A platform game (often simplified as platformer and sometimes called a jump 'n' run game) is a sub-genre of action video games in which the core objective is to move the player character between points in an environment. Platform games are characterized by levels consisting of uneven terrain and suspended platforms of varying height that require jumping and climbing to traverse. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay, such as swinging from vines or grappling hooks, jumping off walls, air dashing, gliding through the air, being shot from cannons, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines.[1] Games where jumping is automated completely, such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre.

The genre began with the 1980 arcade video game, Space Panic, which includes ladders, but not jumping. Donkey Kong, released in 1981, established a template for what were initially called "climbing games." Donkey Kong inspired many clones and games with similar elements, such as Miner 2049'er (1982).

During the peak of platform games' popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, platform games were estimated to consist of between a quarter and a third of all console games,[2] but have since been supplanted by first-person shooters.[3] In 2006, the genre experienced a decline in popularity, representing a 2% market share as compared to 15% in 1998;[4] however, the genre still exists in the commercial environment, with a number of games selling in the millions of units.


A platform game requires the player to maneuver their character across platforms, to reach a goal, while confronting enemies and avoiding obstacles along the way. These games are either presented from the side view, using two-dimensional movement, or in 3D with the camera placed either behind the main character or in isometric perspective. Typical platforming gameplay tends to be very dynamic and challenges a player's reflexes, timing, and dexterity with controls.

The most common movement options in the genre are walking, running, jumping, attacking, and climbing. Jumping is central to the genre, though there are exceptions such as Nintendo's Popeye (1982). In some games, the trajectory of a jump is fixed, but others it can be altered in mid-air. Falling from considerable height often causes damage or death. Many platform games have environmental obstacles which kill the player character upon contact, such as lava pits or bottomless chasms.[5] Through the various areas of the game world, player may be able to collect items and powerups that can come in handy for different situations, and give the main character new abilities for overcoming adversities.

Most games of this genre consist of multiple levels of increasing difficulty, that may also be interleaved by boss encounters, where the character has to defeat a particularly dangerous enemy in order to progress. Usually the level order is pre-determined, but some games also allow players to navigate freely throughout the game world, or may feature different paths to take at certain points. Simple logical puzzles to resolve and skill trials to overcome are another common element in the genre.

A more modern variant of platform games (generally 3D scrolling), called "runners", have the main character always moving forward at high speed while the player must direct it properly to not make it fall or crash against obstacles, and manage to reach checkpoints on time. Due to the relative simplicity of the controls, this kind of games is best suited for mobile devices, and has become very popular in recent years.


Various names were used in the years following the release of the first established title in the genre, Donkey Kong (1981). Shigeru Miyamoto originally called Donkey Kong a "running/jumping/climbing game" while developing it.[6] Miyamoto commonly used the term "athletic game" to refer to Donkey Kong and later games in the genre, such as Super Mario Bros. (1985).[7][8]

Donkey Kong spawned a number of other games with a mix of running, jumping, and vertical traversal, a novel genre that did not match the style of games that came before it, leaving journalists and writers to offer their own terms.[9] Computer and Video Games magazine, among others, referred to the genre as "Donkey Kong-type" or "Kong-style" games.[9][10] "Climbing games" was used in Steve Bloom's 1982 book Video Invaders and 1983 magazines Electronic Games (US) and TV Gamer (UK).[11][12][13] Bloom defined "climbing games" as titles where the player "must climb from the bottom of the screen to the top while avoiding and/or destroying the obstacles and foes you invariably meet along the way." Under this definition, he listed Space Panic (1980), Donkey Kong, and Frogger (1981) as climbing games.[11]

In a December 1982 Creative Computing review of the Apple II game Beer Run, the reviewer used a different term: "I'm going to call this a ladder game, as in the 'ladder genre,' which includes Apple Panic and Donkey Kong."[14] The term "ladder game" was also used by Video Games Player magazine in 1983 when it awarded the Coleco port of Donkey Kong the "Ladder Game of the Year" award.[15]

Another term that was commonly used to refer to the genre was "character action games" during the late 1980s to 1990s, with the term used in reference to games such as Super Mario Bros,[16] Sonic the Hedgehog[17] and Bubsy.[18] However, the term was also applied more generally to side-scrolling video games, including run-and-gun shooters such as Gunstar Heroes.[19]

Platform game became a standard term in the late 1980s, popularized by its usage in the United Kingdom press.[20] By 1989, British magazines were using the term "platform" games to refer to the genre; examples include referring to the "Super Mario mould" (such as Kato-chan & Ken-chan) as platform games,[21] or calling Strider a "platform and ladders" game.[22]


Single-screen movement

This Donkey Kong (1981) level demonstrates jumping between platforms, the genre's defining trait.
This Donkey Kong (1981) level demonstrates jumping between platforms, the genre's defining trait.

Platform games originated in the early 1980s. Most early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field, generally viewed in profile, and were based on climbing mechanics between platforms rather than jumping.[5] Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release by Universal, is sometimes credited as the first platform game.[23] Another precursor to the genre from 1980 was Nichibutsu's Crazy Climber, in which the player character scales vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.[24]

Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July 1981, was the first game to allow players to jump over obstacles and gaps; it is widely considered to be the first platformer due to these defining features.[25][26] It introduced Mario under the name Jumpman. Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision,[27] and also a handheld version from Coleco in 1982.[28] The game helped cement Nintendo's position as an important name in the video game industry internationally.[29]

The following year, Donkey Kong received a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr. and later Mario Bros., a platform game with two-player cooperative play. It laid the groundwork for other two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble. Beginning in 1982, transitional games emerged that did not use scrolling graphics, but had levels that span several connected screens. David Crane's Pitfall! for the Atari 2600, with 256 horizontally connected screens, became one of the best-selling games on the system and was a breakthrough for the genre. Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens. Manic Miner (1983) and its sequel Jet Set Willy (1984) continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Wanted: Monty Mole won the first ever award for Best Platform game in 1984 from Crash magazine.[30] Later that same year, Epyx released Impossible Mission, and Parker Brothers released Montezuma's Revenge, which further expanded on the exploration aspect.

See also: Wraparound (video games) and Flip-screen

Scrolling movement

See also: Side-scrolling video game

Jump Bug (1981) introduced scrolling to the genre.
Jump Bug (1981) introduced scrolling to the genre.

The first platform game to use scrolling graphics came years before the genre became popular.[31] Jump Bug is a platform-shooter developed by Alpha Denshi under contract for Hoei/Coreland[32] and released to arcades in 1981, only five months after Donkey Kong.[33] Players control a bouncing car that jumps on various platforms such as buildings, clouds, and hills. Jump Bug offered a glimpse of what was to come, with uneven, suspended platforms and levels that scrolled horizontally and, in one section, vertically.[31][34]

Irem's 1982 arcade game Moon Patrol combines jumping over obstacles and shooting attackers. A month later, Taito released Jungle King, a side-scrolling action game with parallax scrolling and some platform elements: jumping between vines, jumping or running beneath bouncing boulders. It was quickly re-released as Jungle Hunt because of similarities to Tarzan.[35]

The 1982 Apple II game Track Attack includes a scrolling platform level where the character runs and leaps along the top of a moving train.[36] The character is little more than a stick figure, but the acrobatics evoke the movement that games such as Prince of Persia would feature. B.C.'s Quest For Tires was released by Sierra On-Line in 1983 on the ColecoVision and several home computers.[37] The game has large, side-scrolling levels and simple platform gameplay in which players jump over oncoming pitfalls and obstacles, much like Moon Patrol. The same year, a scrolling platform game appeared on the Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit computers called Snokie.[38] It added uneven terrain and an emphasis on precision jumping.

