Peshitta
9th-century manuscript
Full nameܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ mappaqtâ pšîṭtâ
Other namesPeshitta, Peshittâ, Pshitta, Pšittâ, Pshitto, Fshitto
OT published2nd century
NT published3rd-5th century [1]
Translation typeSyriac language
Religious affiliationSyriac Christianity
ܒܪܵܫܝܼܬܼ ܒ̣ܪܵܐ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܝܵܬ݂ ܫܡܲܝܵܐ ܘܝܵܬ݂ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܘܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܗ̣ܘܵܬ݂ ܬܘܿܗ ܘܒ݂ܘܿܗ ܘܚܸܫܘܿܟ݂ܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܐܲܦܲܝ̈ ܬܗܘܿܡܵܐ ܘܪܘܼܚܹܗ ܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܡܪܲܚܦܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܐܲܦܲܝ̈ ܡܲܝ̈ܵܐ ܘܐܸܡ̣ܲܪ݂ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ: ܢܸܗ̣ܘܸܐ ܢܘܼܗܪܵܐ ܘܲܗ̣ܘܵܐ ܢܘܼܗܪܵܐ
ܗܵܟ݂ܲܢܵܐ ܓܹܝܪ ܐܲܚܸܒ݂ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܠܥܵܠܡܵܐ ܐܲܝܟܲܢܵܐ ܕܠܲܒ݂ܪܸܗ ܝܼܚܝܼܕ݂ܵܝܵܐ ܢܸܬܸܠ ܕܟ݂ܿܠ ܡ̇ܲܢ ܕܲܡܗܲܝܡܸܢ ܒܸܗ ܠܵܐ ܢܹܐܒ݂ܲܕ݂ ܐܸܠܵܐ ܢܸܗܘܘܼܢ ܠܸܗ ܚܲܝܹ̈ܐ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ

The Peshitta (Classical Syriac: ܦܫܺܝܛܬܳܐ or ܦܫܝܼܛܬܵܐ pšīṭta) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition, including the Maronite Church,[2] the Chaldean Catholic Church,[3] the Syriac Catholic Church,[4] the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyoor Church), the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Syro-Malabar Church.

The consensus within biblical scholarship, although not universal, is that the Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from Biblical Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century CE, and that the New Testament of the Peshitta was translated from Koine Greek, probably in the early 5th century.[5][6] This New Testament, originally excluding certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become a standard by the early 5th century. The five excluded books were added in the Harklean Version (616 CE) of Thomas of Harqel.[7][8][9] The New Testament of the Peshitta often reflects the Byzantine text-type, although with some variations.[10][11]

Etymology

Peshitta is derived from the Syriac mappaqtâ pšîṭtâ (ܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ), literally meaning "simple version". However, it is also possible to translate pšîṭtâ as "common" (that is, for all people), or "straight", as well as the usual translation as "simple". Syriac is a dialect, or group of dialects, of Eastern Aramaic, originating around Edessa. It is written in the Syriac alphabet and is transliterated into the Latin script in a number of ways, generating different spellings of the name: Peshitta, Peshittâ, Pshitta, Pšittâ, Pshitto, Fshitto. All of these are acceptable, but Peshitta is the most conventional spelling in English.

Brief history

The Peshitta had from the 5th century onward a wide circulation in the Asia, and was accepted and honored by the whole diversity of sects of Syriac Christianity. It had a great missionary influence: the Armenian and Georgian versions, as well as the Arabic and the Persian, owe not a little to the Syriac. The Nestorian tablet of Chang'an shows the presence of the Syriac scriptures in China in the 8th century.

The Peshitta was first brought to Europe by Moses of Mardin, a noted Syrian ecclesiastic who unsuccessfully sought a patron for the work of printing it in Rome and Venice. However, he was successful in finding such a patron in the Imperial Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire at Vienna in 1555—Albert Widmanstadt. He undertook the printing of the New Testament, and the emperor bore the cost of the special types which had to be cast for its issue in Syriac. Immanuel Tremellius, the converted Jew whose scholarship was so valuable to the English reformers and divines, made use of it, and in 1569 issued a Syriac New Testament in Hebrew script. In 1645, the editio princeps of the Old Testament was published by Gabriel Sionita for the Paris Polyglot, and in 1657 the whole Peshitta was included in Walton's London Polyglot. An edition of the Peshitta was that of John Leusden and Karl Schaaf, and it is still quoted under the symbol "Syrschaaf", or "SyrSch".

New Testament

In a detailed examination of Matthew 1–14, Gwilliam found that the Peshitta agrees with the Textus Receptus only 108 times and with the Codex Vaticanus 65 times. Meanwhile, in 137 instances it differs from both, usually with the support of the Old Syriac and the Old Latin, and in 31 instances it stands alone.[12]

A statement by Eusebius that Hegesippus "made some quotations from the Gospel according to the Hebrews and from the Syriac Gospel," means we should have a reference to a Syriac New Testament as early as 160–180 CE, the time of that Hebrew Christian writer. The translation of the New Testament has been admired by Syriac scholars, who have deemed it "careful, faithful, and literal" with it sometimes being referred to as the "Queen of the versions".[13]

Critical edition of the New Testament

The standard United Bible Societies 1905 edition of the New Testament of the Peshitta was based on editions prepared by Syriacists Philip E. Pusey (d. 1880), George Gwilliam (d. 1914) and John Gwyn.[14] These editions comprised Gwilliam & Pusey's 1901 critical edition of the gospels, Gwilliam's critical edition of Acts, Gwilliam & Pinkerton's critical edition of Paul's Epistles and John Gwynn's critical edition of the General Epistles and later Revelation. This critical Peshitta text is based on a collation of more than seventy Peshitta and a few other Aramaic manuscripts. All 27 books of the common Western Canon of the New Testament are included in this British & Foreign Bible Society's 1905 Peshitta edition, as is the adultery pericope (John 7:53–8:11). The 1979 Syriac Bible, United Bible Society, uses the same text for its New Testament. The Online Bible reproduces the 1905 Syriac Peshitta NT in Hebrew characters.

