Persian theater (Persian: تئاتر ایرانی) goes back to antiquity. The first initiation of theater and phenomena of acting can be traced in ceremonial theaters to glorify national heroes and legends and to humiliate the enemy, as in the classics "Soug Sivash" and "Mogh Koshi" (Megakhouni).[citation needed] Ancient Persian theatre and dance was significantly researched by the Greek historian Herodotus of Halikarnassos, who lived during the Persian rule in Greece. In his work Book IX (Calliope), he describes the history of Asian empires and also the Persian wars until 478 BC.[1]

Historical Persian theatre

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These are a few of the dramatic performing arts that became popularized in Iran in 7th century AD, long before the advent of cinema. A few examples include:


Iranian actor doing Naqqāli

Naqqāli is one of the oldest forms of the traditional Persian theatre. The Naqqāl is the performer and recounts stories in prose often accompanied by music, dance and decorative, painted scrolls. Both men and women can be Naqqāli performers and can perform with mixed-sex audiences, which is unusual in Iran.[2] The performer often wears simple costumes and a single piece of a historical but related costume, like one old piece of armour.[2] This art was formerly performed in coffeehouses, private houses and historical venues such as ancient caravanserais. A decline in the popularity of coffeehouses in Iran, and with new forms of entertainment, has resulted in diminishing interest in Naqqāli performance. The aging of master performers, (who are called morsheds) and the decreasing popularity among younger generations have caused a steep drop in the number of skilled Naqqāls, threatening the survival of this dramatic art. Naqqāli was included in 2011 to the UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in need of urgent safeguarding.[2] Other similar Iranian story-telling and performance traditions include Naghali, Pardeh-dari, Pardeh-khaani, Ghavali (minstrelsy), Shahnameh-khaani, Ta'zieh.[3]


Main article: Tazieh

Ta'zieh performance as theater in the round

Ta'zieh, also known as Tazieh, is a form of traditional, religious Persian theatre in which the drama is conveyed through music, narration, prose and singing. It is sometimes referred to as "condolence theater", inspired by a historical and religious event such as the Shi'i martyr plays. Ta'zieh dates from before the Islamic era. A common theme is the epic tragedy of Siavash in Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.[4] In Persian tradition, Ta'zieh and Parde-Khani are inspired by historical and religious events, and symbolize epic spirit and resistance. The common theme is hero tales of love, sacrifice, and resistance against evil. Ta'zieh resembles the European opera in many respects.[5]

Kheimeh shab bazi

Kheimeh-shab-bazi is the Persian traditional marionette puppetry which is performed in a small chambered tent.[6][7] The tent is open from one side only and there are two people involved in the performance: a musical performer and a person telling the story (called a morshed).[7][8] The dialogue is between morshed and the puppets. The method of performance, its characters and the techniques used in writing the puppet show make it unique and distinguish it from other types of puppetry.

A newer genre of Iranian puppetry, Shah Salim Bazi emerged during Qajar era.[7] Puppetry is still very common in contemporary Iran.

Siah-bazi, and ru howzi

A Siahbazi performing

Siah-bazi, also known as siyah-bazi is a type of Iranian folk performing art that features a blackface, mischievous and forthright harlequin that does improvisations to stir laughter.[9] The term siah-bazi literally translates to "playing black" and is a sketch in which two men dressed in red turbans, one has black face paint and they engage in a verbal duel which is often witty, political in nature and humorous.[10][11] The character with the black face takes on a clown-like role and tries to disgrace the master. Outwardly the master appears to be a respectable person but underneath he is immoral and not to be respected.[12] The blackface character is portrayed as a carnivalesque underdog of the working class and the audience can empathize with their struggle through humor.[13] Siah-bazi has been compared to American minstrel theater and has similar controversy.[13]

Ru Howzi is an improvised comical theatre act on domestic life.[14] It is similar to the Turkish folk theater Orta-oyunu [tr], and they are possibly historically linked.[14] Ru Howzi has no written texts and is practiced through rehearsals and oral traditions and as a result each troupe may have unique features to the performance.[14] The performances often involve shtick comic routines mimicking other languages/dialects, and physical or visual humor.[14]

Siah-bazi and ru howzi both have a blackface clown character and involve lewd jokes, but ru howzi is a social theatre that satirizes domestic life and is often performed at private Iranian residences on a stage over a pool of water that is often found in home courtyards. Siah-bazi is performed in more public places like theaters or coffee houses because of the political subject matter.[11]

The Iranian Revolution affected the tone and performance of Siah-bazi, and they edited away the sexual references, dancing and music. The performances continue only because of the acceptance of the standards of the Islamic Iranian Revolution.[12]