Based on the Saturday morning cartoon rather than the maze game, Namco's 1984 Pac-Land is a bidirectional, horizontally-scrolling, arcade platformer with walking, running, jumping, springboards, power-ups, and a series of unique levels.[39]

Nintendo's Super Mario Bros., released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, became the archetype for many platform games. It was bundled with Nintendo systems in North America, Japan, and Europe, and sold over 40 million copies, according to the 1999 Guinness Book of World Records. Its success as a pack-in led many companies to see platform games as vital to their success, and contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation.

Sega attempted to emulate this success with their Alex Kidd series, which began in 1986 on the Master System with Alex Kidd in Miracle World. It had horizontal and vertical scrolling levels, the ability to punch enemies and obstacles, and shops for the player to buy power-ups and vehicles.[40] Another Sega platformer series that began that same year is Wonder Boy. The original Wonder Boy in 1986 was inspired more by Pac-Land than Super Mario Bros, with skateboarding segments that gave the game a greater sense of speed than other platformers at the time,[41] while its sequel, Wonder Boy in Monster Land added action-adventure and role-playing elements.[42] Wonder Boy in turn inspired games such as Adventure Island, Dynastic Hero, Popful Mail, and Shantae.[41]

Scrolling platform games went portable in the late 1980s with games such as Super Mario Land, and the genre continued to maintain its popularity, with many titles released for the handheld Game Boy and Game Gear systems.

One of the first platform games to scroll in all four directions freely and follow the on-screen character's movement is in a vector game called Major Havoc, which comprises a number of mini-games, including a simple platformer.[43] One of the first raster-based platform games to scroll fluidly in all directions in this manner is 1984's Legend of Kage.[citation needed]

In 1985, Enix released an open world platform-adventure game, Brain Breaker.[44] The following year saw the release of a more successful open-world platform-adventure, Nintendo's Metroid, which was critically acclaimed for having a balance between open-ended and guided exploration. Another platform-adventure released that year, Pony Canyon's Super Pitfall, was critically panned for its vagueness and weak game design. That same year Jaleco released Esper Boukentai, a sequel to Psychic 5 that scrolled in all directions and allowed the player character to make huge multistory jumps to navigate the vertically-oriented levels.[45] Telenet Japan also released its own take on the platform-action game, Valis, which contained anime-style cut scenes.[46]

In 1987, Capcom's Mega Man introduced non-linear level progression where the player is able to choose the order in which they complete levels. This was a stark contrast to both linear games like Super Mario Bros. and open-world games like Metroid. GamesRadar credits the "level select" feature of Mega Man as the basis for the non-linear mission structure found in most open-world, multi-mission, sidequest-heavy games.[47] Another Capcom platformer that year was Bionic Commando, a multidirectional-scrolling platform-action game which introduced a grappling hook mechanic that has since appeared in dozens of platform games, including Earthworm Jim and Tomb Raider.[48]

Second-generation side-scrollers

By the time the Genesis and TurboGrafx-16 launched, platform games were the most popular genre in console gaming. There was a particular emphasis on having a flagship platform title exclusive to a system, featuring a mascot character. In 1989, Sega released Alex Kidd in the Enchanted Castle, which was only modestly successful. That same year, Capcom released Strider in arcades, which scrolled in multiple directions and allowed the player to summon artificial intelligence partners, such as a droid, tiger, and hawk, to help fight enemies.[49] Another Sega release in 1989 was Shadow Dancer, which also included an AI partner: a dog who followed the player around and aid in battle.[50] In 1990, Hudson Soft released Bonk's Adventure, with a protagonist positioned as NEC's mascot.[51] The following year, Takeru's Cocoron, a late platformer for the Famicom allowed players to build a character from a toy box filled with spare parts.[48]

In 1990, the Super Famicom was released in Japan, along with the eagerly anticipated Super Mario World. The following year, Nintendo released the console as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in North America, along with Super Mario World, while Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog for the Sega Genesis.[52][53] Sonic showcased a new style of design made possible by a new generation of hardware: large stages that scrolled in all directions, curved hills, loops, and a physics system allowing players to rush through its levels with well-placed jumps and rolls. Sega characterized Sonic as a teenager with a rebellious personality to appeal to gamers who saw the previous generation of consoles as being for kids.[54] The character's speed showed off the hardware capabilities of the Genesis, which had a CPU clock speed approximately double that of the Super NES.

Sonic became a new model for mascots, particularly for his perceived attitude, which characterized him as a rebel. This attitude soon became popular as companies attempted to duplicate Sonic's success with their own brightly colored anthropomorphisms.[55] These often were characterized by impatience, sarcasm, and frequent quips.

A second generation of platform games for computers appeared alongside the new wave of consoles. In the latter half of the 1980s and early 1990s, the Amiga was a strong gaming platform with its custom video hardware and sound hardware.[56] The Atari ST was solidly supported as well. Games like Shadow of the Beast and Turrican showed that computer platform games could rival their console contemporaries. Prince of Persia, originally a late release for the 8-bit Apple II in 1989, featured a high quality of animation.

The 1988 shareware game The Adventures of Captain Comic was one of the first attempts at a Nintendo-style platformer for IBM PC compatibles.[57] It inspired Commander Keen, released by id Software in 1990, which became the first MS-DOS platformer with smooth scrolling graphics.[58] Keen's success resulted in numerous console-styled platformers on the PC, including Duke Nukem, Duke Nukem II, Cosmo's Cosmic Adventure, and Dark Ages all by Apogee Software. These fueled a brief burst of episodic platform games where the first was freely distributed and parts 2 and 3 were available for purchase.

Decline of 2D

The abundance of platformers for 16-bit consoles continued late into the generation, with successful games such as Vectorman (1995), Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest (1995), and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island (1995), but the release of new hardware caused players' attention to move away from 2D genres.[4] The Sega Saturn, PlayStation, and Nintendo 64 nevertheless featured a number of successful 2D platform games. The 2D Rayman was a big success on 32-bit consoles. Mega Man 8 and Mega Man X4 helped revitalize interest in Capcom's Mega Man character. Castlevania: Symphony of the Night revitalized its series and established a new foundation for later Castlevania games. Oddworld and Heart of Darkness kept the subgenre born from Prince of Persia alive.

The difficulties of adapting platform gameplay to three dimensions led some developers to compromise by pairing the visual flash of 3D with traditional 2D side scrolling gameplay. These games are often referred to as 2.5D.[59] The first such game was the Sega Saturn launch title, Clockwork Knight (1994). The game featured levels and boss characters rendered in 3D, but retained 2D gameplay and used pre-rendered 2D sprites for regular characters, similar to Donkey Kong Country. Its sequel improved upon its design, featuring some 3D effects such as hopping between the foreground and background, and the camera panning and curving around corners. Meanwhile, Pandemonium and Klonoa brought the 2.5D style to the PlayStation. In a break from the past, the Nintendo 64 had the fewest side scrolling platformers with only four; Yoshi's Story, Kirby 64: The Crystal Shards, Goemon's Great Adventure, and Mischief Makers—and most met with a tepid response from critics at the time.[60][61] Despite this, Yoshi's Story sold over a million copies in the US,[62] and Mischief Makers rode high on the charts in the months following its release.[63][64]

Third dimension

The term 3D platformer usually refers to games with gameplay in three dimensions and polygonal 3D graphics. Games that have 3D gameplay but 2D graphics are usually included under the umbrella of isometric platformers, while those that have 3D graphics but gameplay on a 2D plane are called 2.5D, as they are a blend of 2D and 3D.

