This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject. It may require cleanup to comply with Wikipedia's content policies, particularly neutral point of view. Please discuss further on the talk page. (March 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this message) This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. (September 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this message) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

A patient safety organization (PSO) is a group, institution, or association that improves medical care by reducing medical errors. Common functions of patient safety organizations are data collection, analysis, reporting, education, funding, and advocacy. A PSO differs from a Federally designed Patient Safety Organization (PSO), which provides health care providers in the U.S. privilege and confidentiality protections for efforts to improve patient safety and the quality of patient care delivery (see 42 U.S.C. 299b-21 et seq. and

In the 1990s, reports in several countries revealed a staggering number of patient injuries and deaths each year due to avoidable errors and deficiencies in health care, among them adverse events and complications arising from poor infection control. In the United States, a 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine called for a broad national effort to prevent these events, including the establishment of patient safety centers, expanded reporting of adverse events, and development of safety programs in healthcare organizations.[1] Although many PSOs are funded and run by governments, others have sprung from private entities such as industry, professional and consumer groups.


To achieve their goals, patient safety organizations may

  1. Collect data on the prevalence and individual details of errors.
  2. Analyze sources of error by root cause analysis.
  3. Propose and disseminate methods for error prevention.
  4. Design and conduct pilot projects to study safety initiatives, including monitoring of results.
  5. Raise awareness and inform the public, health professionals, providers, purchasers, and employers.
  6. Conduct fundraising and provide funding for research and safety projects.
  7. Advocate for regulatory and legislative changes.

Governmental organizations

World Health Organization

World Alliance for Patient Safety

In response to a 2002 World Health Assembly Resolution, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the World Alliance for Patient Safety in October 2004. The goal was to develop standards for patient safety and assist UN member states to improve the safety of health care.[2] The Alliance raises awareness and political commitment to improve the safety of care and facilitates the development of patient safety policy and practice in all WHO Member States. Each year, the Alliance delivers a number of programs covering systemic and technical aspects to improve patient safety around the world.[3]

At the Fifty-Ninth World Health Assembly in May 2006, the Secretariat reported that the Alliance held patient safety meetings in five of the six WHO regions and 40 technical workshops in 18 countries. Since the launch of the Alliance in October 2004, significant progress was achieved in six areas:

  1. The First Global Patient Safety Challenge, which for 2005–2006 (addressing health care-associated infection) developed the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care.[4]
  2. A patient involvement group, Patients for Patient Safety, built networks of patients’ organizations from around the world, through regional workshops.
  3. A patient safety taxonomy was developed to classify data on patient safety problems.
  4. Prevalence studies conducted on patient harm in ten developing countries.
  5. A WHO Collaborating Centre was established to develop and disseminate safety solutions.[5]
  6. The WHO Draft Guidelines on Adverse Event Reporting and Learning Systems.[6]

Patients for Patient Safety (PFPS)

Patients for Patient Safety is part of the World Alliance for Patient Safety launched in 2004 by the WHO. The project emphasizes the central role patients and consumers can play in efforts to improve the quality and safety of healthcare around the world. PFPS works with a global network of patients, consumers, caregivers, and consumer organizations to support patient involvement in patient safety programs, both within countries and in the global programs of the World Alliance for Patient Safety.[7]

Australia and New Zealand

Therapeutic Goods Administration and Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is a unit of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The TGA approves and monitors prescription and non-prescription drugs (including herbal products), medical supplies and devices and blood and biological products. Risks to users are assessed prior to product introduction, and manufacturers are regularly audited for efficacy, quality and safety. Manufacturers are required to report adverse drug effects to the Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (ADRAC) of the TGA; reporting by medical professionals and consumers is voluntary. ADRAC notifies medical professionals and the public through recalls and alerts on its website and publications.[8]

In December 2003, the Australian and New Zealand Governments signed an agreement to establish a joint regulatory organization for therapeutic products. The Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Authority (ANZTPA) will replace the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe), and be accountable to the Australian and New Zealand Governments. Implementing legislation is scheduled for introduction into both countries' parliaments in July 2006.[9]

On 16 July 2007, the New Zealand State Services Minister Annette King announced that "The Government is not proceeding at this stage with legislation that would have enabled the establishment of a joint agency with Australia to regulate therapeutic products." She further advised that "The [New Zealand] Government does not have the numbers in Parliament to put in place a sensible, acceptable compromise that would satisfy all parties at this time. The Australian Government has been informed of the situation and agrees that suspending negotiations on the joint authority is a sensible course of action."[10]

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (the Commission) was established by the Australian, State and Territory Governments to lead and coordinate national improvements in safety and quality. The Commission replaced the Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care in 2006.

