|Preferred IUPAC name
Hercules P 6
Hercules Aqualon improved technical PE-200
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Melting point||260.5 °C (500.9 °F; 533.6 K)|
|Boiling point||276 °C (529 °F; 549 K) at 30 mmHg|
|5.6 g/100 mL at 15 °C|
|Solubility||Soluble in methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, formamide; insoluble in acetone, benzene, paraffin, ether, CCl4|
|Vapor pressure||0.00000008 mmHg (20°C)|
|Flash point||200.1 °C (392.2 °F; 473.2 K)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
|TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Neopentane, Neopentyl alcohol, Neopentyl glycol, Trimethylolethane|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Pentaerythritol is an organic compound with the formula C(CH2OH)4. Classified as a polyol, it is a white solid. Pentaerythritol is a building block for the synthesis and production of explosives, plastics, paints, appliances, cosmetics, and many other commercial products.
The word pentaerythritol is a blend of penta- in reference to its 5 carbon atoms and erythritol, which also possesses 4 alcohol groups.
Pentaerythritol was first reported in 1891 by German chemist Bernhard Tollens and his student P. Wigand. It may be prepared via a base-catalyzed multiple-addition reaction between acetaldehyde and 3 equivalents of formaldehyde to give pentaerythrose (CAS: 3818-32-4), followed by a Cannizzaro reaction with a fourth equivalent of formaldehyde to give the final product.
Pentaerythritol is a versatile building block for the preparation of many polyfunctionalized compounds. Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkyd resins, varnishes, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, tall oil esters, antioxidants (e.g. Anox 20). It can be found in transformer oil, plastics, paints, cosmetics, and many other applications.
Pentaerythritol is a precursor to esters of the type C(CH2OX)4. One such derivative is pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), a vasodilator and explosive. The trinitrate derivative is called pentrinitrol (Petrin). The tetraacetate is called normosterol (PAG). The polymer cross-linking agent pentaerythritol tetraacrylate.
Pentaerythritol is used as a fire retardant, such as in plastics. It produces a thick carbon barrier upon heating, protecting the surface substrate.
Pentaerythritol is one of the most common main active components in intumescent paints and coatings. It acts as a carbon donor and together with an acid donor, most commonly ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and a blowing agent, most commonly melamine.