by King Carol I's nephew King Ferdinand I of Romania. On 8 September 1940, the Order was abolished and replaced with the Order of St. George by King Ferdinand I's grandson King Michael I.[4][self-published source?]

Decoration

The Order, previously a Decoration Medal known as the Decoration of Bene Merenti of the Royal House, was based as a separate Romanian version of the House Order of Hohenzollern of the House of Hohenzollern to which Prince Carol I belonged.

Although intended to honour Civilians, military figures, and foreigners with achievements in the fields of Culture, Science, Industry, Agriculture and also Services to the King, the Decoration was rarely bestowed.[4][self-published source?]

The Decoration was in two types:

Order

The Decoration was transformed into an Order under the reign of King Carol I's nephew King Ferdinand I on 16 December 1915.

On 8 September 1940, the Order was abolished and replaced by the Order of St. George under the reign of King Ferdinand I's grandson King Michael I.[4][self-published source?]

Grades

Order of St. George

Order of Saint George
Ordinul Sfântul Gheorghe
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeState decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonNavy Blue with thin Yellow stripes on the sides.
EligibilityMilitary
Awarded forAchievements of Service in time of war.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesKnight Grand Cross with Collar
Knight Grand Cross
Knight Grand Officer
Knight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Precedence
Next (higher)Romanian House Order of Hohenzollern
Next (lower)Order of Agricultural Merit
EquivalentOrder of Bene Merenti of the Royal House
EGY Order of the Nile - Knight BAR.png

The Ribbon of the Order
Order

The Order was instituted by King Michael I of Romania on 15 September 1940, 9 days after his second accession as King of Romania. The Order replaced the Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House.

The Order was the second highest Military award after the Order of Michael the Brave and was intended for Military figures who attained "Achievements of Service in time of war." However, the Order was never awarded.

The Order was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and was not reinstated as a Dynastic Order of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Grades

Order of Agricultural Merit

Order of Agricultural Merit
Ordinul Meritul Agricol
Romana Order of agricultural.jpg
Star of the Order
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeState decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonGreen with a Gold stripe in the Middle.
EligibilityRomanian and Foreign Citizens
Awarded forOutstanding contributions to Agriculture.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesSovereign Knight Grand Officer
Knight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Medals
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of St. George
Next (lower)Order of Faithful Service
RelatedDecorations of Culture
Ribbon Meritul comercial si industrial.png

The Ribbon of the Order

The Order was established with the intention of awarding Romanian and Foreign Civilians who made "Outstanding contributions to Agriculture," especially after the Great Depression in Romania from which the country was steadily recovering.

The Order was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947.

The Order was reinstated during the Socialist Republic of Romania (see Socialist Order of Agriculture) and abolished after the Romanian Revolution.

On 31 March 2000, the Order was reinstated again (see Republican Order of Agriculture).

Order of Faithful Service

See Order of Faithful Service

Order of Military Virtue

See Order of Military Virtue

Order of Aeronautical Virtue

Royal Order of Aeronautical Virtue
Ordinul Regal Virtutea Aeronautică
Ordinul Virtutea Aeronautica Comandor 1930 (avers).jpg
Commander's Necklet of the Order
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeMilitary Decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonPale Blue with thin White Gold stripes on either side and in the middle
Eligibility(1) Civil, Military;
(2) Members of the Royal Romanian Air Force and Air Cadets.
Awarded for(1) Acts of Bravery or Valour in the air;
(2) Achievements in Aviation.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
ChancellorChief of the Romanian Royal Air Force
GradesKnight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Medal
Precedence
Next (higher)Royal Order of Faithful Service
Next (lower)Order of the Cross of Queen Marie
EquivalentRoyal Order of Military Virtue
Aeronautical Virtue Order (Romania).jpg

The Ribbon of the Order
Order

The Order was established on 31 July 1930 by Carol II as the fourth highest Military Award after the Order of Michael the Brave and the Order of St. George

The Order was intended to award Civilian and Military air personnel, as well as Members of the Royal Romanian Air Force and Air Cadets in times of Peace and War.

The Order was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947.

On 31 March 2000, the Order was re-established, See Republican Order of Aeronautical Virtue.

Grades
Insignia

The badge of the Order was based on the same design as the Order of Michael the Brave, but contains a small shield of the Lesser Coat of arms of Romania in the middle of the badge.