The Commission engages in collaborative work in patient safety and healthcare quality that benefits from national coordination. This includes the development of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights and the National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards, improving areas such as patient identification, medication safety, clinical handover and open disclosure, and reducing healthcare associated infection. The Commission has also developed the National Safety and Quality Framework to improve the safety and quality of the Australian health system.

Other key areas of work for the Commission include National Health Service accreditation, recognizing and responding to clinical deterioration, patient centered care, safety and quality in mental health and primary care and the development of national safety and quality indicators as part of the information strategies activity.

In its role primarily as a coordination and facilitation body, the Commission utilizes evidence and data and the experience, enthusiasm and commitment of consumers, clinicians, managers and other stakeholders to influence the system to make changes for the safety and quality of health care in Australia.[11]

New Zealand Health Quality & Safety Commission

The New Zealand Health Quality & Safety Commission was established in November 2010 as a Crown entity under the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000 to lead and co-ordinate work across the health and disability sector for the purposes of:

The Commission aims to reduce avoidable deaths and harm, reduce wastage, and make the best use of the health dollar. It works towards the New Zealand Triple Aim for quality improvement:

Commission programs include medication safety, infection prevention and control, reportable events, consumer engagement and participation, and mortality review committees.

United Kingdom

National Patient Safety Agency

The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) is an NHS special health authority created in July 2001 to improve patient safety within the National Health Service (NHS) by encouraging voluntary reporting of medical errors, conducting analysis and initiating preventative measures. Since 2005, the NPSA has also been responsible for: safety aspects of hospital design, cleanliness and food; safe research practices through the National Research Ethics Service (NRES); and the performance of individual doctors and dentists, through the National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS).[12] The NPSA identifies patient safety deficiencies with the input of clinical experts and patients, develops solutions and monitors results of corrections within the NHS. Initiatives and alerts include hand hygiene, information for doctors and patients on steps to reduce the risk of error, vaccine safety and disclosure of errors to injured patients. In addition, the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) allows NHS employees to provide the NPSA with reports anonymously.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is an independent organization that produces guidance on public health, health technologies and clinical practice in England and Wales. NICE has three centers of excellence. The Centre for Public Health Excellence develops public health guidance, with information for patients on the diagnosis and treatment of specific illnesses and conditions. The Centre for Health Technology Evaluation recommends medicines and evaluates the safety and efficacy of procedures within the National Health Service. The Centre for Clinical Practice develops evidence-based clinical guidelines for clinicians on the appropriate treatment of people with specific diseases.[13] NICE and the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) cooperate in risk assessment of new technology, monitoring safety incidents associated with procedures, and providing solutions if adverse outcomes are reported. In addition, NICE and NPSA share reporting in areas known as "Confidential Enquiries": maternal or infant deaths, childhood deaths to age 16, deaths in persons with mental illness, and perioperative and unexpected medical deaths.

United States

On July 29, 2005, the United States Congress established guidelines for Patient Safety Organizations under the Patient Safety Quality Act of 2005.[14] The focus of the legislation is to provide incentives for clinicians to participate in voluntary initiatives to improve the outcomes of patient care, provide information about the underlying causes of errors in the delivery of health care, and to disseminate this information in order to speed the pace of improvement.[15]


President Clinton's Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry completed its work on March 12, 1998. Its final report. entitled "Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans," recommends the following characteristics of a patient safety organization:[16]