One of the first platformers with 3D graphics was Sega's Congo Bongo in 1983. The first platformers to simulate a 3D perspective and moving camera emerged in the early-mid-1980s. An early example of this was Konami's platform game Antarctic Adventure,[65] where the player controls a penguin in a forward-scrolling third-person perspective while having to jump over pits and obstacles.[65][66][67] Originally released in 1983 for the MSX computer, it was subsequently ported to various platforms the following year,[67] including an arcade version,[65] NES,[67] and ColecoVision.[66]

1986 saw the release of the sequel to forward-scrolling platformer Antarctic Adventure called Penguin Adventure, which was designed by Hideo Kojima.[68] It included more action game elements, a greater variety of levels, RPG elements such as upgrading equipment,[69] and multiple endings.[70]

In early 1987, Square released 3-D WorldRunner, designed by Hironobu Sakaguchi and Nasir Gebelli.[71][72] Using a forward-scrolling effect similar to Sega's 1985 third-person rail shooter Space Harrier.[71] 3-D WorldRunner was an early forward-scrolling pseudo-3D third-person platform-action game where players were free to move in any forward-scrolling direction and could leap over obstacles and chasms. It was notable for being one of the first stereoscopic 3-D games.[72] Square released its sequel, JJ, later that year.[73]

Alpha Waves (1990) was an early 3D platform game.
Alpha Waves (1990) was an early 3D platform game.

The earliest example of a true 3D platform game is a French computer game called Alpha Waves, created by Christophe de Dinechin and published by Infogrames in 1990 for the Atari ST, Amiga, and IBM PC compatibles.[74][75]

Bug! (1995) extended traditional platform gameplay in all directions.
Bug! (1995) extended traditional platform gameplay in all directions.

Bug!, a Sega Saturn game that was released in 1995, offered a more conservative approach to true 3D platforming. It allowed players to move in all directions, but it did not allow movement along more than one axis at once; the player could move orthogonally but not diagonally. Its characters were pre-rendered sprites, much like the earlier Clockwork Knight. The game played very similarly to 2D platformers, but it was considered a true 3D title, and let players walk up walls and on ceilings. It has a sequel called Bug Too!.

In 1995, Delphine Software released a 3D sequel to their 2D platformer Flashback. Entitled Fade to Black, it was the first attempt to bring a popular 2D platform game series into 3D. While it retained the puzzle-oriented level design style and step-based control, it did not meet the criteria of a platform game, and was billed as an action adventure.[76] It used true 3D characters and set pieces, but its environments were rendered using a rigid engine similar to the one used by Wolfenstein 3D, in that it could only render square, flat corridors, rather than suspended platforms that could be jumped between.

Sony adopted an existing project by developers Naughty Dog: Crash Bandicoot. Crash remained Sony's unofficial mascot for the next several years before switching to multi-platform releases in the following console generation.

Sega had tasked their American studio, Sega Technical Institute, with bringing Sonic the Hedgehog into 3D. Their project, titled Sonic Xtreme, was to have featured a radically different approach for the series, with an exaggerated fisheye camera and multidirectional gameplay reminiscent of Bug!. Due in part to conflicts with Sega Enterprises in Japan and a rushed schedule, and the game never made it to market.[52]

True 3D

Beginning in the 1990s platforming games began to transform from pseudo-3D to "true 3D" experiences, the distinction being constraints on the degree of control the player over the character and camera. Rendering of 3D environment from angles controlled by the user necessitates that the graphics hardware be sufficiently powerful, and that the art and rendering model of the game can be viewed from an arbitrary angle. The improvement in graphics technology allowed publishers to produce such games, but introduced several new issues; for example, if the virtual camera can be positioned arbitrarily, it must be constrained to prevent it from clipping through the environment.[5]

In 1994, a small developer called Exact released a game for the X68000 computer called Geograph Seal. The game was a fully 3D polygonal first-person shooter hybrid with a pronounced platform jumping component. Players piloted a frog-like mech that could jump and then double-jump or triple-jump high into the air, as the camera panned down to help players line up their landings. In addition to shooting, jumping on enemies was a primary means of attack.[77] This was the first true 3D platform-action game with free-roaming environments, but it was never ported to another platform nor released outside Japan, so it remains relatively unknown in the West.[78]

The following year, Exact released their follow-up to Geograph Seal as an early title for Sony's new PlayStation console. Jumping Flash!, released in April 1995, is regarded as a direct continuation of the gameplay concepts in Geograph Seal..[79] The frog-like mech was traded in for a more cartoony rabbit mech, called Robbit. The level design had an even greater focus on platform hopping, and it was released in Europe and North America as a launch title, helping it gain a much higher profile. The title was successful enough to receive two sequels, and is remembered as the first 3D platformer on a console.[78] Rob Fahey of Eurogamer highlighted that the game was arguably one of the most important ancestors of any 3D platform game at the time.[80] Jumping Flash holds the record of "First platform videogame in true 3D" according to Guinness World Records.[81] Another early 3D platformer was Floating Runner, developed by Japanese company Xing and released for the PlayStation in early 1996, predating the release of Super Mario 64. Floating Runner used D-pad controls and a behind-the-character camera perspective.[82]

Super Mario 64 (1996) replaced the linear obstacle courses of traditional platform games with vast worlds.
Super Mario 64 (1996) replaced the linear obstacle courses of traditional platform games with vast worlds.

Nintendo released Super Mario 64 in 1996. Prior there was no established paradigm for bringing platform games into 3D. Its gameplay allowed players to explore open 3D environments with greater freedom than any previous attempt at a 3D platform game. To aid this, Nintendo added an analog control stick to its Nintendo 64 controller, something which had not been included in a standard console controller since the Vectrex, and which has since become standard on other controllers. This allowed for the finer precision needed for a free perspective. Players no longer followed a linear path to the ends of levels, either, with most levels providing objective-based goals. There were a handful of boss levels that offered more traditional platforming.[83]

It was rumored that Super Mario 64 was originally going to be developed for the SNES using the Super FX chip entitled Super Mario FX, however this was proven false by Dylan Cuthbert, one of the programmers at Argonaut Software who worked on Star Fox, as "Super Mario FX" was just the internal code name for the Super FX chip.[84] Argonaut Software did offer an early prototype for a 3D platformer starring Yoshi, a character in the Super Mario series, to Nintendo. Nintendo rejected the pitch, which resulted in the game being remade into the 1997 title, Croc: Legend of the Gobbos.

Super Mario 64 brought a change in the goals of some platformers. In most 2D platformers, the player only had to reach a single goal to complete a level, but in Mario 64 each level contained a mission-based structure that rewarded items needed to unlock new areas. Many 3D platformers followed this trend, such as Banjo-Kazooie, Spyro the Dragon, and Donkey Kong 64, creating the "collect-a-thon" genre. This allowed for more efficient use of large 3D areas and rewarded the player for thorough exploration of their environment, but also contained less jumping and involved more elements of action-adventure games.

