|Mission type||Deployment of three satellites.|
|Mission duration||1,658 seconds|
|Apogee||586.7 kilometres (365 mi)|
|Spacecraft||Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle|
|Spacecraft type||Expendable launch vehicle|
|Launch mass||294,000 kilograms (648,000 lb)|
|Payload mass||1,294 kilograms (2,853 lb)|
|Dimensions||44.4 metres (146 ft)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||10:23:00, October 22, 2001 (IST)IST)(|
|Rocket||Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle|
|Launch site||Sriharikota Launching Range|
|End of mission|
|Disposal||Placed in graveyard orbit|
|Deactivated||October 22, 2001|
|Regime||Low Earth orbit|
|Mass||1,294 kilograms (2,853 lb)|
PSLV-C3 was the third operational launch and overall sixth mission of the PSLV program. This launch was also the forty-sixth launch by Indian Space Research Organisation since its first mission on 1 January 1962. The vehicle carried three satellites which were deployed in the Sun-synchronous Low Earth orbit. The vehicle carried Technology Experiment Satellite (Indian experimental earth observation satellite), BIRD (German earth observation satellite) and PROBA (experimental satellite from Belgium). This was India's and ISRO's second commercial spaceflight. PSLV-C3 was launched at 10:23 a.m. IST on 22 October 2001 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (then called "Sriharikota Range").
The mission involved placing Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) and Bispectral and Infrared Remote Detection (BIRD) in a 568 km circular orbit. It would then place the PRoject for On Board Autonomy (PROBA) satellite in an 568 km x 638 km elliptical orbit. This demonstrated ISRO capability to launch multiple satellites in multiple orbits. It also earned ISRO $1 million for each satellite.
PSLV-C3 carried and deployed total three satellites. Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) was the main payload and BIRD and PROBA were two auxiliary payloads that were mounted on PSLV-C3. In the flight sequence, TES was injected first, followed by BIRD and then PROBA.
|India||TES||1||1,108 kg||Satellite||Experimental Earth observation satellite|
|Belgium||BIRD||1||94 kg||Microsatellite||Remote sensing technology demonstration|
|Germany||PROBA||1||92 kg||Microsatellite||Earth observation technology demonstration|
PSLV-C3 was launched at 10:23 a.m. IST on 22 October 2001 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (then called "Sriharikota Launching Range"). The mission was planned with pre-flight prediction of covering overall distance of 586.668 kilometres (365 mi). The total flight time was 1658 seconds as PROBA was to be launched into an elliptical orbit after TES and BIRD were launched into a circular orbit. The orbit raise was done using the yaw RCS thrusters in off-modulated mode.
Following was the planned flight profile.
|First stage||T+0||0.02||452||First stage ignition||Lift-off|
|T+1.24||Ignition of 4 ground-lit strap-on motors|
|T+25.04||2.515||551||Ignition of 2 air-lit strap-on motors|
|T+68.04||23.472||1,155||Separation of 4 ground-lit strap-on motors|
|T+90.04||40.061||1,644||Separation of 2 air-lit strap-on motors|
|T+112.73||67.601||2,028||First stage separation|
|Second stage||T+112.93||67.828||2,027||Second stage ignition|
|T+156.73||115.604||2,284||Heat shield separation|
|T+278.81||236.272||4,099||Second stage separation|
|Third stage||T+280.01||237.433||4,097||Third stage ignition|
|T+498.33||455.487||6,086||Third stage separation|
|Fourth stage||T+520.60||460.818||6,065||Fourth stage ignition|
|T+914.92||571.247||7,575||Fourth stage thrust cut-off|
|T+1,091.92||574.064||PROBA orbit raise start|
|T+1,552.50||585.018||7,593||PROBA orbit raise stop|
|T+1,602.50||586.688||7,592||PROBA orbit separation||Mission over|
The fourth stage of the PSLV had undergone a break-up event on 19 December 2001, likely caused by an explosion. After the explosion of PSLV-C3, ISRO carried out passivation of the upper stages of the PSLV, from the PSLV-C4 mission onwards. As per ISRO, this event generated 386 debris objects, of which 76 are still in orbit, as on 2021.