Perejil Island crisis
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Perejil Island at far left, near Ceuta
Date11–18 July 2002
Location35°54′50″N 5°25′08″W / 35.91389°N 5.41889°W / 35.91389; -5.41889Coordinates: 35°54′50″N 5°25′08″W / 35.91389°N 5.41889°W / 35.91389; -5.41889
Result Status quo ante bellum[1]
Belligerents
 Spain  Morocco
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
 Spanish Navy
 Spanish Air and Space Force
GOE
Spanish Legion
Civil Guard
Morocco Royal Navy
Auxiliary Forces
Strength
48 soldiers
6 marines[2]
Casualties and losses
1 wounded 6 captured
(released on the same day)

The Perejil Island crisis (Spanish: Incidente de la Isla de Perejil; Arabic: أزمة جزيرة تورة) was a bloodless armed conflict between Spain and Morocco that took place on 11–18 July 2002. The incident took place over the small, uninhabited Perejil Island, when a squad of the Royal Moroccan Navy occupied it. After an exchange of declarations between both countries, the Spanish troops eventually evicted the Moroccan infantry who had relieved their Navy comrades.

Background

Perejil Island (Spanish: Isla de Perejil, Arabic: تورة, romanizedTūra) is a small rocky island under disputed sovereignty and about the size of 15 football fields, lying 250 metres (270 yd) from Morocco, and 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the Spanish city of Ceuta, which borders Morocco, and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. The island itself is unpopulated, only seldom visited by Moroccan shepherds.

Moroccan seizure

Tensions rose on July 11, 2002, when Morocco occupied the island. Twelve soldiers of the Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie landed on the island, equipped with light arms, a radio, and several tents. The soldiers raised their nation's flag and set up camp. A patrol boat of the Spanish Civil Guard, in charge of coast guard service in Spain, approached the island from Ceuta during its routine check, when the crew spotted the Moroccan flag flying. The officers disembarked to investigate the issue. When they landed on the island, they were confronted by the Moroccan soldiers, who forced them back into their boat at gunpoint after a bitter argument.[3][4][5]

Morocco claimed that the occupation was carried out in order to monitor illegal immigration, and to fight drug dealers and smugglers who use the island as a logistic platform.[6][7] Following protests and calls to the return of the status quo from the Spanish government, the soldiers were called off, but were replaced by six Moroccan marines, who set up a fixed base on the island, which drew further protests from Spain. A Moroccan patrol boat was also deployed to the area, and was seen carrying out maneuvers near the Chafarinas Islands. Spain reacted by deploying a frigate, three corvettes, and a submarine to Ceuta and Melilla, and three patrol boats to the vicinity of Perejil island, stationing them about a mile off the island. Reinforcements were also sent to isolated Spanish outposts in the area.[8][9]

Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar warned Morocco that Spain would not accept a policy of fait accompli.[10]

Operation Romeo-Sierra

On the morning of July 18, 2002, Spain launched Operation Romeo-Sierra to remove the Moroccan soldiers. The operation was carried out by Spanish special forces unit Grupo de Operaciones Especiales. Four Eurocopter Cougar helicopters that had taken off from Facinas landed 28 Spanish commandos on the island.[11][12] The entire operation was coordinated by the Spanish Navy from the amphibious ship Castilla, on station at the Strait of Gibraltar. The Spanish Air Force deployed F-18 and Mirage F-1 fighters to provide air cover in case the Royal Moroccan Air Force attempted to intervene.[13] The Spanish patrol boats Izaro and Laya came alongside the Moroccan gunboat El Lahiq, at anchor off the island, in order to prevent it from interfering with the operation.[14] The boat's 20mm cannon was considered to be a significant threat by the Spanish forces.[15] The boat's crew prepared their weapons and used their spotlight to try to blind Spanish pilots but did not otherwise obstruct the landing.[16]

The Spanish forces were under orders to try to achieve their objective with zero casualties and their rules of engagement permitted them to use lethal force only if the Moroccans fired on them.[13] The Moroccan marines present on the island did not offer any resistance and rapidly surrendered. One of them took cover behind a rock and aimed his rifle at the Spanish but chose to surrender peacefully rather than fire.[16] Within a matter of minutes, all of six Moroccan servicemen were taken prisoner, and the island was secured. The prisoners were transported by helicopter to the headquarters of Civil Guard in Ceuta, from where they were transported to the Moroccan border. Over the course of the same day, the Spanish commandos on the island were replaced by soldiers of the Spanish Legion.

Aftermath

The Spanish Legion troops on the island remained there after the operation was complete. The United States mediated the situation, that eventually returned to the status quo ante bellum. All Spanish troops were withdrawn, and the island remains unoccupied but claimed by both sides. BBC News interviewed Spanish citizens across Madrid after the conflict, and most people supported this incursion. Opposition politician Gaspar Llamazares of the United Left party (former Communist Party) said that Spain should not fall into the "provocation trap", so that it does not ruin its image in North Africa.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tremlett, Giles (17 July 2002). "Spanish troops recapture Parsley island". Retrieved 14 August 2016 – via The Guardian.
  2. ^ Tremlett, Giles (13 July 2002). "Moroccans seize Parsley Island and leave a bitter taste in Spanish mouths". Retrieved 12 June 2017 – via The Guardian.
  3. ^ Giles Tremlett. "Moroccans seize Parsley Island and leave a bitter taste in Spanish mouths". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Spain removes Moroccan troops from Perejil". RTE.ie. 17 July 2002. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Telquel-Online.com". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  6. ^ Consiguen el pase de 10 toneladas de droga almacenadas en isla Perejil. El Faro de Ceuta journal Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ El Peridico de Catalunya. "El Periodico.com". Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  8. ^ Tremlett, Giles (13 July 2002). "Moroccans seize Parsley Island and leave a bitter taste in Spanish mouths". Retrieved 12 June 2017 – via The Guardian.
  9. ^ Writer, CIARAN GILES Associated Press. "Spanish react to Moroccan island occupation". napavalleyregister.com. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  10. ^ La Voz de Galicia. "Aznar advierte de que no aceptar una politica de hechos consumados en el conflicto del islote". Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  11. ^ Rabat, By Isambard Wilkinson in Ceuta and Philip Delves Broughton in. "Spanish armada retake Parsley Island". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  12. ^ imaginasetenil (2018-08-01). "Antonio Lebrón, el valiente militar setenileño que desembarcó el primero en Perejil". imaginaSetenil (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2019-08-04.
  13. ^ a b Jordán, Javier (2019-03-11). "The confrontation between Spain and Morocco over the islet of Perejil. A Reintepretation from the Countering Hybrid Threats Perspective". Global Strategy - Universidad de Granada (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  14. ^ "perejil". www.revistanaval.com. Retrieved 2015-10-17.
  15. ^ Koura, Chloe (2017-07-12). "Inside Story of Morocco and Spain's Battle For Uninhabited Island, 15 Years Later". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  16. ^ a b "La reconquista de Perejil como nunca se contó: hablan los 'héroes'". El Español (in European Spanish). 2017-07-09. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  17. ^ "PNV e IU critican la operación, mientras los demás grupos muestran su apoyo. Periodico ABC". ABC. Retrieved 29 November 2014.