Provincia Pannonia Secunda
province of the Roman Empire
296–mid-5th century
Pannonia secunda.png

Pannonia Secunda map
• Established
• Hunnic invasions
mid-5th century
Preceded by
Pannonia Inferior
Today part ofSerbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Pannonia Secunda was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian. The capital of the province was Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica). Pannonia Secunda included parts of present-day Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1]


Pannonia Secunda in the 4th century
Pannonia Secunda in the 4th century

Before the creation of this province, its territory was part of the province of Pannonia Inferior. In the year 296, Pannonia Inferior was divided into two provinces - Pannonia Secunda in the south and Pannonia Valeria in the north. The border between the two newly established provinces was the River Drava.

The capital of Pannonia Secunda, Sirmium, was also one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire; several Roman emperors were born in or near this city.

In the year 314, there was a battle between two pretenders to the imperial throne, Constantine the Great and Licinius. The battle occurred in Pannonia Secunda, near the town of Cibalae. Constantine had an army of 20,000 men, while Licinius had 35,000. The battle lasted for the whole day and Constantine was victorious.

During the 5th century, the province was raided several times, by migrating peoples, including Huns and Goths.[2] During the 6th century, the territory was contested between the Ostrogoths, Gepids, Langobards, Avars, and the Byzantine Empire.[3]


Golden solidus of emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363), stuck in Sirmium (revers)
Golden solidus of emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363), stuck in Sirmium (revers)

Besides Sirmium, the other cities in Pannonia Secunda were:


Among the prefects of Pannonia Secunda:

See also


  1. ^ Mirković 2017.
  2. ^ Gračanin 2006, p. 29-76.
  3. ^ Daim 2019, p. 221-241.