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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Most scientists believe the SARS-CoV-2 virus entered into human populations through natural zoonosis, similar to the SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV outbreaks, and consistent with other pandemics in human history. Social and environmental factors including climate change, natural ecosystem destruction and wildlife trade increased the likelihood of such zoonotic spillover. The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, many of which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, use of face masks or coverings in public, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. While drugs have been developed to inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is still symptomatic, managing the disease through supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The WHO ended the PHEIC for COVID-19 on 5 May 2023. The disease has continued to circulate, but as of 2024, experts were uncertain as to whether it was still a pandemic. Pandemics and their ends are not well-defined, and whether or not one has ended differs according to the definition used. As of 3 July 2024, COVID-19 has caused 7,051,600[1] confirmed deaths. The COVID-19 pandemic ranks as the fifth-deadliest pandemic or epidemic in history. (Full article)
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About the virus

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus—which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families. Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 3 July 2024, 775,643,495 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 7,051,600 reported deaths.[1]


Updated July 3, 2024.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 775,643,495 7,051,600
European Union European Union[b] 185,666,273 1,261,748
United States United States 103,436,829 1,189,083
China China[c] 99,361,338 122,248
India India 45,040,074 533,619
France France 38,997,490 168,091
Germany Germany 38,437,756 174,979
Brazil Brazil 37,511,921 702,116
South Korea South Korea 34,571,873 35,934
Japan Japan 33,803,572 74,694
Italy Italy 26,727,644 197,081
United Kingdom United Kingdom 24,940,688 232,112
Russia Russia 24,225,459 403,031
Turkey Turkey 17,004,714 101,419
Spain Spain 13,980,340 121,852
Australia Australia 11,861,161 25,236
Vietnam Vietnam 11,624,000 43,206
Argentina Argentina 10,132,689 130,867
Taiwan Taiwan 9,970,937 17,672
Netherlands Netherlands 8,636,781 22,986
Mexico Mexico 7,709,747 335,011
Iran Iran 7,627,863 146,837
Indonesia Indonesia 6,829,120 162,058
Poland Poland 6,663,580 120,713
Colombia Colombia 6,386,212 142,727
Austria Austria 6,082,356 22,534
Portugal Portugal 5,649,830 28,324
Greece Greece 5,641,241 39,035
Ukraine Ukraine 5,531,787 109,920
Chile Chile 5,400,569 62,715
Malaysia Malaysia 5,288,841 37,351
Belgium Belgium 4,863,706 34,339
Israel Israel 4,841,558 12,707
Canada Canada 4,812,623 55,103
Thailand Thailand 4,789,165 34,665
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,759,813 43,506
Peru Peru 4,524,748 220,831
Switzerland Switzerland 4,454,731 14,188
Philippines Philippines 4,140,383 66,864
South Africa South Africa 4,072,719 102,595
Romania Romania 3,529,682 68,805
Denmark Denmark 3,435,018 9,667
Singapore Singapore 3,006,155 2,024
Hong Kong Hong Kong 2,876,106 13,466
Sweden Sweden 2,752,383 27,309
New Zealand New Zealand 2,614,723 4,083
Serbia Serbia 2,583,470 18,057
Iraq Iraq 2,465,545 25,375
Hungary Hungary 2,230,453 49,051
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,050,834 29,496
Slovakia Slovakia 1,877,788 21,226
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,863,101 17,150
Jordan Jordan 1,746,997 14,122
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,738,493 9,637
Pakistan Pakistan 1,580,631 30,656
Norway Norway 1,508,485 5,732
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,504,370 19,072
Finland Finland 1,499,712 11,466
Lithuania Lithuania 1,366,800 9,806
Slovenia Slovenia 1,356,013 10,062
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,329,405 38,700
Croatia Croatia 1,317,144 18,752
Morocco Morocco 1,279,115 16,305
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 1,252,713 5,938
Guatemala Guatemala 1,250,363 20,203
Lebanon Lebanon 1,239,904 10,947
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,230,653 9,368
Bolivia Bolivia 1,212,144 22,387
Tunisia Tunisia 1,153,361 29,423
Cuba Cuba 1,113,662 8,530
Ecuador Ecuador 1,076,430 36,049
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,067,030 2,349
Panama Panama 1,044,375 8,706
Uruguay Uruguay 1,041,263 7,679
Mongolia Mongolia 1,011,489 2,136
Nepal Nepal 1,003,450 12,031
Belarus Belarus 994,037 7,118
Latvia Latvia 977,765 7,475
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 841,469 9,646
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 835,468 10,353
Paraguay Paraguay 735,759 19,880
State of Palestine Palestine 703,228 5,708
Bahrain Bahrain 696,614 1,536
Cyprus Cyprus 691,252 1,445
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 672,779 16,904
Kuwait Kuwait 667,290 2,570
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 661,103 4,384
Myanmar Myanmar 642,618 19,494
Moldova Moldova 635,749 12,239
Estonia Estonia 610,471 2,998
Venezuela Venezuela 552,695 5,856
Egypt Egypt 516,023 24,830
Qatar Qatar 514,524 690
Libya Libya 507,269 6,437
Ethiopia Ethiopia 501,172 7,574
Réunion Réunion 494,595 921
Honduras Honduras 472,804 11,114
Armenia Armenia 451,944 8,777
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 403,644 16,388
