Pacinian corpuscle
Pacinian corpuscle, with its system of capsules and central cavity.
a. Arterial twig, ending in capillaries, which form loops in some of the intercapsular spaces, and one penetrates to the central capsule.
b. The fibrous tissue of the stalk.
n. Nerve tube advancing to the central capsule, there losing its white matter and stretching along the axis to the opposite end, where it ends by a tuberculated enlargement.
Pacinian corpuscle labeled at bottom
Details
LocationSkin
Identifiers
Latincorpusculum Pacinian
MeSHD010141
THH3.11.06.0.00009
FMA83604
Anatomical terms of microanatomy

The Pacinian corpuscle, lamellar corpuscle or Vater-Pacini corpuscle[1] is one of the four major types of mechanoreceptors (specialized nerve ending with adventitious tissue for mechanical sensation) found in mammalian skin. This type of mechanoreceptor is found in both hairy, and hairless skin, viscera, joints, and attached to periosteum of bone, primarily responsible for sensitivity to vibration.[2] Few of them are also sensitive to quasi-static or low frequency pressure stimulus.[citation needed] Most of them respond only to sudden disturbances and are especially sensitive to vibration of few hundreds of Hertz.[3] The vibrational role may be used for detecting surface texture, e.g., rough vs. smooth. Most of the Pacinian corpuscles act as rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. Groups of corpuscles respond to pressure changes, e.g. on grasping or releasing an object.

Structure

Pacinian corpuscles are larger and fewer in number than Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel cells and Ruffini's corpuscles.[4]

The Pacinian corpuscle is approximately oval-cylindrical-shaped and 1 mm in length. The entire corpuscle is wrapped by a layer of connective tissue. Its capsule consists of 20 to 60 concentric lamellae (hence the alternative lamellar corpuscle) including fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue (mainly Type IV and Type II collagen network), separated by gelatinous material, more than 92% of which is water.[5] It presents a whorled pattern on micrographs.

Function

Pacinian corpuscles are rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors that detect gross pressure changes and vibrations in the skin.[6] Any deformation in the corpuscle leads to opening of pressure-sensitive or stretch-activated ion channels or mechanosensitive channels present in the axon membrane or axolemma of the neurite inside the core of the corpuscles or end-organ.[citation needed] This initiates generation of the receptor potential inside the corpuscles which is also secondarily supported by the voltage-activated ion channels present in the core of the corpuscles. Finally the receptor potential is modulated to neural spikes or action potential with the help of opening of sodium ion channels present at the first Ranveir's Node of the axon.[3]

These corpuscles are especially sensitive to vibrations, which they can sense even centimeters away.[4] Their optimal sensitivity is 250 Hz, and this is the frequency range generated upon fingertips by textures made of features smaller than 1 µm.[7][8] Pacinian corpuscles respond when the skin is rapidly indented but not when the pressure is steady, due to the layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending.[4] It is thought that they respond to high-velocity changes in joint position. They have also been implicated in detecting the location of touch sensations on handheld tools.[9]

Pacinian corpuscles have a large receptive field on the skin's surface with an especially sensitive center.[4]

Mechanism

Pacinian corpuscles sense stimuli due to the deformation of their lamellae, which press on the membrane of the sensory neuron and causes it to bend or stretch.[10] When the lamellae are deformed, due to either application or release of pressure, a generator or receptor potential is created as it physically deforms the plasma membrane of the receptive area of the neuron, making it "leak" different cations through Mechanosensitive channels which initiates the receptor potential. This mechanotransduction process is also supported by distributed voltage sensitive ion channels in the inner-core and neurite of the corpuscles.[3] Due to generation of receptor potential in the receptive area of the neurite (especially near the heminode or half-node of the axon) the potential at the first Ranvier's node can reach certain threshold, triggering nerve impulses or action potentials at the first node of Ranvier. The first Ranvier's node of the myelinated section of the neurite is often found inside the capsule.[citation needed] This impulse is then transferred along the axon from node to node with the use of sodium channels and sodium/potassium pumps in the axon membrane.