As platform games settled into this new free-roaming model, it became necessary for developers to program a dynamic, intelligent camera. This was a non-issue with 2D platformers, which were able to maintain a fixed viewpoint. The addition of a free camera also made it more difficult for players to judge the exact height and distance of platforms, making jumping puzzles more difficult. Some of the more linear 3D platformers, like Tork: Prehistoric Punk and Wario World used scripted cameras that allowed for minimal player control. Others with more open environments, such as Super Mario 64 and Banjo Kazooie, needed intelligent cameras that follow the players movements.[85] These intelligent cameras required the player to adjust the view at times when the view was obstructed, or simply not facing what the player needed to see.

RPGs, first-person shooters, and more complex action-adventure games were all capturing more market share. Even so, Tomb Raider became one of the best selling series on the PlayStation, along with Insomniac Games' Spyro and Naughty Dog's Crash Bandicoot, one of the few 3D titles to retain the linear level design of 2D games. Also, many of the Nintendo 64's best sellers were first and second-party platformers like Super Mario 64, Banjo-Kazooie, and Donkey Kong 64.[86] On Windows and Mac, Pangea Software's Bugdom series, and BioWare's MDK2 proved successful.

Several developers who found success in the 3D platformer genre, also began experimenting with publishing titles featuring humour and content aimed at a more mature audience, despite their art style. Examples include Rare's Conker's Bad Fur Day, Crystal Dynamics's Gex: Deep Cover Gecko and Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver, and Shiny Entertainment's Messiah.

Sega produced a 3D Sonic game, Sonic Adventure, on its new Dreamcast console. It used a hub structure like Super Mario 64 but with more linear, action-oriented levels with an emphasis on speed.[87]

Into the 21st century

Nintendo launched its GameCube console without a platform game. However, it released Super Mario Sunshine in 2002, the second 3D Mario platformer. The Wii also didn't launch with a Mario platformer, However in 2007, Super Mario Galaxy launched, it was the third 3D Mario platformer

Other notable 3D platformers trickled out during this generation. Maximo was a spiritual heir to the Ghosts'n Goblins series, Billy Hatcher and the Giant Egg offered Yuji Naka's take on a Mario 64-influenced platformer, Argonaut Software returned with a new platformer named Malice, games such as Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair and Pitfall: The Lost Expedition were attempts to modernise classic video games of the 1980s using the 3D platformer genre, Psychonauts became a critical darling based on its imaginative levels and colorful characters, and several franchises that debuted during the sixth generation of consoles such as Tak, Ty the Tasmanian Tiger, Ape Escape and Sly Cooper each developed a cult following. In Europe specifically, the Kao the Kangaroo and Hugo series achieved popularity and sold well. Rayman's popularity continued, though the franchise's third game was not as well received as the first two.[88][89] Oddworld: Munch's Oddysee brought the popular Oddworld franchise into the third dimension, but future sequels to this game did not opt for the 3D platform genre.

Naughty Dog's moved on from Crash Bandicoot to Jak and Daxter, a series that became less about traditional platforming with each sequel.[90] A hybrid platformer/shooter game from Insomniac Games called Ratchet & Clank further pushed the genre away from such gameplay, as did Universal Interactive Studios' rebooted Spyro trilogy and Microsoft's attempt to create a mascot for the Xbox in Blinx: The Time Sweeper. Ironically, Microsoft later found more success with their 2003 take on the genre, Voodoo Vince.

In 2008, Crackpot Entertainment released Insecticide. Crackpot, composed of former developers from LucasArts, for the first time combined influences from the point and click genre LucasArts had been known for on titles such as Grim Fandango with a platformer.

Platformers remained a vital genre, but they never recaptured the popularity they once held. Part of the recent for platforming's decline through the 2000s was the lack of innovation compared to other genres in video games. Platform games either were aimed specifically at younger players, or the games were made to avoid the platform label.[91] In 1998, platform games had a 15% share of the market, and even higher during their prime, four years later that figure had dropped to 2%.[4] Even the much acclaimed Psychonauts experienced modest sales at first, leading publisher Majesco Entertainment to withdraw from high budget console games,[92] even though its sales in Europe were respectable.[93]

Recent developments

Trine (2009) mixed traditional platform elements with more modern physics puzzles.
Trine (2009) mixed traditional platform elements with more modern physics puzzles.

Despite having a smaller presence in the overall gaming market, some platform games continue to be successful into the seventh generation of consoles. 2007 saw the release of Super Mario Galaxy and Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction to positive critical and fan reaction.[94][95][96] Super Mario Galaxy was awarded the Best Game of 2007 on high-profile gaming websites including GameSpot, IGN, and GameTrailers, and was at that point the most critically acclaimed game of all time according to GameRankings. In 2008, LittleBigPlanet paired traditional 2D platform game mechanics with physics simulation and user created content, earning strong sales and critical reaction. Electronic Arts released Mirror's Edge, which coupled platform gameplay with a first-person camera, but avoided marketing the game as a platformer because of the association the label had developed with games geared toward younger audiences.[citation needed] Sonic Unleashed featured stages containing both 2D and 3D styles of platform gameplay; this formula was also used in Sonic Colors and Sonic Generations. Two Crash Bandicoot platform games were also released in 2007 and 2008.

Freedom Planet (2014) is a more traditional, retro-style platformer: it draws heavy influence from early Sonic the Hedgehog games and features pixelated, sprite-based graphics.
Freedom Planet (2014) is a more traditional, retro-style platformer: it draws heavy influence from early Sonic the Hedgehog games and features pixelated, sprite-based graphics.

The popularity of 2D platformers started to increase again in 2010s. Nintendo has revived the genre in recent years. New Super Mario Bros. was released in 2006 and has sold 30 million copies worldwide; it is the best-selling game for the Nintendo DS, and the fourth best-selling non-bundled video game of all time.[97] Super Mario Galaxy has sold over eight million units,[97] while Super Paper Mario, Super Mario 64 DS, Sonic Rush, Yoshi's Island DS, Kirby Super Star Ultra, and Kirby: Squeak Squad also have strong sales, and keep the genre active.

After the success of New Super Mario Bros., consumers and publishers showed renewed interest in 2D platform games. These range from revivals such as Bionic Commando: Rearmed, Contra ReBirth, Sonic the Hedgehog 4 and Rayman Origins (also released in 2011 as a retail title on several platforms) to original titles like Splosion Man and Henry Hatsworth in the Puzzling Adventure. Wario Land: The Shake Dimension, released in 2008, was a platformer that featured completely two-dimensional graphics and a rich visual style. Subsequent games such as Limbo, Super Meat Boy, Braid, A Boy and His Blob, and The Behemoth's BattleBlock Theater also use completely 2D graphics. New Super Mario Bros. Wii is particularly notable, as unlike the majority of 2D platformers in the 21st century, it was a direct release for a non-portable console, and not restricted on a content delivery network. The success of New Super Mario Bros. Wii led to Nintendo releasing similar 2D platformer games for their classic franchises the following year: Donkey Kong Country Returns and Kirby's Return to Dream Land. In 2012, Nintendo released two more 2D platform games: New Super Mario Bros. 2 for the 3DS and New Super Mario Bros. U for the Wii U. Nintendo has also released 3D platform games with gameplay elements of 2D platform games, namely Super Mario 3D Land for the 3DS in 2011 and Super Mario 3D World for the Wii U in 2013, the latter of which also included cooperative multiplayer gameplay. Each has achieved critical and commercial success.

