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|Imperial, royal, noble, gentry and chivalric ranks in West, Central, South Asia and North Africa|
|Emperor: Caliph · Shahanshah · King of Kings · Padishah · Sultan of Sultans · Chakravarti · Samrat · Khagan|
|King: Maharaja · Malik · Sultan · Sultana · Shah · Shirvanshah · Khan · Khatun · Hatun · Dey · Nizam · Nawab · Amir al-umara · Khagan Bek · Nawab|
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|Earl or Count: Mankari · Dewan Bahadur · Sancak bey · Rao Bahadur · Rai Bahadur · Khan Bahadur · Atabeg · Boila · Wāli · Sparapet · Azat|
|Viscount: Zamindar · Khan Sahib · Bey · Kadi · Baig or Begum · Begzada · Uç bey|
|Baron: Lala · Agha · Hazinedar · Rais|
|Royal house: Damat · Gurkani|
|Nobleman: Zamindar · Jenmi · Mankari · Mirza · Pasha · Bey · Baig · Begzada · al-Dawla · Bibi|
|Governmental: Lala · Agha · Hazinedar · Mostowfi ol-Mamalek|
Padishah (Persian: پادشاه; lit. 'Master King'; from Persian: pād [or Old Persian: *pati], 'master', and shāh, 'king'), sometimes romanised as padeshah or padshah (Persian: پادشاه; Ottoman Turkish: پادشاه, romanized: pādişah; Turkish: padişah, pronounced [ˈpaːdiʃah]; Urdu: بَادْشَاہ, Hindi: बादशाह, romanized: baadashaah), is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin.
A form of the word is known already from Middle Persian, or Pahlavi language, as pātaxšā(h) or pādixšā(y). Middle Persian pād may stem from Avestan paiti, and is akin to Pati (title). Xšāy, "to rule", and xšāyaθiya, "king", are from Old Persian.
It was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and the Mughal emperors of India. However, in some periods it was used more generally for autonomous Muslim rulers, as in the Hudud al-'Alam of the 10th century, where even some petty princes of Afghanistan are called pādshā(h)/pādshāʼi/pādshāy.
The rulers on the following thrones – the first two effectively commanding major West Asian empires – were styled Padishah:
The compound Pādshah-i-Ghazi ("Victorious Emperor") is only recorded for two individual rulers:
The Sikhs usе the term Patishahi for the 10 gurus.
Note that like many titles, the word Padishah was also often used as a name, either by nobles with other (in this case always lower) styles, or even by commoners.
See also: List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
In the Ottoman Empire the title padishah was exclusively reserved for the Ottoman emperor, as the Ottoman chancery rarely and unwillingly addressed foreign monarchs as padishahs. The Habsburg emperors were consequently denied this title and adressed merely as the "kings of Vienna" (beç kıralı). With the Peace of Zsitvatorok in 1606, it was the first time that the Sublime Porte recognized Rudolf II as equal of the padishah. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774, gave similar concessions to the Russian Empire.
According to Ahmedi's İskendernâme, one of the earliest Ottoman sources, alongside the titles sultan and beg, Orhan and Murad I bore the title padishah as well.