Saint Matthew the Apostle, depicted with an angel, is the patron saint of Salerno, Italy, bankers, and tax collectors.
Saint Matthew the Apostle, depicted with an angel, is the patron saint of Salerno, Italy, bankers, and tax collectors.
A branch of Saint Honore Cake Shop, a Hong Kong chain bakery, in Hong Kong. Saint Honorius (Honoré) is the patron saint of bakers and confectioners.
A branch of Saint Honore Cake Shop, a Hong Kong chain bakery, in Hong Kong. Saint Honorius (Honoré) is the patron saint of bakers and confectioners.

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person.[1][2]

In Christianity

Saints often become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making them the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines, Spanish and Portuguese explorers often named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration day they first visited the place, with that saint naturally becoming the area's patron.[citation needed]

Occupations sometimes have a patron saint who had been connected somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession. For example, when the previously unknown occupation of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat.[3][4][5]

The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and among some Lutherans and Anglicans. According to the Catholic catechism a person's patron saint, having already attained the beatific vision, is able to intercede with God for their needs.[6]

It is, however, generally discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry.[7]

Catholicism

A canonized saint can be assigned as patron by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election. The saint is considered a special intercessor with God and the proper advocate of a particular locality, occupation, etc., and merits a special form of religious observance. A term in some ways comparable is "titular", which is applicable only to a church or institution.[8]

In Islam

Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has nevertheless been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic traditions that particularly important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, nations, cities, towns, and villages.[9] Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."[9]: 119  As the veneration accorded saints often develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different from Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are often recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration.[9] Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein.[9]

However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints (as patron or otherwise), which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk.[9] More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century.[10] The critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence.[9]

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, certain sects may devote themselves to the veneration of a saint, such as the Balmiki sect that reveres Valmiki.[11]

In Buddhism

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva (/ˌbdˈsʌtvə/ BOH-dee-SUT-və; Sanskrit: 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑀺𑀲𑀢𑁆𑀢𑁆𑀯 (Brahmī), romanizedbodhisattva)[12] or bodhisatva is a person who is on the path towards bodhi ('awakening') or Buddhahood.[13]

In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.[14] Mahayana bodhisattvas are spiritually heroic persons that work to attain awakening and are driven by a great compassion (mahakaruṇā). These beings are exemplified by important spiritual qualities such as the "four divine abodes" (brahmaviharas) of loving-kindness (metta), compassion (karuṇā), empathetic joy (mudita) and equanimity (upekkha) as well as the various bodhisattva "perfections" (pāramitās) which include prajñāpāramitā ("transcendent knowledge" or "perfection of wisdom") and skillful means (upaya).[15][16][17]

In Theravada Buddhism, the bodhisattva is mainly seen as an exceptional and rare individual. Only a few select individuals are ultimately able to become bodhisattvas (such as Maitreya). Mahayana Buddhism generally understands the bodhisattva path as being open to everyone and Mahayanists encourage all individuals to become bodhisattvas.[18][19] Spiritually advanced bodhisattvas such as Avalokiteshvara, Maitreya and Manjushri are also widely venerated across the Mahayana Buddhist world and are believed to possess great magical power which they employ to help all living beings.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Slocum, Robert Boak; Armentrout, Donald S. (2000). "Patronal Feast". An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User-Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing, Inc. p. 390. ISBN 0-89869-211-3.
  2. ^ "patron saint". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. p. 1290. ISBN 0-618-70172-9.
  3. ^ C.W.G.; R.G. (11 September 1852). "St. Veronica (Vol. vi., p.199)". Notes and Queries. London. 6 (150): 252.
  4. ^ "Archaeological Intelligence". The Archaeological Journal. 7: 413. 1850. doi:10.1080/00665983.1850.10850808.
  5. ^ Butler, Alban (2000). "St. Veronica (First Century)". In Doyle, Peter (ed.). Lives of the Saints: July (New full ed.). Tunbridge Wells: Burns & Oates. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0-86012-256-5. OCLC 877793679 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Gibson, Henry (1882). "Twenty-Fifth Instruction". Catechism Made Easy: Being a Familiar Explanation of the Catechism of Christian Doctrine (No. 2). Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). London: Burns and Oates. p. 310 – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ Duke, A.C.; Lewis, Gillian; Pettegree, Andrew, eds. (1992). "Managing a country parish: A country pastor's advice to his successor". Calvinism in Europe, 1540–1610: A Collection of Documents. p. 53. ISBN 0-7190-3552-X. OCLC 429210690.
  8. ^ Knight, Kevin (2020). "Patron Saints". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Lings, Martin (2005) [1983]. What is Sufism?. Lahore: Suhail Academy. pp. 119–120 etc.
  10. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 59. Abd al-Latif, who would become the next supreme religious leader ... enumerated the harmful views that Ibn Jirjis openly espoused in Unayza: Supplicating the dead is not a form of worship but merely calling out to them, so it is permitted. Worship at graves is not idolatry unless the supplicant believes that buried saints have the power to determine the course of events. Whoever declares that there is no god but God and prays toward Mecca is a believer.
  11. ^ Kananaikil, Jose (1983). Scheduled Castes and the Struggle Against Inequality: Strategies to Empower the Marginalised. Indian Social Institute. p. 17.
  12. ^ "Bodhisattva". Collins English Dictionary.
  13. ^ Skilling, Peter (2021). Questioning the Buddha: A Selection of Twenty-Five Sutras, Introduction, Simon and Schuster.
  14. ^ The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, page 1, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  15. ^ Flanagan, Owen (12 August 2011). The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism Naturalized. MIT Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-262-29723-3.
  16. ^ Pye, Michael (1978). Skillful Means – A concept in Mahayana Buddhism. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-7156-1266-2
  17. ^ Williams, Paul (2008). Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, pp. 50–51. Routledge.
  18. ^ Samuels, Jeffrey (July 1997). "The Bodhisattva Ideal in Theravāda Buddhist Theory and Practice: A Reevaluation of the Bodhisattva-Śrāvaka Opposition". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 47 (3): 399–415. doi:10.2307/1399912. JSTOR 1399912.
  19. ^ Skorupski, Tadeusz. The Historical Spectrum of the Bodhisattva Ideal. The Middle Way. Journal of the Buddhist Society. August 2000. Vol. 75, No.2, 95–106.
  20. ^ Williams 2008, pp. 220–221