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A patrol boat (also referred to as a patrol craft, patrol ship or patrol vessel) is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence, border protection, immigration law-enforcement, search and rescue duties. There have been many designs for patrol boats. They may be operated by a nation's navy, coast guard, police force or customs and may be intended for marine ("blue water") or estuarine ("green water") or river ("brown water") environments. They are commonly found engaged in various border protection roles, including anti-smuggling, anti-piracy, fisheries patrols, and immigration law enforcement. They are also often called upon to participate in rescue operations.

Classification

They may be broadly classified as inshore patrol vessels (IPVs) and offshore patrol vessels (OPVs). They are warships typically smaller in size than a corvette and can include fast attack craft, torpedo boats and missile boats, although some are as large as a frigate. The offshore patrol vessels are usually the smallest ship in a navy's fleet that is large and seaworthy enough to patrol off-shore in the open ocean. Smaller inshore patrol vessels also known as coastal patrol craft or coastal patrol boats. Riverine patrol craft are used for patrol river area. In larger militaries, such as in the United States military, offshore patrol vessels usually serve in the coast guard, but many smaller nations' navies operate these type of ships.

History

PCE-872, a World War II patrol craft escort of the U.S. Navy
PCE-872, a World War II patrol craft escort of the U.S. Navy

During both World Wars in order to rapidly build up numbers, all sides created auxiliary patrol boats by arming motorboats and seagoing fishing trawlers with machine guns and obsolescent naval weapons. Some modern patrol vessels are still based on fishing and leisure boats. Seagoing patrol boats are typically around 30 m (100 ft) in length and usually carry a single medium caliber artillery gun as main armament, and a variety of lighter secondary armament such as machine guns or a close-in weapon system. Depending on role, vessels in this class may also have more sophisticated sensors and fire control systems that would enable them to carry torpedoes, anti-ship and surface-to-air missiles.

Most modern designs are powered by gas turbine arrangements such as CODAG, and speeds are generally in the 25–30 knots (46–56 km/h; 29–35 mph) range. They are primarily used for patrol in a country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Common tasks are fisheries inspection, anti-smuggling (usually anti-narcotics) duties, illegal immigration patrols, anti-piracy patrols and search and rescue (law enforcement-type of work). The largest OPVs might also have a flight deck and helicopter embarked. In times of crisis or war, these vessels are expected to support the larger vessels in the navy.

Their small size and relatively low cost make them one of the most common type of warship in the world. Almost all navies operate at least a few offshore patrol vessels, especially those with only "green water" capabilities. They are useful in smaller seas such as the North Sea as well as in open oceans. Similar vessels for exclusively military duties include torpedo boats and missile boats. The United States Navy operated the Pegasus class of armed hydrofoils for years, in a patrol boat role. The River Patrol Boat (PBR, sometimes called "Riverine" and "Pibber") is a U.S. design of small patrol boat type designed to patrol waters of large rivers.

Specific nations

Albania

Iliria, an example of a modern Patrol boat of the Albanian Naval Force
Iliria, an example of a modern Patrol boat of the Albanian Naval Force

Albanian Naval Force

Argentina

Argentine Naval Prefecture's GC67 patrol vessel
Argentine Naval Prefecture's GC67 patrol vessel

Argentine Naval Prefecture

Australia

Royal Australian Navy

HMAS Armidale of the Royal Australian Navy
HMAS Armidale of the Royal Australian Navy

Australian Border Force Marine Unit

Others

Bahamas

Royal Bahamas Defence Force

Others

Bangladesh

The Bangladesh Navy classified its medium size patrol ships as large patrol craft (LPC) which are armed with either anti-ship missiles or torpedoes. Those ships typically have heavier armaments but less range than OPVs.[1][2]

BNS Nirmul, AShM armed Durjoy-class LPC of the Bangladesh Navy

Bangladesh Navy

Large patrol craft
Offshore patrol vessel
Inshore patrol vessel
ASW patrol boat
Patrol gunboat

Bangladesh Coast Guard

Leader Class OPVs of Bangladesh Coast Guard
Offshore patrol vessel
Inshore patrol vessel
Fast patrol vessel
Coastal patrol vessel
Riverine patrol craft

Border Guard Bangladesh

Patrol vessel

Belgium

Brazil

Brunei

Bulgaria

Canada

PTC Orca, an Orca-class patrol boat of the Royal Canadian Navy
PTC Orca, an Orca-class patrol boat of the Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

