Patrioticheskaya Pesnya
English: "The Patriotic Song"
Патриотическая песня

Former national anthem of Russia
Former regional anthem of the Russian SFSR
Also known as"Motif de chant national" (original title)
MusicMikhail Glinka, 1833 (arranged by Mikhail Bagrinovsky [ru], 1944)
Adopted23 November 1990 (1990-11-23) (by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic)
Readopted25 December 1993 (1993-12-25) (by the Russian Federation)
Relinquished27 December 2000 (2000-12-27)
Preceded by"State Anthem of the Soviet Union"
Succeeded by"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Audio sample
Patrioticheskaya Pesnya

"The Patriotic Song" (Russian: Патриотическая песня, romanizedPatrioticheskaya Pesnya, IPA: [pətrʲɪɐˈtʲitɕɪskəjə ˈpʲesʲnʲə]) was the national anthem of Russia from 1991 to 2000. It was previously the regional anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1990 until 1991 (until 1990 it used the State Anthem of the Soviet Union), when it transformed into the Russian Federation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Unlike most national anthems, it had no official lyrics. Although unofficial ones were written for it, they were never adopted.

Etymology

Patrioticheskaya Pesnya originally was not a song but a composition for piano without lyrics, written by Mikhail Glinka (1804–1857) and titled (in French) "Motif de chant national". The song has been known under its current title of "The Patriotic Song" since 1944,[1] after Glinka's composition was arranged for orchestra by composer Mikhail Bagrinovsky [ru] under that name, popularizing it and leading it to become synonymous with Glinka's original work itself.[2]

History

First performance as the regional anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic as part of the "Decree of November 23, 1990" requesting to perform it on November 27, 1990 at the Kremlin.[3]
One of the most common Performance by an Orchestra.
U.S.-performed rendition during a Russian state visit to Washington, D.C. in 1992 with simultaneous 21-gun salute
U.S.-performed rendition during a Russian state visit to Washington, D.C. in September 1994
A performance of Patrioticheskaya Pesnya at the inauguration of Russian president Vladimir Putin on 7 May 2000.
Synthesizer performance
Version with proposed lyrics

"Patrioticheskaya Pesnya" originally was not a song but a composition for piano without lyrics, written by Mikhail Glinka in 1833 and titled (in French) "Motif de chant national". It was often claimed that it was written by Glinka as part of a national anthem contest or with the intent of becoming a national anthem,[4] though evidence for either claim is scant. In 1885, Glinka's manuscript was re-discovered after languishing in obscurity at the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg. In 1944 it was arranged for orchestra by composer Mikhail Bagrinovsky [ru] under the title "Patrioticheskaya Pesnya"[5] and a few years later, poet Alexei Mashistov [ru] set lyrics to Bagrinovsky's arrangement of Glinka's composition for a song dedicated to the Soviet capital of Moscow, both of which helped popularize Glinka's work among the Soviet public and gave it its common contemporary moniker.[5]

The Russian TV news program Vremya used it as its theme tune from 1984 to 1986.

In the 1990s, Boris Yeltsin chose the tune as the new state anthem of the Russian SFSR and it was officially adopted as such on 23 November 1990 by the Supreme Soviet of Russia.[3] It remained in de facto usage through inertia by the new Russian Federation from 1991 until its official confirmation as the state's national anthem in 1993 when the Russian constitution was enacted.[6] Also favored by the Russian Orthodox Church, the music went without lyrics for several years. In 1999, Viktor Radugin won a contest to provide suitable words for it with his poem Sláv'sya, Rossíya! (Russian: Сла́вься, Росси́я!, lit.'Be glorious, Russia!'). However, no lyrics and none of the entries were ever adopted.

It reportedly proved to be unpopular with the Russian public and with many politicians and public figures, because of its tune and lack of lyrics, and consequently its inability to inspire Russian athletes during international competitions.[7]

It was replaced soon after Yeltsin's successor as President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, first took office on 7 May 2000. The federal legislature established and approved the music of the National Anthem of the Soviet Union, with newly written lyrics, in December 2000.[7] Yeltsin criticized Putin for supporting the semi-reintroduction of the Soviet-era national anthem, although some opinion polls showed that many Russians favored this decision.[8]

Today, the song is used by some elements of the Russian opposition as a political anthem.[9][10] It is also sometimes erroneously played during sporting events involving Russia.[11][12][13][14][15]

Proposed lyrics

"Be Glorious, Russia!"