Translations

English
Malayalam

Manuscripts

Although physical evidence has yet to be found, 18th-century Maronite Orientalist Giuseppe Assemani[15] stated in his Bibliotheca Orientalis that a Syriac Gospel dated 78 CE was found in Mesopotamia.[16][17][18]

The following manuscripts are in the British Archives:

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Peshitta | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2024-02-23.
  2. ^ Assemani, Maronite Light from the East for the Church and the World
  3. ^ Introduction To Bibliology: What Every Christian Should Know About the Origins, Composition, Inspiration, Interpretation, Canonicity, and Transmission of the Bible
  4. ^ Studia Humana Volume 2:3 (2013), pp. 53—55
  5. ^ Sebastian P. Brock The Bible in the Syriac Tradition St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 1988. Quote Page 13: "The Peshitta Old Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text, and the Peshitta New Testament directly from the original Greek"
  6. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (1977). The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations. Oxford University Press. p. 57–58. The hypothesis that the Peshitta version of the New Testament was made by or for Rabbula, bishop of Edessa, probably in the early years of his episcopate, which extended from A.D. 411 to 435 (...) The hypothesis of the Rabbulan authorship of the Peshitta New Testament soon came to be adopted by almost all scholars, being persuaded perhaps more by the confidence with which Burkitt propounded it than by any proof other than circumstantial evidence.
  7. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 976. ISBN 0-8028-3784-0. Printed editions of the Peshitta frequently contain these books in order to fill the gaps. D. Harklean Version. The Harklean version is connected with the labors of Thomas of Harqel. When thousands were fleeing Khosrou's invading armies, ...
  8. ^ Kiraz, George Anton (2002) [1996]. Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels: Aligning the Old Syriac Sinaiticus, Curetonianus, Peshitta and Harklean Versions (2nd ed.). Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
  9. ^ Kiraz, George Anton (2004) [1996]. Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels: Aligning the Old Syriac Sinaiticus, Curetonianus, Peshitta and Harklean Versions (3rd ed.). Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
  10. ^ Metzger, Bruce Manning (1977). The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations. New York; Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-19-826170-5.
  11. ^ Pickering, Wilbur N. (2012-04-16). Identity of the New Testament Text III. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62032-097-6.
  12. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations (Oxford University Press 1977), p. 50.
  13. ^ "Syriac Versions of the Bible, by Thomas Nicol". www.bible-researcher.com. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  14. ^ Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium: Subsidia Catholic University of America, 1987 "37 ff. The project was founded by Philip E. Pusey who started the collation work in 1872. However, he could not see it to completion since he died in 1880. Gwilliam,
  15. ^ "Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Bonn / De Scriptoribus Syris Monophysitis". digitale-sammlungen.ulb.uni-bonn.de. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
  16. ^ Michaelis, Johann David (1793). Introduction to the New Testament, tr., and augmented with notes (and a Dissertation on the origin and composition of the three first gospels) by H. Marsh. 4 vols. [in 6 pt.].
  17. ^ Norton, William (1889). A Translation, in English Daily Used, of the Peshito-Syriac Text, and of the Received Greek Text, of Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, and 1 John: With an Introduction on the Peshito-Syriac Text, and the Revised Greek Text of 1881. W.K. Bloom. This sacred book was finished on Wed., the 18th day of the month Conun, in the year 389.
  18. ^ Taylor, Robert; Smith, John Pye (1828). Syntagma of the evidences of the Christian religion. Being a vindication of the Manifesto of the Christian evidence society, against the assaults of the Christian instruction society through their deputy J.P.S. [in An answer to a printed paper entitled Manifesto &c.]. Repr. p. 32. This sacred book was finished on Wed., the 18th day of the month Conun, in the year 389.
  19. ^ Peers, Glenn, Review of Bernabò
  20. ^ Crawford, Gerrit (15 June 2012). "PhD". Why Again. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  21. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (1977). The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations. Oxford University Press. p. 50.
  22. ^ Wright (2002), William (1870). Catalogue of the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum. p. 49.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (1977). The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations. Oxford University Press. p. 51.
  24. ^ Wright (2002), William (1870). Catalogue of the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum. p. 45.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Wright (2002), William (1870). Catalogue of the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum. p. 67.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

Sources

  • Brock, Sebastian P. (2006) The Bible in the Syriac Tradition: English Version Gorgias Press LLC, ISBN 1-59333-300-5
  • Dirksen, P. B. (1993). La Peshitta dell'Antico Testamento, Brescia, ISBN 88-394-0494-5
  • Flesher, P. V. M. (ed.) (1998). Targum Studies Volume Two: Targum and Peshitta. Atlanta.
  • Lamsa, George M. (1933). The Holy Bible from Ancient Eastern Manuscripts. ISBN 0-06-064923-2.
  • Pinkerton, J. and R. Kilgour (1920). The New Testament in Syriac. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, Oxford University Press.
  • Pusey, Philip E. and G. H. Gwilliam (1901). Tetraevangelium Sanctum iuxta simplicem Syrorum versionem. Oxford University Press.
  • Weitzman, M. P. (1999). The Syriac Version of the Old Testament: An Introduction. ISBN 0-521-63288-9.
Attribution
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Nicol, Thomas. "Syriac Versions" in (1915) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Downloadable cleartext of English translations (Scripture.sf.net)