Once the receptive area of the neurite is depolarized, it will depolarize the first node of Ranvier; however, as it is a rapidly adapting fibre, this does not carry on indefinitely, and the signal propagation ceases. This is a graded response, meaning that the greater the deformation, the greater the generator potential. This information is encoded in the frequency of impulses, since a bigger or faster deformation induces a higher impulse frequency. Action potentials are formed when the skin is rapidly distorted but not when pressure is continuous because of the mechanical filtering of the stimulus in the lamellar structure. The frequencies of the impulses decrease quickly and soon stop due to the relaxation of the inner layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending.

Discovery

Pacinian corpuscles were the first cellular sensory receptor ever observed. They were first reported by German anatomist and botanist Abraham Vater and his student Johannes Gottlieb Lehmann in 1741, but ultimately named after Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini, who rediscovered them in 1835.[11][12] John Shekleton, a curator of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, also discovered them before Pacini, but his results were published later.[11] Similar to Pacinian corpuscles, Herbst corpuscles and Grandry corpuscles are found in bird species.[citation needed]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ Germann, C.; Sutter, R.; Nanz, D. (June 2021). "Novel observations of Pacinian corpuscle distribution in the hands and feet based on high-resolution 7-T MRI in healthy volunteers". Skeletal Radiology. 50 (6): 1249–1255. doi:10.1007/s00256-020-03667-7. PMC 8035111. PMID 33156397.
  2. ^ Biswas, Abhijit; Manivannan, M.; Srinivasan, Mandyam A. (2015). "Multiscale layered biomechanical model of the Pacinian corpuscle". IEEE Transactions on Haptics. 8 (1): 31–42. doi:10.1109/TOH.2014.2369416. PMID 25398182. S2CID 24658742.
  3. ^ a b c Biswas, Abhijit; Manivannan, M.; Srinivasan, Mandyam A. (2015). "Vibrotactile sensitivity threshold: Nonlinear stochastic mechanotransduction model of the Pacinian corpuscle". IEEE Transactions on Haptics. 8 (1): 102–113. doi:10.1109/TOH.2014.2369422. PMID 25398183. S2CID 15326972.
  4. ^ a b c d Kandel, Eric R.; Schwartz, James H.; Jessell, Thomas M., eds. (2000). Principles of Neural Science. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6.
  5. ^ Cherepnov, V.L.; Chadaeva, N.I. (1981). "Some characteristics of soluble proteins of Pacinian corpuscles". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 91 (3): 346–348. doi:10.1007/BF00839370. PMID 7248510. S2CID 26734354.
  6. ^ Purves, Dale; Augustine, George J.; Fitzpatrick, David; Katz, Lawrence C.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; McNamara, James O.; Williams, S. Mark (2001). "Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Somatic Sensory Receptors". Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  7. ^ Scheibert, J; Leurent, S; Prevost, A; Debrégeas, G (2009). "The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor". Science. 323 (5920): 1503–6. arXiv:0911.4885. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1503S. doi:10.1126/science.1166467. PMID 19179493. S2CID 14459552.
  8. ^ Skedung, Lisa, Martin Arvidsson, Jun Young Chung, Christopher M. Stafford, Birgitta Berglund, and Mark W. Rutland. 2013. "Feeling Small: Exploring the Tactile Perception Limits." Sci. Rep. 3 (September 12). doi:10.1038/srep02617.
  9. ^ Sima, Richard (23 December 2019). "The Brain Senses Touch beyond the Body". Scientific American. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  10. ^ Klein, Stephen B.; Michael Thorne, B. (2006-10-03). Biological Psychology. Macmillan. ISBN 9780716799221.
  11. ^ a b Bentivoglio, Marina; Pacini, Paolo (1995). "Filippo Pacini: a determined observer". Brain Research Bulletin. 38 (2): 161–165. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(95)00083-Q. PMID 7583342. S2CID 6094598.
  12. ^ Cauna, N.; Mannan, G. (1958). "The structure of human digital pacinian corpuscles (corpus cula lamellosa) and its functional significance". Journal of Anatomy. 92 (1): 1–20. ISSN 0021-8782. PMC 1244958. PMID 13513492.