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

In 2001, the US Congress responded to the IOM recommendation to create a National Center for Patient Safety by allocating $50 million annually for patient safety research to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the lead federal agency for healthcare safety. The AHRQ organizes patient safety activities, provides grants to other organizations, serves as a clearinghouse for safety information, and publishes guidelines for evidence-based or "best practices". By 2006, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) contained more than 1,700 disease-specific diagnosis, management and treatment recommendations, developed from current medical literature.[17] The goal of the NGC is to provide health professionals and institutions, health plans and health care purchasers an accessible mechanism for obtaining objective clinical practice guidelines. Adoption of guidelines has been slowed by physician and hospital concerns that practice guidelines threaten physician autonomy and authority, fuel malpractice liability, and allow managed care insurers to curtail patient care expenditures.[18][19][20]

Under the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality coordinates the Patient Safety Task Force composed of three other agencies with regulatory and data collection responsibilities: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its National Electronic Disease Surveillance System, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and state Quality improvement organizations, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[21]

The AHRQ, in partnership with data organizations in 37 states, sponsors the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). The HCUP is a Federal-State-Industry partnership providing all discharge data from 994 hospitals—approximately 8 million hospital stays each year.[22] The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States from which national estimates of inpatient care can be derived. Using safety data from the NIS, the AHRQ has been able to provide complication rates and risk data, even for rare surgical procedures, such as bariatric surgery.[23]

In 2005, AHRQ provided links to a compendium of 140 research articles, implementation programs and tools and products used to improve patient safety, sponsored jointly with the Department of Defense (DoD)-Health Affairs.[24]

In 2008, AHRQ launched the AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange site that contains profiles of hundreds of patient safety programs that have been implemented in hospitals and other health care settings across the United States. The goal of the site is to document and share these innovations with other organizations that can adapt them in different settings, allowing the adopters to base their quality improvement plans on previously tested methods.[25][26]

Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the United States government that regulates food, drugs, medical devices and biological products for human use. The FDA receives medication error reports on marketed human drugs from direct contacts and manufacturer's reports, and in 1992, began monitoring medication error reports that are forwarded from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP).

The effectiveness of the FDA's drug safety monitoring procedures was called into question after several approved drugs were shown to have serious side effects.[citation needed] In September 2006, an Institute of Medicine report commissioned by the FDA found that its drug safety system is limited by inadequate funding, insufficient regulatory authority, and a lack of oversight by experts free of pharmaceutical industry ties.[27]

The FDA launched a new program in 2005 to provide drug risk information directly to the public through internet-accessible drug sheets and bulletins.[28] The enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA),[29] expanded the authority of the FDA over drug safety monitoring after approval and introduction for use by the public. In 2008, the FDA established a single website for both the public and the healthcare profession with access to drug safety information, including warnings, recalls, and reporting of adverse reactions, using MedWatch.[30]

Independent organizations


Australian Patient Safety Foundation

The APSF is a non-profit independent organization founded in 1989 for anesthesia error monitoring, and expanded to patient incident reporting and monitoring after results from the Quality in Australian Health Care Study (QAHCS) in 1995 prompted reaction from the public.[31] Adverse medical events, both sentinel events (patient death and injury) and near misses (medical errors with potential harm), are reported and analyzed through its subsidiary, Patient Safety International (PSI), using a software tool, the Advanced Incident Management System (AIMS). AIMS is used in over half of Australia's hospitals, and was adopted in 2005 by the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation and the University of Miami Medical Group in Florida. Data remains confidential is protected from legal discovery under Australian Commonwealth Quality Assurance legislation. Patient safety information is provided by electronic newsletters.[32]


Canadian Patient Safety Institute

The Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI, Institut canadien pour la sécurité des patients) was developed in 2003 after consultations among Canadian healthcare professional organizations, provincial and territorial ministries of health and Health Canada.[33] An independent non-profit corporation, the CPSI promotes solutions and collaboration among governments and stakeholders to improve patient safety, and has a five-year mandate. Areas of improvement are education, system innovation, communication, regulatory affairs and research. Together with the Institute For Safe Medication Practices Canada and Saskatchewan Health, a Canadian Root Cause Analysis Framework is offered to healthcare organizations to analyze the contributing factors that led to a critical incident or close call.