Pardeh dari, and pardeh khani

Pardeh dari was introduced around the Qajar-era, and is a screen-based storytelling act with painted images held by the performer as a narrative tool.[15][16] Similarly, pardeh khani is visual storytelling read off a screen on a wall, often a wall in a coffee house.[17] It is often found in connection to Ta'zieh theatre acts.[15][16] It required a lot of expense and preparation, therefore was more commonly seen in towns.[15] The storyteller is called a pardeh khan, and in the process of performing they would use a pointer to visually emphasize the story.[17] The imagery found in these types of performances can be separated into three categories, epic paintings (stories such as Shahnameh, the Death of Siyâvash, Rostam and Sohrab, among others), romantic paintings, and religious paintings.[17]

Contemporary Iranian theatre

The contemporary theatre seen today in Iran is largely derived from Western traditions of performance that developed during the twentieth century. The most influential among these are modernism, Theatre of the Absurd, the poor theater, and postmodernism. While contemporary Iranian theatre builds off these movements, modern theatre artists have created a unique, culturally-specific style of theatre that blends Western styles with traditional modes of Persian performance.[18]

At the start of the twentieth century, Iran's relationship with industrial nations fundamentally changed. With the global demand for fossil fuels growing rapidly, the 1909 discovery of oil in Abadan, Iran, made the nation's relationship with the West (particularly the United Kingdom, United States, and France) heightened to a state of mutual reliance.[19] These foreign nations developed close alliances with the Iranian monarchies, and cultural exchange flourished between Iran and Europe. Persian translations of plays by Shakespeare, Ibsen, and Chekhov, etc were the first taste of a Western theatrical aesthetic for much of the Iranian public, and this style of playwriting was very influential on Iran's earliest native playwrights.[20] Some of the prominent translators of theaterical works in Iran are Mirza Fatali Akhundzade, Dariush Mo'addabian, Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Reza Shirmarz, Hamid Samandarian, Sadreddin Zahed, Parwiz Sayyād, etc.

The 1960s was a time of great artistic and literary output in Iran, fueled by a new generation of Iranian writers, artists, and intellectuals.[21] A modern form of Iranian playwriting grew out of this movement, led by the luminaries Bahram Beyzai, Akbar Radi, Ali Nassirian, and Bijan Mofid. These playwrights found inspiration in the works of Samuel Beckett, Bertolt Brecht, Eugène Ionesco, and their contemporaries, although their work also builds on Persian styles such as puppetry, ru howzi, and naghali.[22]

The first Iranian school of theatre, Madrese-ye Ta'atr-i Shahrdari, was opened in 1939 by a collection of Iranian theatre artists, and other schools soon followed. In 1964, the Faculty of Dramatic Arts was established, which became the first institution of higher education in Iran to offer a diploma equivalent to a Bachelor's degree. In 1965, the University of Tehran created the Faculty of Theatre, which finally incorporated theatrical pedagogy within already existing Iranian universities.[18] The theatre program at the University of Tehran was particularly successful, and its influence can be seen throughout contemporary Iranian theatre-making. The Faculty of Theatre hired several U.S. drama professors to craft the program, with classes in acting, directing, theatre history, and design, and a focus on the Western dramatic cannon.

The university setting provided increased opportunities for theatrical experimentation, and out of this emerged a strong tradition of Iranian theatre direction. Hamid Samandarian, Ali Rafii, and Pari Saberi are among the most active and influential of this first generation of modern Iranian directors, and their theatre backgrounds all derive from a mixture of both experience and pedagogy within Iran and Europe.

After the Iranian Revolution (1979–present day)

Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the fate of this new modern theatre tradition became uncertain. Theatrical activity dramatically decreased during the devastating Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and aside from the occasional production, this burgeoning Iranian theatrical scene did not resurface until the 1990s.[12]

Theatre under the Islamic Republic of Iran is governed by the Dramatic Arts Center and its umbrella organization, the Vizarate Farhang va Irshade Islami (Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance). The government-controlled agency has been criticized for its censorship of artists and ideas that are believed to be "Anti-Islamic" or in opposition to the political loyalties of the Iranian government.[23] Nevertheless, Iranian theatre artists continue to navigate these regulations, and new works are flourishing, particularly in the capital city of Tehran.[24]

Among today's most popular Iranian playwrights and directors are Mohammad Charmshir, Naghmeh Samini, Hossein Nuri, Homayoun Ghanizadeh, and Zahra Sabri.

In modern times, Bahram Beyzai has made the most significant contribution in the historiography of Persian theatre with his seminal book, A Study on Iranian Theatre (1965).[25] Other works include Willem Floor's book, The History of Theater in Iran (2005),[26] and William O. Beeman's book, Iranian Performance Traditions (2011).[27]

Iranian diaspora theatre

The Darvag Theater Group was founded in 1984 in Berkeley, California by former Iranian student activists.[28] They have produced and staged plays in the English language and in Persian; including plays by non-Iranian playwrights.[28] Golden Thread Productions (also known as the Golden Thread Company) was founded in 1996 by Torange Yeghiazarian in the San Francisco, California, embracing the multiplicity of the Middle East including Iran.[28][29]

Silk Road Rising (formally Silk Road Theatre Project) was founded in 2003 in Chicago by Malik Gillani and Jamil Khoury.[30][31] Silk Road Rising presents work by playwrights from Asian and Middle Eastern descent including Iranian.

