|Regions with significant populations|
|India (Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand),|
|Hindi (Kannauji, Braj, Awadhi) • Urdu • Bhojpuri • English|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Urdu-speaking people, Pashtun|
The Pathans are an Urdu-speaking community of Pashtun descent in the Uttar Pradesh state in India who form one of the largest Muslim communities in the state. They are also known as Khans which is a commonly used surname amongst them; although not all those who use the surname are Pathans, for example the Khanzada community of eastern Uttar Pradesh are also commonly known as Khan. The phrase Pathan Khanzada is used to describe Muslim Rajput groups, found mainly in Gorakhpur, who have been absorbed into the Pathan community. There are communities of partial Pashtun ancestry in the Rohilkhand region and in parts of the Doab and Awadh regions, such as the agrarian Rohilla community.
Many Pashtuns emigrated from their homeland of Afghanistan to what is now northern India during the Mughal Empire. Many of them were traders, soldiers and civil servants during the British Raj era. A process of indigenization has occurred, and the Pathan community became indistinguishable from neighbouring Muslim communities due to social factors such as assmilation as well as intermarriage with the local castes. They now speak Hindustani (Khari Boli) as well as various localised dialects of the language such as Awadhi, Braj Bhasha and Kannauji and are found throughout Uttar Pradesh with settlements in Moradabad, Farrukhabad, Hathras, Malihabad and a dense population of them found in the Rohillkhand region. In addition, a significant amount of them are found in parts of Azamgarh, Sultanpur and Jaunpur.
The Pathan are divided into sixteen groupings, who generally take their name from the ancestral Pashtun tribes. These include the Bangash, Afridi, Dustukhel, Tanoli, Luni (Miani), Jadoon, Bakarzai, Barech, Daudzai, Dilazak, Durrani, Ghorghushti, Toia Mehsud Khel, Ghori, Khalil, Lodi, Mohmand, Mohammadzai, Orakzai, Rohilla, Sherwani, Suri, Sultani and Yousafzai, all of which are well known Pashtun tribes. A further differentiation exists based on an identity known as the qabila or biradari, based on territorial subgroupings and community ties.
The Pathans of the Barah-Basti villages of Bulandshahr produced a large number of volunteers who joined the British Irregular Cavalry, many of whom rebelled during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 under Abdul Latif Khan of Khanpur and Walidad Khan of Malagarh. The Pathans of Malakpur, who are Yousafzai were settled their by the Emperor Akbar. In additions to these communities, there are also settlements of Afridis, in the city of Bulandshahr, as well as Bangash.
The district of Lucknow is a home to a number of Pathan communities, most found in towns referred to locally as kasbas, such as Malihabad. In the city of Lucknow, there are communities of Mohmands, Shinwari, Yousafzais, Lodi, Bangash and Ghori Pathans. While in the district, the Pathans are found mainly in the kasbas of Malihabad, Mirzaganj, Bhaktiyarnagar, Khalispur, Malakpur Badi Garhi, Rasoolpur and Garhi Sanjar Khan. Unlike other Uttar Pradesh Pathans who are predominantly Sunni Muslims, a large significant number are Shia Muslims. Among the oldest settlers are the Bazid Khel Pathans of Jowaki Division of Adam Khel clan who are an Afridi tribe from Kohat mentioned in several historical records including the Gazetteer of the Kohat District, published in 1883–84.
The Garhi Sanjar Pathans belong to the Amazai clan of the Jadoon tribe. They claim descent from Daler Khan Amazai, who arrived in Awadh in 1656. Daler Khan, also known as Jalal Khan Jadoon, was appointed governor of Awadh. Daler Khan brought with him two brothers, Kawal Khan and Khan Bahadur Khan. They settled initially in Bulakinager, while the son of Khan Bahadur Khan, Sarmast Khan founded the settlement of Garhi Sanjar Khan. The Jadoons are now found mainly in Bulakanagar, Bhakitiyarnagar, and Garhu Sanjar Khan.
The Hotakis of Khalispur claim descent from Yousaf Khan Qandhahari, who settled during the rule of Shuja-ud-Daula, who was the grandson of Yahya Khan, who was one of the brothers of the King of Afghanistan, Mir Wais Hotak and Yusuf Khan was the real son-in-law of Mir Wais Hotak. Yusuf Khan was granted the village of Khalispur as an jagir. He is said to have brought his kinsmen from present-day Afghanistan, and a village now contains a large settlement of Durranis.
In neighbouring Barabanki district, the town of Fatehpur is also an important centre of the Pathans in Awadh. The town was founded by a Fateh Khan, who was a Pathan, in 1321. As a frontier settlement, with the countryside still held by Hindu chiefs, Fateh Khan established a colony of Pathans. They belong mainly to the Yousafzai and Lodi tribes. In addition to the Fatehpur Pathans, there are also settlements in Ramsanehighat tehsil, belonging mainly to the Afridi and Shinwari tribe.
|Tribe||Lucknow District||Unnao District||Raebareli District||Sitapur District||Hardoi District||Lakhimpur Kheri District||Faizabad District||Gonda District||Bahraich District||Sultanpur District||Pratapgarh District||Barabanki District||Total|
((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
A well known Indian Muslim community is Pathan