The Feminism Portal

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International Women's Day, Bangladesh (2005)
International Women's Day, Bangladesh (2005)

Feminism is a range of socio-political movements and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that society prioritizes the male point of view and that women are treated unjustly in these societies. Efforts to change this include fighting against gender stereotypes and establishing educational, professional, and interpersonal opportunities and outcomes for women that are equal to those for men.

Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, run for public office, work, earn equal pay, own property, receive education, enter contracts, have equal rights within marriage, and maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to ensure access to contraception, legal abortions, and social integration and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence. Changes in female dress standards and acceptable physical activities for females have often been part of feminist movements.

Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender-neutral language, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims, because they believe that men are also harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; feminist theorists have developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender.

Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Traditionally, since the 19th century, first-wave liberal feminism that sought political and legal equality through reforms within a liberal democratic framework was contrasted with labour-based proletarian women's movements that over time developed into socialist and Marxist feminism based on class struggle theory. Since the 1960s, both of these traditions are also contrasted with radical feminism that arose from the radical wing of second-wave feminism and that calls for a radical reordering of society to eliminate male supremacy; together liberal, socialist and radical feminism are sometimes called the "Big Three" schools of feminist thought.

Since the late 20th century, many newer forms of feminisms have emerged. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated, heterosexual, or cisgender perspectives. These criticisms have led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, such as black feminism and intersectional feminism. Some feminists have argued that feminism often promotes misandry and the elevation of women's interests above men's, and criticize radical feminist positions as harmful to both men and women. (Full article...)

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Title page from the first edition (1796)
Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796) is a deeply personal travel narrative by the eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. The twenty-five letters cover a wide range of topics, from sociological reflections on Scandinavia and its peoples to philosophical questions regarding identity. Published by Wollstonecraft's career-long publisher, Joseph Johnson, it was the last work issued during her lifetime. Wollstonecraft undertook her tour of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark in order to retrieve a stolen treasure ship for her lover, Gilbert Imlay. Believing that the journey would restore their strained relationship, she eagerly set off. However, over the course of the three months she spent in Scandinavia, she realized that Imlay had no intention of renewing the relationship. The letters which constitute the text, drawn from her journal and from missives she sent to Imlay, reflect her anger and melancholy over his repeated betrayals. Letters Written in Sweden is therefore both a travel narrative and an autobiographical memoir. Using the rhetoric of the sublime, Wollstonecraft explores the relationship between the self and society in the text. She values subjective experience, particularly in relation to nature; champions the liberation and education of women; and illustrates the detrimental effects of commerce on society.

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Zuni girl with jar

A head-and-shoulders portrait of a Zuni girl with a pottery jar on her head, circa 1903. The Zuni are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, who live beside the Zuni River, in western New Mexico, United States. The Zuni language is unique and unrelated to the languages of the other Pueblo peoples. The Zuni continue to practice their traditional shamanistic religion with its regular ceremonies and dances and an independent mythology. Archaeological evidence shows they have lived in their present location for about 1,300 years.

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Susan B. Anthony We ask justice, we ask equality, we ask that all civil and political rights that belong to the citizens of the United States be guaranteed to us and our daughters forever. — Susan B. Anthony

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Princess Alice of Battenberg
Princess Alice of Battenberg, later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie; 1885 - 1969) was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (consort of Queen Elizabeth II). Congenitally deaf, she grew up in Germany, England and the Mediterranean. After marrying Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903, she lived in Greece until the exile of most of the Greek Royal Family in 1917. On returning to Greece a few years later, her husband was blamed in part for the defeat of Greece in the Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922, and the family were once again forced into exile until the restoration of the Greek monarchy in 1935. In 1930, she was diagnosed with schizophrenia and committed to a sanatorium; thereafter, she lived separately from her husband. After her recovery, she devoted most of her remaining years to charity work in Greece. She stayed in Athens during the Second World War, sheltering Jewish refugees, for which she is recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations" at Yad Vashem. After the war, she stayed in Greece and founded an Orthodox nursing order of nuns known as the Christian Sisterhood of Martha and Mary. After the fall of King Constantine II of Greece and the imposition of military rule in Greece in 1967, she was invited by her son and daughter-in-law to live at Buckingham Palace in London, where she died two years later.