In April 2005, CPSI launched the Safer Healthcare Now! campaign, aimed at reducing error-related injuries by focusing on six evidence-based measures and through over 200 local organizations, based on the 100,000 lives campaign.[34]

Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada (ISMP) is an independent national non-profit agency that reviews and analyzes medication incident and near-miss reports.[35] In collaboration with the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), and Health Canada, ISMP established the Canadian Medication Incident Prevention and Reporting System (CMIRPS) in 2003. ISMP takes the lead role in collecting reports from health practitioners, analyzing incidents, and disseminating preventative methods.


Egyptian Neonatal Safety Training Network

The Egyptian Neonatal Safety Training Network (ENSTN) originated from a 2013 project funded by Tempus. The main objective was to develop and support an organization that would establish high standards of practice in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), inform and train the whole range of health care workers dealing with infants (neonatologists, pediatricians, nurses, medical students, and others), and promote a culture of patient safety. More detailed goals included formulating protocols and guidelines to enhance continuity of care in NICUs, conducting research on specific aspects of patient safety, and reporting adverse events.[36]


German Agency for Quality in Medicine

Based in Berlin, the German Agency for Quality in Medicine is a not-profit organization, which coordinates healthcare quality programs.[37] In the field of patient safety AQUMED was one of the first German organizations calling for effective patient safety programs.[38] The agency was co-founder of the German Coalition for Patient Safety. AQUMED established a national network of Critical Incident Reporting Systems.[39][40] The institution is partner of the international High 5 Project.

German Coalition for Patient Safety

The German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS), established in 2005 and located in Bonn is a German non-profit association of organizations and individuals interested and involved in promotion of patient safety. APS' multidisciplinary working groups develop recommendations for patient safety activities in in- and outpatient healthcare institutions. The recommendations are available as open-access documents and distributed in healthcare institutions for free. APS acting together with the German Agency for Quality in Medicine is a Lead Technical Agency of the High 5 Project.

United Kingdom

The Health Foundation

Based in London, England, the Health Foundation is an independent charity that aims to improve the quality of health care for the people of the United Kingdom. The Safer Patients Initiative,[41] one of the Foundation's quality and performance improvement programs, targets reducing medication-related adverse events and errors, reducing infections associated with intensive care units or surgery and improving organizational culture, leadership and expertise in measuring improvement. The goal of the initiative is a 50 per cent reduction in adverse events per 1,000 patient days for each site. In 2004, The Health Foundation selected four hospitals from across the UK to work on a £4.3 million patient safety improvement program. These four hospitals continue to show measurable improvements in their patient safety performance[citation needed], and 16 more hospitals are being selected in 2006 to join the second phase.[citation needed]

Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit

The Unit was founded in January 2008 and is a collaborative venture between the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust and Lancaster University. It is funded by the UK National Health Service through the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR). The unit has two aims. The first is to conduct research in patient safety. The second is to make sure that the unit's findings are used in practice, to improve the welfare of people in North Lancashire and South Cumbria and throughout the National Health Service. In June 2010 the Unit's director, Professor Andrew Smith, helped launch The Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology, a practical manifesto aimed at improving the safety of anesthesia care throughout Europe. He is now part of a joint European Society of Anesthesiology/European Board of Anesthesiology Task Force overseeing the implementation of the Declaration.[42]

United States

Alliance for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety

The Alliance for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety fosters the efforts of Federally-listed Patient Safety Organizations under the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 to improve patient safety and the quality of patient care delivery. AQIPS is a nonprofit professional association for Federally Listed Patient Safety Organizations and their member providers. AQIPS and its members are committed to implementing innovative improvement programs using the protections of the Patient Safety Act to improve patient safety, quality, clinical performance and patient outcomes with the goal of encouraging a safety culture and minimizing patient risk. (See

Council on Surgical and Perioperative Safety

The Council on Surgical & Perioperative Safety (CSPS) was founded in August 2007 and is incorporated in the State of Illinois. The CSPS is a unique coalition of seven professional organizations representing the entire spectrum of the surgical team. Its voting member organizations include the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, the American Association of Surgical Physician Assistants, the American College of Surgeons, the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses, and the Association of Surgical Technologists. The CSPS and its member organizations have a combined total of more than 250,000 members and represent more than two million healthcare practitioners.[citation needed]

