Paiwan
Vinuculjan, Pinayuanan
Pronunciation[vinutsuʎan]
Native toTaiwan
Ethnicity96,000 Paiwan (2014)[1]
Latin (Paiwan alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
 Taiwan[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pwn
Glottologpaiw1248
(dark green, south) Paiwan
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Paiwan is a native language of Taiwan, spoken by the Paiwan, a Taiwanese indigenous people. Paiwan is a Formosan language of the Austronesian language family. It is also one of the national languages of Taiwan.[2]

Dialects

Paiwan variants can be divided into the following dialect zones (Ferrell 1982:4–6).

This classification were though be corrected by Cheng 2016 as below: Note: A village unnoted of Vuculj/Ravar is by default placed under Vuculj here.

Phonology

Kuljaljau Paiwan has 23–24 consonants (/h/ is found only in loanwords, and /ʔ/ is uncommon) and 4 vowels (Ferrell 1982:7). Unlike many other Formosan languages that have merged many Proto-Austronesian phonemes, Paiwan preserves most Proto-Austronesian phonemes and is thus highly important for reconstruction purposes.

The four Paiwan vowels are /i ə a u/. /ə/ is written e in the literature.

Kuɬaɬau Paiwan consonants
labial alveolar retroflex palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m n ŋ
plosive p b t d ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ʔ
affricate ts
fricative v s z (h)
trill r
approximant w l ʎ j
Central Paiwan consonants[3]
labial alveolar retroflex palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m n ŋ ⟨ng⟩
plosive p b t d ɖ ⟨dr⟩ c ɟ ⟨tj dj⟩ k ɡ q ⟨q⟩ ʔ ⟨ʼ⟩
affricate ts ~ tʃ ⟨c⟩
fricative v s z (h)
trill~
fricative
r ~ ɣ ⟨r⟩
approximant ʋ ⟨w⟩ ɭ ⟨l⟩ ʎ j ⟨lj y⟩

In Northern Paiwan the palatal consonants have been lost, though this is recent and a few conservative speakers maintain them as allophonic variants (not as distinct phonemes). /ʔ/ is robust, unlike in other Paiwan dialects where its status is uncertain, as it derives from *q.

Northern Paiwan (Sandimen) consonants[3]
labial alveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
nasal m n ŋ
plosive p b t d ɖ k ɡ ʔ
affricate ts
fricative v s z (h)
trill~
fricative
r
approximant w l~ʎ ɭ j
Southern Paiwan (Mudan) consonants[3]
labial alveolar retroflex palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m n ŋ
plosive p b t d ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ʔ
affricate ts
fricative v s z ɣ ~ r (h)
approximant w ɭ ʎ j

Younger speakers tend to pronounce /ʎ/ as [l]. Fricative [ɣ] is characteristic of Mudan village; elsewhere is Southern Paiwan it tends to be a trill [r], though it still varies [r ~ ɣ ~ ʁ ~ h]. Word-initial *k has become /ʔ/.

Grammar

Pronouns

The Paiwan personal pronouns below are from Ferrell (1982:14).

Paiwan Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Equational Genitive Non-Eq., Non-Gen.
1s. -aken, ti-aken ku-, ni-aken tjanu-aken
2s. -sun, ti-sun su-, ni-sun tjanu-sun
3s. ti-madju ni-madju tjai-madju
1p. (incl.) -itjen, ti-tjen tja-, ni-tjen tjanu-itjen
1p. (excl.) -amen, ti-amen nia-, ni-amen tjanu-amen
2p. -mun, t-mun nu-, ni-mun tjanu-mun
3p. ti-a-madju ni-a-madju tjai-a-madju

Function words

Paiwan has 3 construction markers, which are also known as relational particles (Ferrell 1982:13).

  1. a – shows equational relationship; personal sing. = ti, personal plural = tia
  2. nua – shows genitive / partitive relationship; personal sing. = ni, personal plural = nia
  3. tua – shows that the relationship is neither equational nor genitive; personal sing. = tjai, personal plural = tjaia

Other words include:

Affixed adverbials include (Ferrell 1982:14):

Interjections include (Ferrell 1982:12):

Verbs

Paiwan verbs have 4 types of focus (Ferrell 1982:30).

  1. Agent/Actor
  2. Object/Goal/Patient
  3. Referent: spatial/temporal locus, indirect object, beneficiary
  4. Instrument/Cause/Motivation/Origin

The following verbal affixes are used to express varying degrees of volition or intent, and are arranged below from highest to lowest intention (Ferrell 1982:37).

  1. ki- (intentional)
  2. pa- (intentional)
  3. -m- (volitionally ambiguous)
  4. si- (volitionally ambiguous)
  5. ma- (non-intentional)
  6. se- (non-intentional)

Paiwan verbs can also take on the following non-derivational suffixes (Ferrell 1982:13).

Affixes

The Paiwan affixes below are from the Kulalao dialect unless stated otherwise, and are sourced from Ferrell (1982:15–27).

Prefixes
Infixes
Suffixes

The following affixes are from the Tjuabar dialect of Paiwan, spoken in the northwest areas of Paiwan-occupied territory (Comparative Austronesian Dictionary 1995).

Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives

Notes

  1. ^ "Amis Remains Taiwan's Biggest Aboriginal Tribe at 37.1% of Total". Focus Taiwan. CNA. February 15, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-16.
  2. ^ a b Yuán zhù mínzú yǔyán fāzhǎn fǎ 原住民族語言發展法 [Indigenous Languages Development Act] (PDF) (in Chinese) – via Lìfayuan quanqiu falu zixun wang
  3. ^ a b c Chen, Chun-mei (2006). A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). The University of Texas at Austin. hdl:2152/3758.

References