Besides Nintendo's own successes in various platform games, the growth of indie games in the late 2000s and into the 2010s helps to spur the platform game market. A common element of these new indie platform games was stronger focus on narrative and developing innovative elements not present in prior platform titles.[91] In 2009, independent developer Frozenbyte released Trine, a 2.5D platform game that mixed traditional elements with more modern physics puzzles. The game proved to be a commercial success, eventually selling more than 1.1 million copies. It spawned a sequel, Trine 2, which was released in 2011.[98]

2017 saw the release of a number of 3D platformers which caused media speculation of a renewal of the genre.[citation needed] These games included Yooka-Laylee and A Hat in Time, both of which were crowdfunded on the website Kickstarter. The release of Super Mario Odyssey on the Nintendo Switch, which was an updated return to the open ended gameplay style popularized by Super Mario 64, is one of the best-selling and reviewed games in the franchise's history. Super Lucky's Tale, at the time an Xbox One exclusive and the HD remaster of Voodoo Vince for Microsoft Windows and the Xbox One. Snake Pass considered a "puzzle-platformer without a jump button". The Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy compilation on the PlayStation 4 sold over two million copies worldwide, and some critics noted the increased difficulty from the original PlayStation games. Remakes of other classic 3D platformers emerged around this time, namely the Spyro Reignited Trilogy, SpongeBob SquarePants: Battle for Bikini Bottom – Rehydrated (2020) and a remake of 1998's MediEvil for PS4.

Astro Bot Rescue Mission (2018) is a PlayStation VR exclusive game followed by Astro's Playroom (2020), which is a pre-installed game on the PlayStation 5. Activision's Skylanders series could be also considered a progenitor of the Crash Bandicoot and Spyro franchises returning to the spotlight, as it features both characters, and certain games in the franchise are 3D platformers. The Nintendo 3DS version of Skylanders: Giants (2012), distinct from its console counterpart, was the first in the series to contain more traditional platforming elements. Sackboy: A Big Adventure (2020) developed by Sumo Digital was one of the PlayStation 5's launch titles. Crash Bandicoot 4: It's About Time was also released in 2020 to critical praise. Super Mario 3D World + Bowser's Fury (2021) was a rerelease of the original Wii U title with a whole new and smaller campaign bridging the gap between its gameplay and Odyssey's. Ratchet & Clank: Rift Apart (2021) was one of the first PlayStation 5 exclusive games made by Insomniac under the label "Sony Game Studios". The Kickstarter funded Psychonauts 2 was released on August 25, 2021 to critical acclaim.


This list some definable platform games in the following types, but there are also many vaguely defined subgenres games that have not been listed. These game categories are the prototypes genre that recognized by different platform styles.

Puzzle-platform game

See also: Puzzle video game

Fez is a 2012 puzzle-platformer based around mechanics of screen rotation.

Puzzle platformers are characterized by their use of a platform game structure to drive a game whose challenge is derived primarily from puzzles.[99]

Enix's 1983 release Door Door and Sega's 1985 release Doki Doki Penguin Land (for the SG-1000) are perhaps the first examples, though the genre is diverse, and classifications can vary.[100] Doki Doki Penguin Land allowed players to run and jump in typical platform fashion, but they could also destroy blocks, and were tasked with guiding an egg to the bottom of the level without letting it break.[100]

The Lost Vikings (1993) was a popular game in this genre. It has three characters players can switch between, each with different abilities. All three characters are needed to complete the level goals.[101]

This subgenre has a strong presence on handheld systems. Wario Land 2 moved the Wario series into the puzzle-platform genre by eliminating the element of death and adding temporary injuries, such as being squashed or lit on fire, and specialized powers.[102] Wario Land 3 continued this tradition, while Wario Land 4 was more of a mix of puzzle and traditional platform elements. The Game Boy update of Donkey Kong was also successful and saw a sequel on Game Boy Advance: Mario vs. Donkey Kong. Klonoa: Empire of Dreams, the first handheld title in its series, is also a puzzle-platform game.[103]

Through independent game development, this genre has experienced a revival since 2014. Braid uses time manipulation for its puzzles, and And Yet It Moves uses frame of reference rotation.[104] In contrast to these side-scrollers, Narbacular Drop and its successor, Portal, are first-person games that use portals to solve puzzles in 3D. Since the release of Portal, there have been more puzzle-platform games which use a first-person camera, including Purity and Tag: The Power of Paint.[105] In 2014, Nintendo released Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker which uses compact level design and camera rotation in order to reach the goal and find secrets and collectibles. Despite lacking jump ability, Toad still navigates the environment via unique movement mechanics.

Run-and-gun platform game

See also: Run-and-gun game

Broforce is a run-and-gun platform game that spoofs several action film heroes.
Broforce is a run-and-gun platform game that spoofs several action film heroes.

The run-and-gun platform genre was popularised by Konami's Contra.[106] Gunstar Heroes and Metal Slug are also among the top three popular examples of this style.[107] Side-scrolling run-and-gun games are an attempt to marry platform games with shoot 'em ups, characterized by a minimal focus on precise platform jumping and a major emphasis on multi-directional shooting. These games are sometimes called platform shooters. This genre has strong arcade roots, and as such, these games are generally known for being very difficult, and having very linear, one-way game progression.

There are games which feature a heavy degree of shooting but do not fall into this subgenre. Mega Man, Metroid, Ghosts 'n Goblins, Vectorman, Jazz Jackrabbit, Earthworm Jim, Cuphead, and Turrican are all platformers with a heavy focus on action and shooting, but unlike Contra or Metal Slug, platform jumping elements, as well as exploration and back-tracking, still figure prominently. Run-and-gun games are generally pure, and while they may have vehicular sequences or other changes in style, they stay focused on shooting throughout.[opinion]

Cinematic platform game

Cinematic platformers are a small but distinct subgenre of platform games, usually distinguished by their relative realism compared to traditional platformers. These games focus on fluid, lifelike movements, without the unnatural physics found in nearly all other platform games.[108] To achieve this realism, many cinematic platformers, beginning with Prince of Persia, have employed rotoscoping techniques to animate their characters based on video footage of live actors performing the same stunts.[109] Jumping abilities are typically roughly within the confines of an athletic human's capacity. To expand vertical exploration, many cinematic platformers feature the ability to grab onto ledges, or make extensive use of elevator platforms.[108]

As these games tend to feature vulnerable characters who may die as the result of a single enemy attack or by falling a relatively short distance, they almost never have limited lives or continues. Challenge is derived from trial and error problem solving, forcing the player to find the right way to overcome a particular obstacle.[110]

Prince of Persia was the first cinematic platformer and perhaps the most influential.[111] Impossible Mission pioneered many of the defining elements of cinematic platformers and is an important precursor to this genre.[112] Other games in the genre include Flashback (and its 2013 remake), Another World, Heart of Darkness, the first two Oddworld games, Blackthorne, Bermuda Syndrome, Generations Lost, Heart of the Alien, Weird Dreams, Limbo, Inside, onEscapee, Deadlight, Rain World and The Way.