ECRI Institute Patient Safety Organization

On November 5, 2008, ECRI Institute PSO was officially listed as a federal Patient Safety Organization under the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005. ECRI Institute Patient Safety Organization serves nationwide as a PSO directly for providers, hospitals, and health systems as well as provide support services to state and regional PSOs.[43]

Institute for Healthcare Improvement

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) is an independent not-for-profit organization helping to lead the improvement of health and health care throughout the world.[44] Founded in 1991 and based in Boston, Massachusetts, IHI works to accelerate improvement by building the will for change, cultivating promising concepts for improving patient care, and helping health care systems put those ideas into action. An important heuristic of IHI is the Triple Aim.[45] IHI advocates for organizations and communities to aim to improve population health and the experience of care while reducing per capita cost. Founder Donald Berwick continues to serve on the Board of Directors, Kedar Mate serves as President and CEO.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), based in suburban Philadelphia, is a nonprofit organization devoted to preventing medication errors and the safe use of medications.[46] Its medication error prevention efforts began in 1975 with a column in Hospital Pharmacy to inform healthcare professionals and others about medication error prevention. ISMP operates a voluntary practitioner error-reporting program to tabulate errors nationally, understand their causes, and share “lessons learned” with the healthcare community, known as the Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP), operated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in cooperation with ISMP. In addition, ISMP's corporate subsidiary, Med-E.R.R.S. (Medical Error Recognition and Revision Strategies), works directly and confidentially with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent errors that stem from confusing or misleading naming, labeling, packaging, and device design. The ISMP list of error-prone abbreviations is distributed nationally.[47]

The Joint Commission

Founded in 1951, the Joint Commission (TJC, previously abbreviated as JCAHO) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that evaluates and accredits nearly 15,000 healthcare organizations and programs in the United States. An organization must undergo an on-site survey by a Joint Commission survey team at least every three years. The scope of reviews by TJC is broad, including hospitals, home care agencies, medical equipment providers, nursing homes, rehabilitation facilities, surgical centers and medical laboratories. Passing a survey is crucial for most organizations, since accreditation by TJC is required for participation in Medicare and some state and private health care programs. Since the accreditation rate is over 90%, there have been questions raised regarding the effectiveness of these surveys.[48]

In 1997, TJC began including outcomes and other performance data into the accreditation process (the "ORYX initiative"). Information gained allowed the Joint Commission to develop National Patient Safety Goals to promote specific improvements in patient safety.[49] The Goals highlight problem areas in health care and describe evidence-based solutions. Examples include prevention of falls, patient identification, reducing hospital infections and pressure ulcers, and improving hospital staff communication. In addition, the Joint Commission created a "do not use" list of abbreviations[50] in 2004 to avoid acronyms and symbols that lead to misinterpretation.

Identifying sentinel events and analyzing the root causes has been a focus of TJC since 1996; the first eight alerts were published in 1998. The Commission defines a sentinel event as "any unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof."[51] The health care facility experiencing the sentinel event is expected to complete a thorough root cause analysis, make improvements to the underlying processes, and monitor the effectiveness of the changes. Although the cause of most sentinel events is human error, changes in organizational systems will reduce the likelihood of human error in the future and protect patients from harm when human error does occur. Specific causes of sentinel events and the solutions that hospitals then used successfully to reduce risks are publicized by TJC annually. Alerts have included issues as varied as wrong site surgery, restraint deaths, transfusion and medication errors and patient abductions.

