A thinking chimpanzee

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking):

Thought (also called thinking) – mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces more thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or even control an emotional feeling.

Nature of thought

Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following:

Types of thoughts

Content of thoughts

Types of thought (thinking)

Listed below are types of thought, also known as thinking processes.

Animal thought

Further information: Animal cognition and Animal intelligence

Human thought

Human thought – Cognitive process independent of the senses

Classifications of thought

Creative processes


Main article: Decision-making

Erroneous thinking

See also: Error and Human error

Emotional intelligence (emotionally based thinking)

Emotional intelligence – Capability to understand one's emotions and use this understanding to guide thinking and behavior

Problem solving

Problem solving – Approaches to problem solving


Reasoning – Capacity for consciously making sense of things

Machine thought

Main articles: Machine thought and Outline of artificial intelligence

Organizational thought

Organizational thought (thinking by organizations)

Aspects of the thinker

Aspects of the thinker which may affect (help or hamper) his or her thinking:

Properties of thought

Fields that study thought

Thought tools and thought research

History of thinking

History of reasoning – Capacity for consciously making sense of things

Nootropics (cognitive enhancers and smart drugs)

Nootropic – Compound intended to improve cognitive function

See also: List of nootropics

Substances that improve mental performance:

Organizational thinking concepts

Main articles: Organizational studies and Industrial and organizational psychology

Teaching methods and skills

Main article: Education

Awards related to thinking

Awards for acts of genius






Television programs

Persons associated with thinking

People notable for their extraordinary ability to think

Scientists in fields that study thought

Scholars of thinking

Related concepts

Awareness and perception

Main articles: Awareness and Perception

Learning and memory

Main articles: Education, Learning, and Memory

See also





  1. ^ Dictionary.com, "mind": "1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the mind. 2. Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities. 3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence."
  2. ^ Google definition, "mind": "The element of a person that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness." [1]
  3. ^ Tirri, Nokelainen (January 2012). Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education. Springer. ISBN 978-94-6091-758-5.
  4. ^ Danko Nikolić (2014). "Practopoiesis: Or how life fosters a mind. arXiv:1402.5332 [q-bio.NC]".
  5. ^ "Definition of: Moral Reasoning". Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  6. ^ "Dictionary Search › proportional reasoning - Quizlet".
  7. ^ "History of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy". National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2011.