Comical action game

Games in the genre are most commonly called "comical action games" (CAGs) in Japan.[113][114] The original arcade Mario Bros. is generally recognized as the originator of this genre, though Bubble Bobble is also highly influential.[citation needed] These games are characterized by single screen, non-scrolling levels and often contain cooperative two-player action. A level is cleared when all enemies on the screen have been defeated, and vanquished foes usually drop score bonuses in the form of fruit or other items. CAGs are almost exclusively developed in Japan and are either arcade games, or sequels to arcade games, though they are also a common genre among amateur doujinshi games. Other examples include Don Doko Don, Snow Bros. and Nightmare in the Dark.

Isometric platform game

See also: Isometric graphics in video games

Isometric platformers present a three-dimensional environment using two-dimensional graphics in isometric projection. The use of isometric graphics was popularized by Sega's arcade isometric shooter Zaxxon (1981),[115] which Sega followed with the arcade isometric platformer Congo Bongo, released in February 1983.[116] Another early isometric platformer, the ZX Spectrum game Ant Attack, was later released in November 1983.[117]

Knight Lore, an isometric sequel to Sabre Wulf, helped to establish the conventions of early isometric platformers. This formula was repeated in later games like Head Over Heels and Monster Max. These games were generally heavily focused on exploring indoor environments, usually a series of small rooms connected by doors, and have distinct adventure and puzzle elements. Japanese developers blended this gameplay style with that of Japanese action-adventure games like The Legend of Zelda to create games like Land Stalker and Light Crusader. This influence later traveled to Europe with Adeline Software's sprawling epic Little Big Adventure, which blended RPG, adventure, and isometric platforming elements.[citation needed]

Before consoles were able to display true polygonal 3D graphics, the ¾ isometric perspective was used to move some popular 2D platformers into three-dimensional gameplay. Spot Goes To Hollywood was a sequel to the popular Cool Spot, and Sonic 3D Blast was Sonic's outing into the isometric subgenre.

Platform-adventure game

See also: Metroidvania

Many games fuse platform game fundamentals with elements of action-adventure games, such as The Legend of Zelda, or with elements of RPGs. Typically these elements include the ability to explore an area freely, with access to new areas granted by either gaining new abilities or using inventory items. Many 2D games in the Metroid and Castlevania franchises are among the most popular games of this sort, and so games that take this type of approach are often labeled as "Metroidvania" games.[118] Castlevania: Symphony of the Night popularized this approach in the Castlevania series.[119] Other examples of such games include Hollow Knight, both games in the Ori series (Ori and the Blind Forest and Ori and the Will of the Wisps), Wonder Boy III: The Dragon's Trap, Tails Adventure, Cave Story, Mega Man ZX, Shadow Complex, DuckTales: Remastered.[120][121][122][123][124][125]

Early examples of free-roaming, side-scrolling, 2D platform-adventures in the vein of "Metroidvania" include Nintendo's Metroid in 1986 and Konami's Castlevania games: Vampire Killer in 1986[126][127] and Simon's Quest in 1987,[128][129] The Goonies II in 1987 again by Konami,[130] as well as Enix's sci-fi Sharp X1 computer game Brain Breaker in 1985,[44][131] Pony Canyon's Super Pitfall in 1986,[45] System Sacom's Euphory in 1987,[44] Bothtec's The Scheme in 1988,[44] and several Dragon Slayer action RPGs by Nihon Falcom such as the 1985 release Xanadu[132][133] and 1987 releases Faxanadu[132] and Legacy of the Wizard.[134]

Auto-runner games

See also: Endless runner

Auto-runner games are platform games where the player-character is nearly always moving in one constant direction through the level, with less focus on tricky jumping but more on quick reflexes as obstacles appear on screen. The subcategory of endless runner games have levels that effectively go on forever, typically through procedural generation. Auto-runner games have found success on mobile platforms, because they are well-suited to the small set of controls these games require, often limited to a single screen tap for jumping.

Game designer Scott Rogers named side-scrolling shooters like Scramble (1981) and Moon Patrol (1982) and chase-style gameplay in platform games like Disney's Aladdin (1994 8-bit version) and Crash Bandicoot (1996) as forerunners of the genre.[135] B.C.'s Quest for Tires (1983) has elements of runner games,[136] keeping the jumping of Moon Patrol, but replacing the vehicle with a cartoon character.

In February 2003, Gamevil published Nom for mobile phones in Korea. The game's designer Sin Bong-gu, stated that he wanted to create a game that was only possible on mobile phones, therefore he made the player character walk up walls and ceilings, requiring players to turn around their mobile phones while playing. To compensate for this complication, he limited the game's controls to a single button and let the character run automatically and indefinitely, "like the people in modern society, who must always look forward and keep running".[137]

While the concept thus was long known in Korea, journalists credit Canabalt (2009) as "the title that single-handedly invented the smartphone-friendly single-button running genre" and spawned a wave of clones.[136][138] Fotonica (2011), a one-button endless runner viewed from the first person, that was described as a "hybrid of Canabalt's running, Mirror's Edge's perspective (and hands) and Rez's visual style".[139]

Temple Run (2011) and its successor Temple Run 2 are popular endless running games. The latter became the world's fastest-spreading mobile game in January 2013, with 50 million installations within thirteen days.[140]