In 2005, TJC established an International Center for Patient Safety to collaborate with international patient safety organizations to identify, develop and share safety solutions, conduct joint research, and advocate public policy changes. Educational materials to help patients prevent medical errors, sentinel event alerts and other resources are provided on the internet.[52]

The Leapfrog Group

Staggered by increasing health insurance costs, several large US companies met in 1998 to influence quality and affordability. The resulting Leapfrog Group agreed to base their purchase of health care on principles that "encourage provider quality improvement and consumer involvement".[53] The group was officially launched in November 2000 with the initial focus provided by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report – reducing preventable medical mistakes (the report recommended that large employers leverage their purchasing power for the quality and safety of health care). The "leapfrog" concept involves encouraging rapid advances in the quality and safety of health care delivered in hospitals, by public reporting of health care quality and outcomes (hospital quality ratings) to influence consumers' choices. In 2001, the initial set of quality measures were computerized physician order entry (CPOE), evidence-based hospital referral, intensive care unit (ICU) staffing by physicians experienced in critical care medicine, and a "Leapfrog Safe Practices Score", based on the National Quality Forum endorsed Safe Practices.[54] In 2023, Leapfrog now publicly reports nearly 50 measures in a variety of domains, including safe administration of medications, maternity care (including C-Section rates), pediatric CT dosage, responses to patient harm, and health equity.[55]

Medication Safety Officers Society

The Medication Safety Officers Society formerly known as The American Society of Medication Safety Officers (ASMSO)[56] is a not-for-profit association established in 2006 with a mission to advance and encourage excellence in the profession of pharmacy by providing leadership, direction, education and communication among its members, to represent pharmacy in organized healthcare settings and promote the advancement of safe medication use.

It was designed for medication safety officers with the goal to provide an open forum for information sharing and collaboration. ASMSO was acquired by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in 2013 and was renamed the Medication Safety Officers Society (MSOS). Membership in MSOS is currently free to all interested parties who register.

Missouri Center for Patient Safety

The Missouri Center for Patient Safety (MOCPS)[57] is a Federally designated Patient Safety Organization (PSO)fostering change throughout Missouri's health care delivery systems and across the continuum of care. It was established by the Missouri Hospital Association (MHA),[58] the Missouri State Medical Association (MSMA)[59] and Primaris[60] in response to recommendations from the Governor's Commission for Patient Safety.

Initiatives that are currently the focus of MOCPS include the People, Priorities and Learning Together (PPLT) initiative, which brings together evidence-based practices that have been part of the work of the MOCPS and Missouri Hospital Association. This approach offers options for hospitals to select components of the initiative to fit their own unique needs for quality and safety efforts, providing options to select components of most value to the individual hospital.[citation needed] In addition to opportunities to learn the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP), TeamSTEPPS, just culture, and other processes to improve teamwork and communication, participants may join clinical collaboratives, including the national CUSP/Stop BSI and CUSP/CAUTI projects focused on prevention of bloodstream infections and catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Additional initiatives include the Hand Hygiene Project, Prevention of Injury from Falls, and Hospital and Medical Offices Surveys on Patient Safety.

National Patient Safety Foundation

In May 2017 the National Patient Safety Foundation and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) began working together as one organization. The merged entity is committed to using its combined knowledge and resources to focus and energize the patient safety agenda in order to build systems of safety across the continuum of care.

Patient Safety Movement Foundation

The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (December 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

The Patient Safety Movement Foundation (PSMF) is a commitments-based global non-profit that has a bold goal to achieve ZERO preventable deaths in hospitals. PSMF works with partners in more than 50 countries worldwide. The organization was founded in 2012 by Joe Kiani and is based in Irvine, California. Over the last 7 years, PSMF has gathered 4,710 hospitals in 46 countries. These hospitals have reported saving more than 90,146 lives through their commitments. Most of these commitments align with the PSMF's Actionable Patient Safety Solutions (APSS), a collection of 34 evidence-based best practice documents which can help hospitals get closer to zero preventable in-hospital deaths when implemented in their facilities. PSMF also encourages healthcare technology companies to sign their Open Data Pledge, which 90 companies have signed to date. The Open Data Pledge asks any healthcare technology company to share the data their devices and systems generate without knowingly interfering, blocking or charging for that data. This data is critical to the industry's ability to develop accurate algorithms and processes to keep patients from harm. PSMF also has more than 60 partnerships with professional societies, associations, other global non-profits and advocacy groups to help get to zero deaths more quickly. PSMF also works closely with patients and their families. They're well known for producing short "patient story" videos that use patient voices to tell stories about preventable deaths and harm - all which are disseminated freely online for anyone to use. PSMF annually hosts its World Safety, Science & Technology Summit, which brings together all stakeholder groups to discuss solutions to the leading challenges hospitals face. At the Summit each year, PSMF recognizes influential patient safety advocates with its Humanitarian Awards, given in memory of Beau Biden and Steven Moreau.