Oman Oman 399,449 4,628
Luxembourg Luxembourg 391,729 1,000
North Macedonia North Macedonia 350,606 9,977
Zambia Zambia 349,661 4,069
Brunei Brunei 345,096 178
Kenya Kenya 344,101 5,689
Albania Albania 335,047 3,605
Botswana Botswana 330,650 2,801
Mauritius Mauritius 327,305 1,070
Kosovo Kosovo 274,279 3,212
Algeria Algeria 272,034 6,881
Nigeria Nigeria 267,188 3,155
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 266,365 5,740
Montenegro Montenegro 251,280 2,654
Afghanistan Afghanistan 235,214 7,998
Mozambique Mozambique 233,825 2,252
Martinique Martinique 230,354 1,104
Laos Laos 219,048 671
Iceland Iceland 210,013 186
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 203,235 1,021
El Salvador El Salvador 201,878 4,230
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 191,496 4,390
Maldives Maldives 186,694 316
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 175,081 1,016
Namibia Namibia 172,418 4,108
Uganda Uganda 172,152 3,632
Ghana Ghana 172,037 1,462
Jamaica Jamaica 156,864 3,600
Cambodia Cambodia 139,256 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 133,252 1,468
Cameroon Cameroon 125,238 1,974
Malta Malta 121,628 909
Barbados Barbados 110,786 593
Angola Angola 107,468 1,937
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 100,616 1,470
French Guiana French Guiana 98,041 413
Malawi Malawi 89,168 2,686
Senegal Senegal 89,101 1,971
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 88,953 1,024
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 88,428 835
Suriname Suriname 82,497 1,405
New Caledonia New Caledonia 80,163 314
French Polynesia French Polynesia 79,309 650
Eswatini Eswatini 75,356 1,427
Guyana Guyana 74,161 1,301
Belize Belize 71,409 688
Fiji Fiji 69,047 885
Madagascar Madagascar 68,552 1,427
Jersey Jersey 66,391 161
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 64,474 417
Sudan Sudan 63,993 5,046
Mauritania Mauritania 63,866 997
Bhutan Bhutan 62,697 21
Syria Syria 57,423 3,163
Burundi Burundi 54,569 15
Guam Guam 52,287 419
Seychelles Seychelles 51,770 172
Gabon Gabon 49,051 307
Andorra Andorra 48,015 159
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 46,864 670
Curaçao Curaçao 45,883 305
Aruba Aruba 44,224 292
Tanzania Tanzania 43,226 846
Mayotte Mayotte 42,027 187
Togo Togo 39,530 290
The Bahamas Bahamas 38,619 848
Guinea Guinea 38,572 468
Isle of Man Isle of Man 38,008 116
Lesotho Lesotho 36,138 709
Guernsey Guernsey 35,326 67
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Haiti Haiti 34,298 860
Mali Mali 33,164 743
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 31,472 37
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 30,257 410
Benin Benin 28,036 163
Somalia Somalia 27,334 1,361
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 26,460 65
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 25,954 199
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands 25,389 132
San Marino San Marino 25,292 126
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 25,220 389
East Timor Timor-Leste 23,460 138
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 22,129 400
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 21,578 89
Gibraltar Gibraltar 20,550 113
Grenada Grenada 19,693 238
Bermuda Bermuda 18,860 165
South Sudan South Sudan 18,823 147
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
Monaco Monaco 17,181 67
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 17,130 183
Samoa Samoa 17,057 31
Tonga Tonga 16,966 12
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 16,248 17
Nicaragua Nicaragua 16,150 245
Dominica Dominica 16,047 74
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Central African Republic Central African Republic 15,440 113
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 14,702 41
The Gambia Gambia 12,627 372
Collectivity of Saint Martin Collectivity of Saint Martin 12,324 46
Vanuatu Vanuatu 12,019 14
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,945 2,159
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 11,922 41
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten 11,051 92
Eritrea Eritrea 10,189 103
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,674 124
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 9,614 177
Niger Niger 9,518 315
Comoros Comoros 9,109 160
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 9,106 146
American Samoa American Samoa 8,359 34
Liberia Liberia 7,930 294
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,836 125
Chad Chad 7,702 194
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 7,478 64
Cook Islands Cook Islands 7,327 2
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,771 80
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,754 40
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6,607 46
Palau Palau 6,366 10
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy 5,507 5
Nauru Nauru 5,393 1
Kiribati Kiribati 5,085 24
Anguilla Anguilla 3,904 12
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 3,760 9
Macau Macau 3,514 121
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,426 2
Tuvalu Tuvalu 2,943 1
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 2,166
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,923
Montserrat Montserrat 1,403 8
Niue Niue 1,074
Tokelau Tokelau 80 0
Vatican City Vatican City 26 0
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands 4
North Korea North Korea 1 6
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 0 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.
(Full article)