See also


  1. ^ "What is a Platform Game? | 10 Design Types & Video Game Examples". iD Tech. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  2. ^ This estimate is based on the number of platform games released on specific systems. For example, on the Master System, 113 of the 347 games (32.5 percent) listed on vgmuseum.com are platform games, and 264 of the 1044 Genesis games (25.2 percent) are platformers
  3. ^ "U.S. Most popular video game genres 2018".
  4. ^ a b c "A Detailed Cross-Examination of Yesterday and Today's Best-Selling Platform Games". Gamasutra. 2006-08-04. Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  5. ^ a b c Bycer, Joshua (2019). Game Design Deep Dive: Platformers. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0429560576.
  6. ^ Paumgarten, Nick (December 13, 2010). "Master of Play". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  7. ^ Yamashita, Akira (8 January 1989). "Shigeru Miyamoto Interview: The Culmination of The Athletic Game Genre". Micom BASIC (in Japanese) (1989–02).
  8. ^ Gifford, Kevin. "Super Mario Bros.' 25th: Miyamoto Reveals All". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  9. ^ a b Altice, Nathan (2015). "Chapter 2: Ports". I Am Error: The Nintendo Family Computer / Entertainment System Platform. MIT Press. pp. 53–80. ISBN 9780262028776.
  10. ^ "Gorilla Keeps on Climbing! Kong". Computer and Video Games. No. 26 (December 1983). 16 November 1983. pp. 40–1.
  11. ^ a b Bloom, Steve (1982). Video Invaders. Arco Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-0668055208.
  12. ^ "The Player's Guide to Climbing Games". Electronic Games. 1 (11): 49. January 1983. Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2015-03-19.
  13. ^ "Reviews Explained: The Game Categories". TV Gamer. London: 76. March 1983.
  14. ^ "Stocking Stuffers: Beer Run". Creative Computing. 8 (12): 62, 64. December 1982.
  15. ^ "Video Games Player 1983 Golden Joystick Awards". Video Games Player. Vol. 2, no. 1. United States: Carnegie Publications. September 1983. pp. 49–51.
  16. ^ Horowitz, Ken (21 October 2016). Playing at the Next Level: A History of American Sega Games. McFarland & Company. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7864-9994-6.
  17. ^ Conference Proceedings: Conference, March 15–19 : Expo, March 16–18, San Jose, CA : the Game Development Platform for Real Life. The Conference. 1999. p. 299. what do you get if you put Sonic the Hedgehog (or any other character action game for that matter) in 3D
  18. ^ "Now Playing". Nintendo Power. No. 50. July 1993. pp. 102–4.
  19. ^ "Viewpoint". GameFan. Vol. 1, no. 10. September 1993. pp. 14–5.
  20. ^ Kohler, Chris (2016). "Chapter 3: The Play Control of Power Fantasies: Nintendo, Super Mario, and Shigeru Miyamoto". Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, 2016 Edition. Brady Games. pp. 23–76. ISBN 9780744004243.
  21. ^ "Complete Games Guide" (PDF). Computer and Video Games (Complete Guide to Consoles): 46–77. 16 October 1989.
  22. ^ "Capcom: A Captive Audience". The Games Machine. No. 19 (June 1989). United Kingdom: Newsfield. 18 May 1989. pp. 24–5.
  23. ^ Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7.
  24. ^ Crazy Climber at the Killer List of Videogames
  25. ^ "Donkey Kong". Arcade History. 2006-11-21. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  26. ^ "Gaming's most important evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  27. ^ "ColecoVision FAQ". Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  28. ^ "Coleco Donkey Kong". Handheld Museum. Archived from the original on 2018-01-05. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  29. ^ Harris, Blake J. (2014-05-14). "The Rise of Nintendo: A Story in 8 Bits". Grantland. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  30. ^ Readers' Awards, Crash, 1984–1985, archived from the original on 18 April 2012, retrieved 13 May 2012
  31. ^ a b "The Leif Ericson Awards". IGN. 2008-03-24. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  32. ^ "ジャンプバグ レトロゲームしま専科". Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  33. ^ "Jump Bug". Arcade History. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  34. ^ Lendino, Jamie (27 September 2020). Attract Mode: The Rise and Fall of Coin-Op Arcade Games. Steel Gear Press. pp. 222–3.
  35. ^ Lendino, Jamie (27 September 2020). Attract Mode: The Rise and Fall of Coin-Op Arcade Games. Steel Gear Press. p. 222.
  36. ^ "Reviews: Track Attack". ROM (1): 23. September 1983.
  37. ^ "BC's Quest for Tires". MobyGames. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
  38. ^ "Snokie". Atari Mania. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  39. ^ "Pac-Land". Arcade History. Archived from the original on 2018-06-03. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  40. ^ Kurt Kalata, Alex Kidd Archived 2016-01-18 at the Wayback Machine, Hardcore Gaming 101
  41. ^ a b The Legend of Wonder Boy Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine, IGN, November 14, 2008
  42. ^ "Hardcore Gaming 101: Wonderboy". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  43. ^ "Major Havoc". Killer List of Videogames. Archived from the original on 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  44. ^ a b c d John Szczepaniak. "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier". Hardcore Gaming 101. p. 4. Archived from the original on 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2011-03-16. Reprinted from "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier". Retro Gamer (67). 2009.
  45. ^ a b "Gamasutra - Gems In The Rough: Yesterday's Concepts Mined For Today". www.gamasutra.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  46. ^ Column: 'Might Have Been' - Telenet Japan Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, GameSetWatch, December 17, 2007
  47. ^ "Gaming's most important evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  48. ^ a b "Playing With Power: Great Ideas That Have Changed Gaming Forever from 1UP.com". 17 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 June 2006. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  49. ^ Capcom. Strider 2 (PlayStation). Level/area: Instruction manual, page 18.
  50. ^ Shadow Dancer at the Killer List of Videogames
  51. ^ "Series Guide". Bonk Compendium. Archived from the original on 2007-01-25. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
  52. ^ a b Horowitz, Ken (2005-06-22). "History of: The Sonic The Hedgehog Series". Sega-16. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  53. ^ "Overview". Sonic Cult. Archived from the original on 2016-03-11. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
  54. ^ Lee, Dave. "Twenty years of Sonic the Hedgehog". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  55. ^ Boutros, Daniel (August 4, 2006). "A Detailed Cross-Examination of Yesterday and Today's Best-Selling Platform Games". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  56. ^ "Amiga 600 Technical Specifications". Amiga History. December 15, 2002. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  57. ^ Edwards, Benj (January 22, 2012). "The 12 Greatest PC Shareware Games of All-Time". PC World. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  58. ^ "A Look Back at Commander Keen". 3DRealms.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  59. ^ "It's a Viewtiful Day". Gamasutra. 2004-08-24. Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  60. ^ "Yoshi's Story Reviews". GameRankings. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  61. ^ "Mischief Makers Reviews". GameRankings. Archived from the original on 2009-03-19. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  62. ^ "US Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Archived from the original on 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  63. ^ Johnston, Chris (1997-11-06). "N64 Back on Top". SF Kosmo (archived from GameSpot). Archived from the original on 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  64. ^ Johnston, Chris (1997-10-02). "Sony Closes the Gap". SF Kosmo (archived from GameSpot). Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  65. ^ a b c Antarctic Adventure at the Killer List of Videogames
  66. ^ a b "Antarctic Adventure". AllGame. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
  67. ^ a b c Antarctic Adventure at MobyGames
  68. ^ "KONAMIのMSX往年の名作がWiiバーチャルコンソールに登場、第2弾として『メタルギア』の配信も決定 - ファミ通.com". www.famitsu.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  69. ^ Penguin Adventure at MobyGames
  70. ^ Penguin Adventure, GameSpot
  71. ^ a b "Hironobu Sakaguchi: The Man Behind the Fantasies". Next Generation Magazine, vol 50.
  72. ^ a b "3-D WorldRunner". AllGame. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
  73. ^ "JJ: Tobidase Daisakusen Part II". AllGame. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
  74. ^ de Dinechin, Christophe (2007-11-08). "The dawn of 3D games". Grenouille Bouillie. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
  75. ^ Fahs, Travis (2007-01-08). "Before Their Time: Cover Art". GotNext. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
  76. ^ "Fade to Black - DOS Cover Art". MobyGames. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
  77. ^ "Geograph Seal". Archived from the original on 2006-12-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  78. ^ a b Travis Fahs, Geograph Seal (X68000) Archived 2016-01-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Next Level, November 25, 2006