Safe Care Campaign

The Safe Care Campaign is a not-for-profit corporation created to help eradicate hospital-acquired infections. Its goal is to instigate a national change in ideology and practices within the healthcare environment in regard to hand hygiene, by emphasizing well-established methods proven to result in safer patient care.[61]

United States Pharmacopeia

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets official standards for all prescription and over-the-counter medicines, dietary supplements, and other healthcare products manufactured and sold in the United States, but USP standards are also recognized and used in more than 130 other countries. USP operates two programs to promote patient safety.[62] The Medication Errors Reporting Program enables healthcare professionals to report medication errors directly to USP. MEDMARX, an internet-based error and drug reaction reporting program, is designed for use in hospitals. The USP analyzes the data it receives through its reporting programs, develops professional education programs and disseminates alerts related to medication errors.[63] The MEDMARX report released in 2007 analyzed 11,000 medication errors during surgery in 500 hospitals between 1998 and 2005. The analysis showed that medication errors that happen in the operating room or recovery areas are three times more likely to harm a patient than errors occurring in other types of hospital care. As of 2007, this was the largest known analysis of medical errors related to surgery.[64]

See also


  1. ^ Institute of Medicine (1999). To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (1999). The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/9728. ISBN 978-0-309-26174-6. PMID 25077248. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
  2. ^ World Health Organization: Patient Safety, retrieved July 15, 2006
  3. ^ "Patient Safety".
  4. ^ WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care : first global patient safety challenge : clean care is safer care (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Patient Safety. 2009. ISBN 978-92-4-159790-6. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  5. ^ World Health Organization: Patient Safety Information Centre, retrieved July 15, 2006
  6. ^ World Health Organization: "Draft Guidelines for Adverse Event Reporting and Learning Systems" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-14. (1.14 MB) (2005), retrieved July 15, 2006
  7. ^ "WHO | Patients for patient safety". January 21, 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-01-21.
  8. ^ Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia): Drug recall and alerts Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Authority: Introduction to the project Archived 2006-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ NZ Government Media Release: Therapeutics Products and Medicines Bill on hold
  11. ^ Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care: Home page[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ National Health Service: National Patient Safety Agency
  13. ^ The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Providing national guidance on promoting good health
  14. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (June 2006): Overview. Accessed 2008-04-08
  15. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: PSO Overview (February 2008): Highlights of the Notice of Proposed Rule-making Accessed 2008-06-08
  16. ^ Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry: Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans (March 12, 1998), Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  17. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: The National Guideline Clearinghouse Archived 2006-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ American College of Surgeons Bulletin: Practice guidelines and liability implications Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use (Institute of Medicine, 1992) Concerns about Tort Liability[permanent dead link] page 116
  20. ^ Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use (Institute of Medicine, 1992) Medical Review Criteria and Managing Benefit Costs[permanent dead link] page 115
  21. ^ Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Reducing Medical Errors and Improving Patient Safety Archived 2016-11-04 at the Wayback Machine (Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means (September 10, 2002)
  22. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Overview of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Retrieved July 24, 2006
  23. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Obesity Surgery Complication Rates Higher Over Time. Press Release, July 24, 2006. Archived 2006-08-13 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved July 24, 2006
  24. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (Current as of February 2005) Retrieved 12 August 2006