About the symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to a potentially fatal illness. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases, breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; and a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, or throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the closer people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

Infectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne briefly or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted. The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, but can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect. Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close, but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated; in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.
(Full article)

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Recent news

20 June 2024 – ChinaAngVirus disinformation campaign
Congress of the Philippines lawmakers pursue an investigation into a U.S. military social media disinformation operation to discredit Chinese COVID-19 vaccines to Filipinos to determine the damages caused, international law infringements, and possible legal action. (Reuters)
14 June 2024 – COVID-19 misinformation by governments
Reuters releases a report that alleges that the United States military conducted a clandestine online campaign, ordered by the Trump administration in 2020 and ended by the Biden administration in 2021, to discredit the CoronaVac vaccine of China-based manufacturer Sinovac Biotech in the Philippines and other developing countries. (Reuters)
8 May 2024 – COVID-19 vaccine
AstraZeneca withdraws its marketing authorizations in Europe and withdraws its COVID-19 vaccines worldwide due to low demand, after finding that the vaccines can very rarely lead to blood clots. (The Telegraph)

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic caused far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash (which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008), the impact of COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2023 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2023 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. The pandemic led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus, and was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022–2023 food crises.

Amidst the recovery and containment, the world economic system was characterized as experiencing significant, broad uncertainty. Economic forecasts and consensus among macroeconomics experts show significant disagreement on the overall extent, long-term effects and projected recovery. A large general increase in prices was attributed to the pandemic. In part, the record-high energy prices were driven by a global surge in demand as the world quit the economic recession caused by COVID-19, particularly due to strong energy demand in Asia. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that cases COVID-19 and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The two main types of tests detect either the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID‑19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. According to a June 2022 study, COVID‑19 vaccines prevented an additional 14.4 to 19.8 million deaths in 185 countries and territories from 8 December 2020 to 8 December 2021. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 3 July 2024, there are 2,459 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b c Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2024-07-03.

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