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The following are images from various feminism-related articles on Wikipedia.

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  • Alice Manfield - Guide Alice, Mt Buffalo, c1900-30, SLV
    Alice Manfield - Guide Alice, Mt Buffalo, c1900-30, SLV
  • Alice Park - Records of the National Woman's Party
    Alice Park - Records of the National Woman's Party
  • Alice Paul (1915) by Harris & Ewing
    Alice Paul (1915) by Harris & Ewing
  • Anne Dallas Dudley LOC
    Anne Dallas Dudley LOC
  • Avril de Sainte-Croix - Restored, cropped
    Avril de Sainte-Croix - Restored, cropped
  • Bertha Lutz 1925
    Bertha Lutz 1925
  • Cabinet Card of Sojourner Truth - Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture
    Cabinet Card of Sojourner Truth - Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture
  • Convicts Lunatics and Women! Have No Vote for Parliament, ca. 1907-1918
    Convicts Lunatics and Women! Have No Vote for Parliament, ca. 1907-1918
  • Dr. Caroline Spencer 275029v
    Dr. Caroline Spencer 275029v
  • Ethel Smyth
    Ethel Smyth
  • Frances Benjamin Johnston, Self-Portrait (as "New Woman"), 1896
    Frances Benjamin Johnston, Self-Portrait (as "New Woman"), 1896
  • Fredrikke Mørck
    Fredrikke Mørck
  • George Charles Beresford - Virginia Woolf in 1902 - Restoration
    George Charles Beresford - Virginia Woolf in 1902 - Restoration
  • Henrietta Rodman from the George Grantham Bain Collection
    Henrietta Rodman from the George Grantham Bain Collection
  • Henry Mayer, The Awakening, 1915 Cornell CUL PJM 1176 01 - Restoration
    Henry Mayer, The Awakening, 1915 Cornell CUL PJM 1176 01 - Restoration
  • Hester Jeffrey
    Hester Jeffrey
  • Hubertine Auclert 1910
    Hubertine Auclert 1910
  • Iris Calderhead
    Iris Calderhead
  • Joy Young Rogers outside the White House
    Joy Young Rogers outside the White House
  • Lucretia Mott, signed photo, by F. Gutekunst
    Lucretia Mott, signed photo, by F. Gutekunst
  • Mabel Vernon, c. 1917, by Edmonston, Washington, D.C.
    Mabel Vernon, c. 1917, by Edmonston, Washington, D.C.
  • Marguerite Durand 1910 - Restoration
    Marguerite Durand 1910 - Restoration
  • Marie Stopes in her laboratory, 1904 - Restoration
    Marie Stopes in her laboratory, 1904 - Restoration
  • Mary Garrity - Ida B. Wells-Barnett - Google Art Project - restoration crop
    Mary Garrity - Ida B. Wells-Barnett - Google Art Project - restoration crop
  • Millicent Fawcett
    Millicent Fawcett
  • Mrs. Crystal Eastman Benedict by Edmonston, Washington, D.C.
    Mrs. Crystal Eastman Benedict by Edmonston, Washington, D.C.
  • Mrs. Lillian Ascough, chairman of the Connecticut branch of the Woman's Party
    Mrs. Lillian Ascough, chairman of the Connecticut branch of the Woman's Party
  • Mrs. Pauline Adams 147002v
    Mrs. Pauline Adams 147002v
  • Portrett av Gina Krog (6276081582) - Restoration
    Portrett av Gina Krog (6276081582) - Restoration
  • Ray Strachey restored
    Ray Strachey restored
  • Sojourner Truth, 1870 (cropped, restored)
    Sojourner Truth, 1870 (cropped, restored)
  • Victoria Claflin Woodhull by Mathew Brady - Oval Portrait
    Victoria Claflin Woodhull by Mathew Brady - Oval Portrait
  • Voltairine de Cleyre (Age 35)
    Voltairine de Cleyre (Age 35)
  • We Can Do It! NARA 535413 - Restoration 2
    We Can Do It! NARA 535413 - Restoration 2

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