Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir includes confidence-building measures at a nation-state level between the governments of India and Pakistan, track two diplomacy, as well as initiatives by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), institutes and individuals.[1][2] The purpose of peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir include conflict prevention and reduction of hostilities in the Kashmir Valley. Many countries such as Russia, United States and China have also played a deescalatory role with regard to tensions in the region.[3][4][5]

Background

In 27 years, between 1990 and 2017, insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir has claimed a total of 41,000 lives (14,000 civilians, 5,000 security personnel and 22,000 militants) according to government figures made available in 2017.[6] India and Pakistan have also fought three wars in Kashmir during 1947–1948, 1965 and the Kargil War in 1999.[7][8][9]

List of initiatives

Indian central and state government initiatives

Indo-Pakistani initiatives in relation to Kashmir

Other

Commentary

References

  1. ^ a b Chari, P. R.; Chandran, D. Suba; Akhtar, Shaheen (July 2011). "Tourism and Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). United States Institute for Peace. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Track-2 diplomacy on Kashmir under way". DAWN. 24 June 2004. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  3. ^ Parthasarathy, G. (19 September 2019). "India, too, has an all-weather friend". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 29 November 2019. Lavrov, in response, “emphasised the need for de-escalation of tensions”.
  4. ^ a b "China's Kashmir Policies and Crisis Management in South Asia". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  5. ^ PTI (14 September 2019). "US senators urge India and Pakistan to 'de-escalate tensions' on J&K issue". Livemint. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  6. ^ Jacob, Jayanth; Naqshbandi, Aurangzeb (25 September 2017). "41,000 deaths in 27 years: The anatomy of Kashmir militancy in numbers". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Indo-Pakistan War of 1965". Global Security. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Kargil War: All you need to know about Kargil War". The Economic Times. 26 July 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  9. ^ "A brief history of the Kashmir conflict". The Telegraph. 24 September 2001. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  10. ^ a b Behera, Navnita Chadha (2013). "Conflict, governance and peacebuilding in Kashmir – PRIO". Peace Research Institute Oslo. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  11. ^ Vinayak, Ramesh (9 December 2001). "PDP's healing touch policy on firing line as Jammu attacks put Congress on defensive". India Today. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  12. ^ Yusuf, Shabir Ibn (7 January 2016). "Mufti's 'healing touch' policy changed JK's security scenario". Greater Kashmir. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  13. ^ PTI (8 June 2008). "Vajpayee, Advani endorsed PDP's healing touch policy: Mufti". Outlook India. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  14. ^ Outlook Monitoring Bureau (25 January 2018). "Jammu & Kashmir CM Says She Will Describes Withdrawal Of FIRs Against 9700 Youths As Major Humanitarian Gesture". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  15. ^ "J&K govt okays withdrawal of stone-pelting cases against 9,730 people". The Times of India. PTI. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  16. ^ PTI (31 March 2015). "Bharatiya Janata Party demands scrapping of 'surrender, rehabilitation policy'". The Financial Express. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  17. ^ Mushtaq, Sheikh (16 May 2011). "Are Kashmiri militants ready to return home from Pakistan?". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Ladakh Hill Council gets more fiscal, administrative powers". Greater Kashmir. 27 September 2018.
  19. ^ Dr. Arpita Anant. (2011) Counterinsurgency and "Op Sadhbhavana" in Jammu and Kashmir. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses New Delhi.
  20. ^ a b c d "Steps Towards Peace: Putting Kashmiris First" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 3 June 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  21. ^ Mughal, Roshan (16 April 2011). "Intra-Kashmir bus service completes six years". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  22. ^ PTI (3 May 2006). "Poonch-Rawalkot bus service from June 19". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  23. ^ PTI (3 August 2017). "Cross-LoC travel and trade to resume on Srinagar-Muzzaffarabad route". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  24. ^ a b Shreyas, Ananth (7 May 2018). "Neemrana dialogue: India-Pakistan Track II initiative dialogue, just another case of optics?". The Financial Express. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  25. ^ Hussain, Sajjad (2 May 2018). "India, Pakistan Revive Track II Diplomacy". The Wire. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  26. ^ Mohan, Geeta (2 May 2018). "Re-start of India-Pakistan track II dialogue a 'political message', say sources". India Today. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  27. ^ Banerjee, Paula (2008). Women in Peace Politics. Delhi: SAGE Publications India. p. 65. ISBN 9788178299686.
  28. ^ "Ashima Kaul". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown University. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Echoes and Resonances: Critical Challenges for Youth and Peace Building in Kashmir". Women in Security, Conflict Management and Peace. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  30. ^ "WISCOMP Saahas Awards Honour Youth Countering Violence Against Women". NDTV. Edited by Shihabudeen Kunju S. 16 March 2017. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  31. ^ "Yakjah Reconciliation and Development Network". Peace Insight. December 2018. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  32. ^ "About Us". HELP (Human Effort for Love and Peace) Foundation J&K. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  33. ^ "Centre for Dialogue and Reconciliation (CDR)". Peace Insight. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  34. ^ Jacob, Happymon (23 June 2019). "Understanding Kashmir: Civil Initiatives for Dialogue and Peace". The Wire. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  35. ^ Schaffer, Teresita; Schaffer, Howard (17 January 2006). "Kashmir: The Economics of Peace-Building". Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  36. ^ Sarwar, Eaman (Spring 2017). "Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir State: A Proposed Intervention" (PDF). Perspectives on Global Issues, Center of Global Affairs at New York University. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir". Widows for Peace through Democracy. 1 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  38. ^ Giri, Mohini (17 September 2014). "Panel-Statement, UN Human Rights Council Session 27" (PDF). Widows for Peace. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  39. ^ Singh, Pratibha (May 2013). "Education and Peace Building in Kashmir" (PDF). Centre for Land and Warfare Studies (CLAWS). Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  40. ^ Raju, A Subramanyam (April 2001). Third-Generation Indian Perceptions of the Kashmir Issue (PDF). Colombo, Sri Lanka: Regional Centre for Strategic Studies. ISBN 9558051209.
  41. ^ Chauhan, Vinay; Khanna, Suvidha (May 2008). "Tourism: A Tool for Crafting Peace Process in Kashmir, J&K, India" (PDF). Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism. 4 (2, Autumn 2009): 69–89 – via Munich Personal RePEc Archive.

Bibliography

Further reading