See also


  1. ^ Kiann, Nima (2000). "Persian Dance And Its Forgotten History". Nima Kiann. Les Ballets Persans. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  2. ^ a b c "Naqqāli, Iranian dramatic story-telling". UNESCO Culture Sector. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  3. ^ Talebi, Niloufar (July–August 2009). "Memory of a Phoenix Feather: Iranian Storytelling Traditions and Contemporary Theater". The Translation Project. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  4. ^ Jahandideh, Mitra; Khaefi, Shahab. "The Most Important Performing Arts Arisen from Shahnameh of Ferdowsi: "Shahnameh-khani and Naqqali of Shahnameh"". International Congress on Culture and Society. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  5. ^ Iranian performance of Beethoven's 9th Symphony (BBC Persian)
  6. ^ "Museum opens for traditional Iranian puppet show kheimeh shab-bazi". Tehran Times. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "Iran". World Encyclopedia of Puppetry Arts. Retrieved 12 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ Massoudi, Shiva (2009). ""Kheimeh Shab Bazi": Iranian Traditional Marionette Theatre". Asian Theatre Journal. 26 (2): 260–280. ISSN 0742-5457.
  9. ^ Fathali Beigi, Davood (16 January 2013). ""Siah-Bazi A Forbidden Play" Released". Iranian Book News Agency (IBNA). Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  10. ^ Taheri, Amir (19 April 2013). "Opinion: The "Cursed Three" and the "Supreme Leader"". Asharq Al-Awsat News. Asharq Al-Awsat News. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  11. ^ a b Armbrust, Walter (2000). Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East and Beyond. California: University of California Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 0520219260.
  12. ^ a b c Lazgee, Seyed Habiballah (February 1994). "Post-revolutionary Iranian Theatre: Three Representative Plays in Translation with Critical Commentary" (PDF). University of Leeds, School of English (Workshop Theatre). Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b Collective, Ajam Media (7 December 2016). "A Review of Tarabnameh, or, Why Are Iranian-Americans Laughing at Blackface in 2016?". Ajam Media Collective. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d Stanton, Sarah; Banham, Martin (7 March 1996). The Cambridge Paperback Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-44654-9.
  15. ^ a b c Flaskerud, Ingvild (2 December 2010). Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism. A&C Black. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1-4411-4907-7.
  16. ^ a b Khanjani, Ramin S. (2014). Animating Eroded Landscapes: The Cinema of Ali Hatami (in Arabic). H&S Media. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-1-78083-382-8.
  17. ^ a b c Malikpur, Jamshid; Malikʹpūr, Jamshīd; Malik-pūr, Ǧamšīd; Malik ́p ̄ur, Jamsh ̄id (2004). The Islamic Drama. Psychology Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-7146-5565-9.
  18. ^ a b Emami, Iraj (1987). The Evolution of Traditional Theatre and the Development of Modern Theatre in Iran. University of Edinburgh, dissertation.
  19. ^ "Abadan Oil Refinery's Role in Iran History".
  20. ^ Horri, Abbas (2003). The Influence of Translation on Shakespeare's Reception in Iran: Three Farsi Hamlets and Suggestions for a Fourth. Middlesex University, dissertation.
  21. ^ Malek Mohamadi, Nima (18 February 2015). "A Brief History of Iran's Modern Literature". British Council.
  22. ^ Lazgee, Seyed Habiballah (1994). Post-Revolutionary Iranian Theatre: Three Representative Plays in Translation with Critical Commentary. University of Leeds, dissertation.
  23. ^ Karimi-Hakak, Mahmood (Winter 2003). "Exiled to Freedom: A Memoir of Censorship in Iran". TDR. 47 (4): 17–50. doi:10.1162/105420403322764007. S2CID 57561470 – via JSTOR.
  24. ^ Yeghiazarian, Torange (Spring 2012). "Dramatic Defiance in Tehran: Reflections on a Society of Contradictions". TDR. 56 (1): 77–92. doi:10.1162/DRAM_a_00144. S2CID 57568199 – via JSTOR.
  25. ^ "DRAMA – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  26. ^ Floor, Willem M. (2005). The History of Theater in Iran. Mage Publishers. ISBN 0934211299 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ Beeman, William O. (2011). Bibliotheca Iranica, Iranian Performance Traditions. Mazda Publishers. ISBN 978-1568592169 – via Google Books.
  28. ^ a b c Najjar, Michael Malek (28 January 2021). Middle Eastern American Theatre: Communities, Cultures and Artists. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-350-11705-1.
  29. ^ "Five plays 'ReOrient' focus". The Mercury News. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  30. ^ "Theater director fights to reclaim his voice". WGN-TV. 24 November 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  31. ^ Greene, Morgan (15 June 2017). "Silk Road Rising announces 2017-18 season". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 16 February 2022.