Canadian Coast Guard

Chile

China (PRC)

People's Liberation Army Navy

China Coast Guard

Colombia

ARC Juan Ricardo Oyola Vera PAV-IV class patrol boat of the Colombian National Navy
ARC Juan Ricardo Oyola Vera PAV-IV class patrol boat of the Colombian National Navy

Colombian Navy

Croatia

Denmark

HDMS Støren (P555), a Flyvefisken-class patrol vessel with the Royal Danish Navy

Royal Danish Navy

Eritrea

Eritrean Navy

Others

Finland

Kurki (51), a Kiisla-class patrol boat with the Finnish Navy
Kurki (51), a Kiisla-class patrol boat with the Finnish Navy

Finnish Navy

Finnish Border Guard

France

Maritime Gendarmerie Vedette class patrol boat
Maritime Gendarmerie Vedette class patrol boat

French Navy

Maritime Gendarmerie

Germany

New Bundespolizei offshore patrol vessel BP 81 Potsdam
New Bundespolizei offshore patrol vessel BP 81 Potsdam

Greece

Hellenic Navy HSY-56A Gunboat HS Aittitos, P-268
Hellenic Navy HSY-56A Gunboat HS Aittitos, P-268

Hellenic Navy

Hellenic Coast Guard

Hong Kong (SARPRC)

Sea Panther (PL 3), a Sea Panther-class large command boat with the Hong Kong Police Marine Unit
Sea Panther (PL 3), a Sea Panther-class large command boat with the Hong Kong Police Marine Unit

Hong Kong Police Force

Iceland

Icelandic Coast Guard

India

The Indian Coast Guard's offshore patrol vessel ICGS Samarth at sea.
The Indian Coast Guard's offshore patrol vessel ICGS Samarth at sea.
INS Sunayna (P57) returns to Kochi post an 80 day anti piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden
INS Sunayna (P57) returns to Kochi post an 80 day anti piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden

Indian Navy

Indian Coast Guard

Indonesia

Main article: Indonesian Maritime Security Agency § Equipment

KN Tanjung Datu (110) of the Indonesian Maritime Security Agency
KN Tanjung Datu (110) of the Indonesian Maritime Security Agency

Ireland

Irish Naval Service Large Patrol Vessel (LPV) LÉ Niamh
Irish Naval Service Large Patrol Vessel (LPV) LÉ Niamh

Irish Naval Service

List of INS vessels;[11]

Israel

Slovenian Navy HPL-21, an example of the Israeli-made Super Dvora Mk II-class patrol boat also in service with the Israeli Navy
Slovenian Navy HPL-21, an example of the Israeli-made Super Dvora Mk II-class patrol boat also in service with the Israeli Navy

Italy

Italian Navy Comandanti-class Cigala Fulgosi
Italian Navy Comandanti-class Cigala Fulgosi
Italian Coast Guard patrol boat U. Diciotti, CP-902
Italian Coast Guard patrol boat U. Diciotti, CP-902

Japan

Shikishima (Japan Coast Guard), the largest patrol boat in the world
Shikishima (Japan Coast Guard), the largest patrol boat in the world
Japan Coast Guard "Hida" (PL51)
Japan Coast Guard "Hida" (PL51)

Latvia

Malaysia

Malta

Protector class patrol boat P52 of the Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta.
Protector class patrol boat P52 of the Maritime Squadron of the Armed Forces of Malta.

Mexico

ARM Oaxaca, lead boat of the Oaxaca-class.
ARM Oaxaca, lead boat of the Oaxaca-class.
Durango-class offshore patrol vessels in formation.
Durango-class offshore patrol vessels in formation.