  25. ^ Ireland, Belinda (2013-04-02). "Free Resources for Quality Improvement from AHRQ Innovations Exchange - Improve the Quality of Your QI". Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
  26. ^ "About the AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
  27. ^ The Institute of Medicine (News Release, September 22, 2006) Fixing Drug Safety System Will Require 'New Drug' Symbol on Labels, Major Boost in FDA Staff and Funding, and Increased Public Access to Information. Retrieved 26 September 2006
  28. ^ US Food and Drug Administration: Drug Safety Initiative
  29. ^ US Government Printing Office: Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2008
  30. ^ [US Food and Drug Administration: Postmarket Drug Safety Information. Retrieved 21 October 2008
  31. ^ Ross McL Wilson and Martin B Van Der Weyden (2005). "The safety of Australian healthcare: 10 years after QAHCS". Medical Journal of Australia. 182 (6): 260–261. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2005.tb06694.x. PMID 15777136. S2CID 38756003. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  32. ^ Australian Patient Safety Foundation: E-newsletters
  33. ^ Canadian Patient Safety Institute (Institut canadien sur la sécurité des patients): [1] Website]
  34. ^ Safer Healthcare Now! Website Archived 2009-01-26 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada Webpage
  36. ^ "Egyptian Neontal Safety Training NetWork". Egyptian Neontal Safety Training NetWork.
  37. ^ World Health Organization - Europe. Health Evidence Network (HEN). Technical Members: German Agency for Quality in Medicine Archived 2011-05-31 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Ollenschläger, G. (2001), "Medizinische Risiken, Fehler und Patientensicherheit. Zur Situation in Deutschland", Schweizerische Ärztezeitung (in German), 82 (26): 1404–10, doi:10.4414/saez.2001.08273
  39. ^ Hoffmann, Barbara; Rohe, Julia (2010). "Patient Safety and Error Management—What Causes Adverse Events and How Can They Be Prevented?". Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 107 (6): 92–9. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0092. PMC 2832110. PMID 20204120.
  40. ^ Rohe, Julia; Heinrich, Andrea Sanguino; Fishman, Liat; Renner, Daniela; Thomeczek, Christian (2010). "15 Jahre ÄZQ – 10 Jahre Patientensicherheit am ÄZQ" [After 15 years of ÄZQ: 10 years of safety for patients]. Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen (in German). 104 (7): 563–71. doi:10.1016/j.zefq.2010.08.002. PMID 21095609.
  41. ^ The Health Foundation Safer Patients Initiative Archived 2006-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit: Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit Archived 2018-03-18 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "About ECRI Institute PSO". ECRI Institute. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  44. ^ "Improving Health and Health Care Worldwide | IHI - Institute for Healthcare Improvement".
  45. ^ Merry, Alan F.; Shuker, Carl; Hamblin, Richard (October 2017). "Patient safety and the Triple Aim". Internal Medicine Journal. 47 (10): 1103–1106. doi:10.1111/imj.13563. PMID 28994263.
  46. ^ "About ISMP". Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  47. ^ Institute for Safe Medication Practices: "ISMP list of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations" (PDF). 2 October 2017. (73.4 KB) Retrieved 12 August 2006
  48. ^ Gaul, Gilbert M. (2005-07-25). "Accreditors Blamed for Overlooking Problems". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2006-07-08.
  49. ^ Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals
  50. ^ Joint Commission "do not use" list of abbreviations
  51. ^ Joint Commission { Sentinel Events}
  52. ^ Joint Commission International Center For Patient Safety
  53. ^ The Leapfrog Group: Fact Sheet Archived 2006-07-09 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ National Quality Forum: Hospital Care National Performance Measures (2002)
  55. ^ "Hospital Survey Measures | Hospital and Surgery Center Ratings | Leapfrog Group". Retrieved 2023-11-18.
  56. ^ American Society of Medication Safety Officers: Website
  57. ^ "Missouri Center for Patient Safety - Your Health Matters Most". Missouri Center for Patient Safety.
  58. ^ "Home". MHA.
  59. ^ "Missouri State Medical Association - Home".
  60. ^ Primaris
  61. ^ "Infection Control: Frequently Asked Questions on Hand Hygiene" (Press release). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-04-21. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
  62. ^ United States Pharmacopeia: Patient Safety Programs Archived 2006-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ United States Pharmacopeia: Practitioners' Reporting News Archived 2006-07-12 at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ Gardner, Amanda (6 March 2007). "Medication Errors During Surgeries Particularly Dangerous". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-03-13.