Order of the Cross of Queen Marie

Order of the Cross of Queen Marie
Ordinul Crucea Regina Maria
Kruis van Koningin Maria van Roemenië 1917 Ie Klasse aan het Oorlogslint.gif
Commander's Necklet of the Order.
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeMilitary Decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
EligibilityCivil, Military.
Awarded forMerit in Medical work in Wars and in Peacetime.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
ChancellorChief of the Romanian Royal Air Force
GradesKnight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Medal
Precedence
Next (higher)Royal Order of Military Virtue
Royal Order of Aeronautical Virtue
Next (lower)Royal Order of the Eagle of Romania
Order of St. Gregory the Great.png

The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of the Cross of Marie (Romanian: Ordinul Crucea Regina Maria) was instituted on 15 February 1917 by King Ferdinand I of Romania as the fifth and lowest Military Award for Grand Mastership of his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Edinburgh, who was a Nurse in Military hospitals as well as led The Romanian Red Cross in World War I.

The Order was established to award Civil and Military Personnel of Merit in Medical work in Wars and in Peacetime working in the same field as Queen Marie.

The Order was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and was not reinstated as a Dynastic Order of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Grades
Recipients
Knight Commanders
Knight Officers

Order of the Eagle of Romania

See Order of the Eagle of Romania

Decorations

Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth

Main article: Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth

Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth
Decoratia Crucea Regina Elisabeta
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeState decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonPale Blue with thin Gold stripes on the end of either side.
EligibilityExclusively for Romanian women only.
Awarded forOutstanding contributions or services to the wounded, sick, ambulances and hospitals.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesDame
Precedence
Next (higher)Royal Order of the Eagle of Romania
Next (lower)Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Bareta Crucea Elisabeta.png

The Ribbon of the Decoration

The Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth (Romanian: Decorația Crucea Regina Elisabeta) was a Decoration established by Prince Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree 2270 on 6 October 1878 for his wife, Princess Elisabeth of Wied, to award Romanian women she deemed to have achieved outstanding service for caring for the wounded and sick, whether directly in ambulances and hospital campaigns, or indirectly through donations or other actions.[5]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and was not reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit

Main article: Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit

Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Decorația Crucea Meritul Sanitar
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeChivalric state Decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonWhite with thin Red lines at either side.
EligibilityCivil, Military
Awarded forOutstanding Donors, Writers or other acts and work that contributes to improving the health status of the country.
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesKnight/Dame
Member
Precedence
Next (higher)Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth
Next (lower)Decoration of the Cross of The Danube
Ribbon Meritul Sanitar civil.png

Peacetime
Ribbon Meritul Sanitar war.png

Wartime
The Ribbons of the Decoration

The Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit (Romanian: Decorația Crucea Meritul Sanitar) was a Decoration established by King Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree 6471 on 25 November 1913 for his wife, Princess Elisabeth of Wied, to award Romanian men, women, and organisations deemed to be working outstandingly to improve the health status of the country.[5][6]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and was not reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Decoration of the Cross of The Danube

Crossing of the Danube Cross
Crucea Trecerea Dunării
Awarded by
Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg
King of Romania
TypeChivalric state Decoration
Religious affiliationRomanian Orthodox
RibbonBright Red and Black.
EligibilityCivil, Military
Awarded forOutstanding leadership and contributions in the Romanian War of Independence
StatusAbolished in 1947
SovereignKing Michael I of Romania
GradesKnight
Member
Precedence
Next (higher)Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Bareta Crucea Trecerea Dunării - civil.png

Civil
Bareta Crucea Trecerea Dunării - militar.png

Military
The Ribbons of the Decoration

The Crossing of the Danube Cross (Romanian: Crucea Trecerea Dunării) was a Decoration established by Prince Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree 617 on 23 March 1878 to award individuals for outstanding leadership and contributions in the Romanian War of Independence.

The Decoration was later awarded to very few individuals who were deemed to have proven great leadership.[5]

The Decoration was named after the Danube River where the Romanian Army fought the Ottoman Imperial Army.[7]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolition of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and was not reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Socialist Republic of Romania

See also

References

  1. ^ "King Mihai I, former presidents get Jewish community medal". 14 October 2010.
  2. ^ "Medalia de Onoare "Wilhelm Filderman" acordată post-mortem Reginei Mamă Elena | Familia Regală a României / Royal Family of Romania".
  3. ^ "Familia Regala – Stiri". familiaregala.ro.
  4. ^ a b c "WorldWar2.ro - Order and Medal of Bene Merenti".
  5. ^ a b c „Medalia Comemorativă Rusă 1877–1878" în Ordine, cruci și medalii române. Istoric, legi și regumamente. Vintilă Ivănceanu, Petre P. Sterescu, Petre Ionescu, C. Tâmpeanu, Imprimeria statului, București, 1927, pp. 104.
  6. ^ "Cancelaria Ordinelor".
  7. ^ "Zasluga.net".