Pulyemyot Maksima PM1910
TypeHeavy machine gun
Place of originRussian Empire[1]
Service history
In service1910–present
Used bySee Users
WarsWorld War I[2]
Russian Revolution
Russian Civil War[1]
Turkish War of Independence
Polish–Soviet War
Finnish Civil War
Estonian War of Independence
Warlord Era[3]
Spanish Civil War
Winter War
Chinese Civil War
World War II[4]
Second Sino-Japanese War
Korean War
Vietnam War
Syrian Civil War[citation needed]
War in Donbas[5]
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[6]
Production history
Designed1909–1910[2]
Produced1910–1939
1941–1945
No. builtat least 176,000[citation needed]
Specifications
Mass62.66 kg (138.1 lb)[1]
Length1,067 mm (42 in)
Barrel length721 mm (28.4 in)

Cartridge7.62×54mmR[4][1]
ActionShort recoil, toggle locked
Rate of fire600 round/min[1]
Muzzle velocity740 m/s (2,427 ft/s)
Feed system250-round belt[1]

The Pulyemyot Maksima PM1910 (Russian: Пулемёт Максима образца 1910 года, romanizedPulemyot Maksima obraztsa 1910 goda, lit.'Maxim's machine gun Model 1910'), or PM M1910, is a heavy machine gun that was used by the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and World War II. Later the gun saw service in the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

History

It was adopted in August 1910 and was derived from Hiram Maxim's Maxim gun, chambered for the standard Russian 7.62×54mmR rifle cartridge. The M1910 was mounted on a wheeled mount with a gun shield.[4]

In 1918–1920, the industry of Soviet Russia produced 21 thousand new Maxim 1910 machine guns for the Red Army.[1]

In 1930, a modernized version 1910/30 was adopted by the Red Army.[4] M1910/30 can be equipped with optical sight.[7]

In 1941, the gun was modernized once again.[4]

In May 1942, an order was given to begin the development of a new machine gun to replace the Maxim 1910/30. On May 15, 1943, the SG-43 Goryunov was adopted and since summer 1943 Maxim guns were replaced in Soviet service by the SG-43, which retained the wheeled and shielded carriage. However, production of the Maxim did not end until 1945.[4]

In addition to the main infantry version, there were aircraft-mounted and naval variants. Some were fitted with a tractor radiator cap fitted on top of the water jacket to allow handfuls of snow to be packed in to melt while firing.

After World War II, the Maxim was phased out of service, but was still sent in some quantities to the Korean War and Vietnam War. In 2014 during the war in Donbas, some Maxims in stock were captured by the Pro-Russian separatists while others were taken from storage to be used by the Ukrainian Armed Forces.[5] A number were used by the Ukrainian military during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine due to their reputation for accuracy and reliability.[8]

Variants

Users

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Пулемёты // Гражданская война и военная интервенция в СССР. Энциклопедия / редколл., гл. ред. С. С. Хромов. — 2-е изд. — М., «Советская энциклопедия», 1987. стр.490-491
  2. ^ a b c d e f Семён Федосеев. Столетие легендарного "Максима" // журнал "Мастер-ружьё", № 11 (164), ноябрь 2010. стр.40-46
  3. ^ a b Jowett, Philip (20 Nov 2013). China's Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949. General Military. Osprey Publishing. pp. 129, 147. ISBN 9781782004073.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "На вооружении Советской Армии состояли станковые пулемёты Максима образца 1910, модернизированные в 1930 и 1941"
    Пулемёты // Великая Отечественная война 1941 - 1945. Энциклопедия. / редколл., гл. ред. М. М. Козлов. М., "Советская энциклопедия", 1985. стр.594-595
  5. ^ a b c Trevithick, Joseph (5 February 2020). "Ukrainian Troops Are Still Using This Pre-World War I-Era Maxim Machine Gun In Combat". The Drive.
  6. ^ "Age old weapons are shaping Russia-Ukraine war, here is the list".
  7. ^ Описание пулемётного оптического прицела обр. 1930. Москва, Ленинград; Отдел Издательства Народного Комиссариата Обороны Союза ССР. 1951 г.
  8. ^ "Why Ukraine's army still uses a 100-year-old machinegun". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  9. ^ a b c "The Finnish Maxims: M09/21 & M32/33". mosinnagant.net. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  10. ^ a b Lugosi, József (2008). "Gyalogsági fegyverek 1868–2008". In Lugosi, József; Markó, György. Hazánk dicsőségére: 160 éves a Magyar Honvédség. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó. p. 382-383. ISBN 978-963-327-461-3.
  11. ^ Out, Roger (May 2005). "La mitrailleuse russe Maxim modèle 1910". Gazette des armes (in French). No. 365. p. 47.
  12. ^ Ермаков В. Ф. Из истории советско-чехословацкого боевого содружества // «Военно-исторический журнал», 1988, № 3. стр.11-16
  13. ^ a b Kinard, Jeff (9 April 2010). "Machine guns". In Tucker, Spencer C.; Pierpaoli, Paul G. Jr. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of the Korean War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Vol. 1. A-L (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 535. ISBN 978-1-85109-849-1.
  14. ^ Terry Gander, Peter Chamberlain. Enzyklopädie deutscher Waffen 1939–1945. Handwaffen, Artillerie, Beutewaffen, Sonderwaffen. Motorbuch Verlag, 2008.
  15. ^ Сведения штаба Московского военного округа о материальном обеспечении 1-й румынской пехотной дивизии, 1 апреля 1944 г. // Освободительная миссия Советских Вооружённых Сил в Европе во второй мировой войне: документы и материалы. М., Воениздат, 1985. стр.87-88
  16. ^ Andrzej Konstankiewicz. Broń strzelecka i sprzęt artyleryjski formacji polskich i Wojska Polskiego w latach 1914-1939. Warszawa, 2003. str.113
  17. ^ "7,62 мм кулемет Максим - 35 000 штук"
    розпорядження Кабінету міністрів України № 1022-р від 15 серпня 2011 р. "Перелік військового майна Збройних Сил, яке може бути відчужено"
  18. ^ Розпорядження Кабінету міністрів України № 108-р від 29 лютого 2012 р. "Про утилізацію стрілецької зброї"
  19. ^ "7,62 мм кулемет Максим - 2"
    Розпорядження Кабінету міністрів України № 687-р від 14 серпня 2013 р. "Про затвердження додаткового переліку військового майна Збройних Сил, яке може бути відчужено".
  20. ^ Минобороны Украины вернуло на вооружение пулемет "Максим"
  21. ^ Boffey, Daniel (2023-06-21). "Zelenskiy admits counteroffensive may be going 'slower than desired'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2023-06-21.
  22. ^ a b Gault, Matthew (2023-03-21). "Ukraine Is Successfully Using a 140-Year-Old Machine Gun Against Russia". Vice. Retrieved 2023-06-21.