Mexican Navy

Montenegro

Kotor class frigate of the Montenegrin Navy
Kotor class frigate of the Montenegrin Navy

Morocco

Royal Moroccan NavyOPV-70

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Royal Norwegian Navy

Norwegian Coast Guard

NoCGV Tor (W334 KYSTVAKT) from Nornen Class of the Norwegian Coast Guard
NoCGV Tor (W334 KYSTVAKT) from Nornen Class of the Norwegian Coast Guard

Peru

Philippines

Philippine Navy

Del Pilar-class offshore patrol vessel , Philippine Navy
Del Pilar-class offshore patrol vessel , Philippine Navy
Jacinto-class patrol vessel , Philippine Navy
Jacinto-class patrol vessel , Philippine Navy

Philippine Coast Guard

Gabriela Silang-class offshore patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
Gabriela Silang-class offshore patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
San Juan-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
San Juan-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
Ilocos Norte-class patrol boat, Philippine Coast Guard
Ilocos Norte-class patrol boat, Philippine Coast Guard
Parola-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard
Parola-class patrol vessel, Philippine Coast Guard

Portugal

NRP Viana do Castelo, offshore patrol vessel of the Portuguese Navy
NRP Viana do Castelo, offshore patrol vessel of the Portuguese Navy

Portuguese Navy

National Republican Guard

Qatar

Qatari Emiri Navy

Romania

Russia

Russian Coast Guard Rubin class patrol boat Zhemchug on the Almaz Shipbuilding Company
Russian Coast Guard Rubin class patrol boat Zhemchug on the Almaz Shipbuilding Company

Senegal

Fouladou, OPV 190 from Senegalese navy
Fouladou, OPV 190 from Senegalese navy

Singapore

Police Coast Guard third generation PT Class Flower Ray(PT65),conducting a sea-rescue demonstration
Police Coast Guard third generation PT Class Flower Ray(PT65),conducting a sea-rescue demonstration

Slovenia

South Africa

An Israeli Sa'ar 4-class missile boat, called the Warrior-class strike craft in the South African Navy

South Korea (ROK)

Spain

Meteoro (P-41)
Meteoro (P-41)

Sri Lanka

Suriname

Sweden

HSwMS Stockholm (PC-11), a Stockholm-class corvette with the Royal Swedish Navy
HSwMS Stockholm (PC-11), a Stockholm-class corvette with the Royal Swedish Navy

Additionally, the Royal Swedish Navy also operates smaller types of patrol boats (Swedish: bevakningsbåt = "guard boat"):

The Swedish Coast Guard operate an additional 22 patrol vessels for maritime surveillance.

Thailand

Turkey

Turkish TCG Karabiga (P-1205), one of the Tuzla-class patrol boats
Turkish TCG Karabiga (P-1205), one of the Tuzla-class patrol boats

Turkish Naval Forces

Coast Guard Command

United Kingdom

Two River class offshore patrol vessels of the Royal Navy
Two River class offshore patrol vessels of the Royal Navy

United States

United States Navy

See also: List of patrol vessels of the United States Navy

USS Firebolt (PC-10), a United States Navy Cyclone-class patrol ship

United States Coast Guard

See also: List of equipment of the United States Coast Guard § Watercraft

Venezuela

Naiguatá during sea trials
Naiguatá during sea trials

Vietnam

References

  1. ^ "BANGLADESH AND ASIA'S MARITIME BALANCE". Center for International Maritime Security. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Tender specifications for construction of 02 X Large Patrol Craft (LPC) in local shipyard for BN" (PDF). Directorate General of Defence Purchase. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  3. ^ "BDR-Shahjalal – Patrol Vessel – Details and current position IMO 8106472 MMSI 0 | Vessels | VesselFinder". www.vesselfinder.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  4. ^ "Brazil getting armored vehicles, boats". Space War. Space Media Network. UPI. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2017. The first-of-class Amazonas was constructed at BAE Systems' Portsmouth facility.
  5. ^ "Offshore Patrol Vessels". BAE Systems. n.d. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. We are supplying three Ocean Patrol Vessels and ancillary support services to the Brazilian Navy, as well as a manufacturing licence to enable further vessels of the same class to be constructed in Brazil. P120 Amazonas, P121 Apa and P122 Araguari
  6. ^ OOB-31 “Omiš” predan u ruke OS RH (in Croatian)
  7. ^ "Gunboats Class Osprey 55". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  8. ^ "Gunboats Class Osprey HSY-55". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  9. ^ "Gunboats Class Asheville". Hellenic Navy. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  10. ^ E.A. Pagotsis (2009). G. Christogiannakis (ed.). Hellenic Defence Report 2009-2010 (Yearbook of the magazine Hellenic Defence & Security). Athens: Line Defence Publications Ltd. p. 81.
  11. ^ "Naval Service - Defence Forces". www.military.ie.