These are the unofficial lyrics to Patrioticheskaya Pesnya by Viktor Radugin, titled Славься, Россия!. It has been confused with the closing chorus of Glinka's opera A Life for the Tsar, possibly due to both beginning with the same word (Slav’sya), but the two works are unrelated with the latter being derived from an old Polish folk song (though the operatic music, too, has been suggested as a candidate for a Russian national anthem).

Russian Transliteration IPA transcription English translation

Славься, славься, родина-Россия!
Сквозь века и грозы ты прошла
И сияет солнце над тобою
И судьба твоя светла.

Над старинным московским Кремлём
Вьётся знамя с двуглавым орлом
И звучат священные слова:
Славься, Русь – Отчизна моя!

Slav'sya, slav'sya, rodina-Rossiya!
Skvoz' veka i grozy ty proshla!
I siyayet solntse nad toboyu
I sud'ba tvoya svetla!

Nad starinnym moskovskim Kremlyom
V'yotsya znamya s dvuglavym orlom
I zvuchat svyashchennyye slova:
Slav'sya, Rus' – Otchizna moya!

[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾sʲə ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾sʲə ˈrodʲɪnə rɐˈsʲijə ‖]
[skvosʲ vʲɪˈka i ˈɡrozɨ tɨ prɐʂˈɫa ‖]
[i sʲɪˈjæ(j)ɪt ˈsont͡sə nət tɐˈbojʊ]
[i sʊdʲˈba tvɐˈja svʲɪtˈɫa ‖]

[nət stɐˈrʲinːɨm mɐˈskofskʲɪm krʲɪˈmlʲɵm]
[ˈv⁽ʲ⁾jɵt͡sːə ˈznamʲə z‿dvʊˈɡɫavɨm ɐrˈɫom]
[i zvʊˈt͡ɕat svʲɪˈɕːenːɨjɪ sɫɐˈva]
[ˈsɫaf⁽ʲ⁾sʲə rusʲ ɐˈt͡ɕːiznə mɐˈja ‖]

Glory, glory, Motherland-Russia!
Through the centuries and thunderstorms, you have passed
And the sun is shining upon you
And your fate is bright.

Above the ancient Moscow Kremlin
A banner with a two-headed eagle is hovering
And the sacred words sound:
Glory, Russia – my Fatherland!

"Above the Fatherland Majestically"

Above the Fatherland Majestically (Russian: Над Отчи́зной велича́во, romanized: Nad Otchíznoy velichávo) by Vladimir Kalinkin, written in 1998 was another proposed set of lyrics. Performed by honored Russian artist Vladimir Detayov, the Duma was made aware of this piece's existence in April 1999. At the initiative of the Ministry of Ethnic Policy of Russia, this record was first publicly presented at the First Congress of the Assembly of Peoples of Russia. During the summer of that year, it was performed on the radio station "Radio of Russia" and the TV channel "Moskoviya", devoted to writing a text for the national anthem.

In January 2000, it was carried out in a new orchestral arrangement performed by the N.P. Osipov National Academic Orchestra of Folk Instruments and the A.V. Sveshnikov Academic Choir. Overall the song received positive reviews, although like Slav'sya Rossiya, never attained official status.

These are the unofficial lyrics of Над Отчизной величаво!, written by V.M. Kalinkin (Russian: В. М. Калинкин).

Russian Transliteration English translation

Над Отчизной величаво –
Башни древнего Кремля.
Славься, прадедов держава,
Вся Российская земля!

Ты – духовностью богата
И соборностью крепка –
По крупице, трудно, свято
Собиралась на века.

Единением народов
Нерушима и сильна,
Одолеет все невзгоды
Наша мудрая страна.