  79. ^ "Forgotten Gem: Jumping Flash". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  80. ^ Fahey, Rob (9 June 2007). "Jumping Flash (1995)". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  81. ^ "First platform videogame in true 3D". guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  82. ^ John Szczepaniak, Floating Runner: Quest for the 7 Crystals (フローティングランナー 7つの水晶の物語) - PlayStation (1996) Archived 2016-09-15 at the Wayback Machine, Hardcore Gaming 101 (September 26, 2011)
  83. ^ "Super Mario 64 Overview". Polygon. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  84. ^ "SNES Central: Super Mario FX". SNES Central. Retrieved April 19, 2020. SNES Central: @dylancuthbert I'm researching unreleased SNES games, was a game called "Super Mario FX" ever in development?
    Dylan Cuthbert: @snescentral no, that was the internal code name for the FX chip"
  85. ^ Cozic, Laurent; et al. "Intuitive Interaction and Expressive Cinematography in Video Games". Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2006-01-27.
  86. ^ "US Platinum Game Chart". Magic Box. Archived from the original on 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2006-01-24.
  87. ^ "Sega of Japans Comments on Dreamcast Discontinuance". IGN. 2001-01-31. Archived from the original on 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
  88. ^ "Rayman 2: The Great Escape Reviews". Game Rankings. Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  89. ^ "Rayman 3: Hoodlum Havoc Reviews". Game Rankings. Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  90. ^ March 2021, Alex Avard 12 (12 March 2021). ""We might have overachieved, to be honest": The making of Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy". gamesradar. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  91. ^ a b Henley, Stacey (December 16, 2020). "Blast from the past: How this generation enabled platformers to crash back into the mainstream". GamesRadar. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  92. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (2005-12-20). "Bitter medicine: What does the game industry have against innovation?". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  93. ^ Life After Shelf Death Archived 2007-11-15 at the Wayback Machine, The Escapist, November 13, 2007
  94. ^ "Super Mario Galaxy (Wii: 2007): Reviews". Metacritic. CNET. Archived from the original on 2017-05-06. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
  95. ^ "Ratchet and Clank Future (PS3: 2007): Reviews". Metacritic. CNET. Archived from the original on 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
  96. ^ "Super Mario Galaxy Reviews". GameRankings. CNET. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
  97. ^ a b "Financial Results Briefing for Fiscal Year Ended March 2009" (PDF). Nintendo. 2009-05-08. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
  98. ^ Williams, M.H. (2011-12-08). "Trine Sells 1.1 Million Copies Ahead of Sequel Release". INDUSTRYGAMERS. Archived from the original on 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
  99. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-01-09.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  100. ^ a b Derboo, Sam (2015). "Doki Doki Penguin Land". Hard Core Gaming.
  101. ^ Top 100 SNES Games of All Time - IGN.com, retrieved 2020-10-31
  102. ^ "Review: Wario Land II (3DS eShop / Game Boy)". Nintendo Life. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  103. ^ Donkey, Kong. "Donkey Kong Game Ranking". Game Ranking. Archived from the original on 2019-12-09.
  104. ^ "And Yet It Moves". 2011-06-19. Archived from the original on 2011-06-19. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  105. ^ Gad, Joshua (2020-01-11). "Valve's Elusive F-STOP". Medium. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  106. ^ February 11, Alyssa Keil ·; 2020. "A History of Run-and-Gun Shooters". Mega Cat Studios. Retrieved 2020-10-31.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  107. ^ "The Best Run And Gun Games of All Time". Ranker. Retrieved 2020-10-31.
  108. ^ a b Bexander, Cecilia (January 2014). "The Cinematic Platformer Art Guide" (PDF). The making of a strategy game art guide. Uppsala Universitet. p. 70. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  109. ^ Therrien, Carl. "Visual Design in Video Games" (PDF). Video Game History: From Bouncing Blocks to a Global Industry. Greenwood Press. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  110. ^ Lalone, Nicholas (2012). "DIFFERENCES IN DESIGN: VIDEO GAME DESIGN IN PRE AND POST 9/11 AMERICA" (Thesis). pp. 77–78. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  111. ^ Rybicki, Joe (5 May 2008). "Prince of Persia Retrospective". GameTap. Turner Broadcasting System. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  112. ^ Bevan, Mike (December 2013). "The History of... Impossible Mission". Retro Gamer. No. 122. Imagine Publishing. pp. 44–49.
  113. ^ "Arcade Flyers: Cover Art". arcadeflyers.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  114. ^ "Arcade Flyers Cover Art". arcadeflyers.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  115. ^ Electronic Games - Volume 01 Number 11 (1983-01)(Reese Communications)(US). January 1983.
  116. ^ "Congo Bongo (Registration Number PA0000184737)". United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  117. ^ "Awesome Ants Leap to the Attack!". Computer and Video Games. No. 26 (December 1983). 16 November 1983. pp. 31, 33.
  118. ^ Fletcher, JC (August 20, 2009). "These Metroidvania games are neither Metroid nor Vania". Joystiq. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  119. ^ Matulef, Jeffery (2014-03-21). "Koji Igarashi says Castlevania: SotN was inspired by Zelda, not Metroid". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2014-03-22. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
  120. ^ Parish, Jeremy (2009-07-23). "Metroidvania: Rekindling a Love Affair with the Old and the New". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  121. ^ Alexander, Leigh (2009-07-09). "Microsoft Confirms 'Summer Of Arcade' XBLA Line-Up". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2009-07-12. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  122. ^ Cook, Jim (2009-07-14). "Castlevania: Symphony of the Night (XBLA)". Gamers Daily News. Archived from the original on 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  123. ^ Parish, Jeremy. "Metroidvania". Game Sprite. Archived from the original on 2016-06-27. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  124. ^ Caoili, Eric (2009-05-01). "Commodore Castleroid: Knight 'n' Grail". Game Set Watch. Archived from the original on 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  125. ^ 1; Bailey, Kat (2020-02-26). "Ori and the Will of the Wisps is "Three Times the Scope and Scale" of Blind Forest". USgamer. Retrieved 2020-06-19.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  126. ^ Jeremy Parish, Famicom 25th, Part 17: Live from The Nippon edition Archived 2012-06-29 at archive.today, 1UP.com, August 1, 2008
  127. ^ Kurt Kalata and William Cain, Castlevania 2: Simon's Quest (1988) Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine, Castlevania Dungeon, accessed 2011-02-27
  128. ^ Jeremy Parish, Metroidvania Chronicles II: Simon's Quest Archived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine 1UP.com, June 28, 2006
  129. ^ Mike Whalen, Giancarlo Varanini. "The History of Castlevania - Castlevania II: Simon's Quest". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  130. ^ Parish, Jeremy. "Metroidvania Chronicles IV: The Goonies II". Telebunny. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  131. ^ "Oops! Page not found". hardcoregaming101.net. 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2018. ((cite web)): Cite uses generic title (help)
  132. ^ a b Jeremy Parish. "Metroidvania". Metroidvania.com. GameSpite.net. Archived from the original on 2016-06-27. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  133. ^ Jeremy Parish (August 18, 2009). "8-Bit Cafe: The Shadow Complex Origin Story". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  134. ^ Harris, John (September 26, 2007). "Game Design Essentials: 20 Open World Games". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  135. ^ Swipe This!: The Guide to Great Touchscreen Game Design by Scott Rogers, Wiley and Sons, 2012
  136. ^ a b Parkin, Simon (June 7, 2013). "DON'T STOP: THE GAME THAT CONQUERED SMARTPHONES". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  137. ^ Han, Ji-suk (May 28, 2004). "[Geim Keurieiteo] Geimbil 'Nom' gihoek Sin Bong-gu siljang" [게임 크리에이터] 게임빌 `놈` 기획 신봉구 실장 [[Game Creator] Director Sin Bong-Gu, planner of Gamevil's `Nom`]. DigitalTimes (in Korean). DigitalTimes. Archived from the original on July 9, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  138. ^ Faraday, Owen (21 January 2013). "Temple Run 2 review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  139. ^ nofi (January 19, 2011). "Fotonica: You Need This Game Now". The Sixth Axis. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  140. ^ Purchese, Robert (February 1, 2013). "Temple Run 2 is the fastest-spreading mobile game ever". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013.