Над Отчизной величаво –
Башни древнего Кремля.
Славься, прадедов держава,
Вся Российская земля!

Nad Otchiznoy velichavo –
Bashni drevnego Kremlya.
Slav'sya, pradedov derzhava,
Vsya Rossiyskaya zemlya!

Ty – dukhovnost'yu bogata
I sobornost'yu krepka –
Po krupitse, trudno, svyato,
Sobiralas' na veka.

Yedineniyem narodov
Nerushima i sil'na,
Odoleyet vse nevzgody
Nasha mudraya strana.

Nad Otchiznoy velichavo –
Bashni drevnego Kremlya.
Slav'sya, pradedov derzhava
Vsya Rossiyskaya zemlya!

Above the Fatherland majestically –
The towers of the ancient Kremlin.
Hail, State of our forefathers,
All the Russian land!

You — rich in spirituality
And strong in fellowship –
Gradually, through hardship and holiness,
Have come together forever.

Through unity of its peoples,
Unbreakable and strong,
Our wise country
Will overcome all adversities.

Above the Fatherland majestically –
The towers of the ancient Kremlin.
Hail, State of our forefathers,
All the Russian land!

See also

References

  1. ^ "Anthem of Russia". Russian Anthems museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2016-01-12. Retrieved January 12, 2016. The music has been known under the title 'Patriotic Song' since 1944
  2. ^ Тартаковская, Н.Ю. "Патриотическая песнь Глинки". Muzcentrum. Russia. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. "Patriotic Song" does not belong to Glinka, but to the composer Mikhail Bagrinovsky, who orchestrated the melody in 1944, and the poet Alexei Mashistov composed the text for it.
  3. ^ a b "On the National Anthem of the Russian SFSR". Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR. pravo.levonevsky.org. November 23, 1990.
  4. ^ Финдейзен Н. Глинкиниана. (Автографы Глинки в Императорской Публичной библиотеке) // Русская музыкальная газета. СПб., 1895. № 7, pp. 409—411
  5. ^ a b "Шедевры М. И. Глинки и В. И. Агапкина позднеимперского периода". Archived from the original on 2022-04-19. In 1885, among the personal papers of the composer, a sketch of an unknown work was found, to which no one paid attention. And only in 1944 this musical notation of Glinka was processed by M. M. Bagryanovsky (1885–1966), who gave the name to the work – 'Patriotic Song'. Three years later, in 1947, the poet A. Mashistov wrote poetry to the music of M. I. Glinka. Thus was born the song "Hello, glorious capital", which in the year of the 800th anniversary of Moscow, became her anthem.
  6. ^ "On the National Anthem of the Russian Federation". Ukase of the President of the Russian Federation. infopravo.by.ru. December 11, 1993.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ a b "The Russian National Anthem and the problem of National Identity in the 21st Century". The Great Britain – Russia Society. gbrussia.org. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15.
  8. ^ BBC News (December 7, 2000). "Yeltsin attacks Putin over anthem". EUROPE. bbc.co.uk. United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation.
  9. ^ "Звезда "Парнаса". Как саратовский видеоблогер скрестил либералов с националистами". Спектр. 2016-08-31.
  10. ^ Поднятие флага [Raising the flag]. Легион "Свобода России". 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 21 December 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022 – via YouTube.
  11. ^ "Организаторы женского МЧМ по хоккею извинились за ошибку с гимном РФ" (in Russian). РИА «Новости». 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  12. ^ Video on YouTube
  13. ^ "В США во время награждения Власова включили старый гимн России" (in Russian). Интерфакс. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  14. ^ Владислав Усачев (2015-09-08). "Организаторы дважды перепутали гимн России во время награждения гимнастки Маргариты Мамун" (in Russian). Советский спорт. Archived from the original on 2015-09-11. Retrieved 2015-09-11. Организаторы включили не ту мелодию дважды, после чего трибуны запели гимн России а капелла под бурные аплодисменты. Мамун поблагодарила трибуны за поддержку.
  15. ^ СБР: вместо гимна на награждении ЧМ прозвучала «Патриотическая песня» Глинки