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Euro coins and banknotes
Euro coins and banknotes
A sample picture of a fictional ATM card. The largest part of the world's money exists only as accounting numbers which are transferred between financial computers. Various plastic cards and other devices give individual consumers the power to electronically transfer such money to and from their bank accounts, without the use of currency.
A sample picture of a fictional ATM card. The largest part of the world's money exists only as accounting numbers which are transferred between financial computers. Various plastic cards and other devices give individual consumers the power to electronically transfer such money to and from their bank accounts, without the use of currency.

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The primary functions which distinguish money are as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment.

Money was historically an emergent market phenomenon that possess intrinsic value as a commodity; nearly all contemporary money systems are based on unbacked fiat money without use value. Its value is consequently derived by social convention, having been declared by a government or regulatory entity to be legal tender; that is, it must be accepted as a form of payment within the boundaries of the country, for "all debts, public and private", in the case of the United States dollar. Contexts which erode public confidence, such as the circulation of counterfeit money or domestic hyperinflation, can cause good money to lose its value.

The money supply of a country comprises all currency in circulation (banknotes and coins currently issued) and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money (the balances held in checking accounts, savings accounts, and other types of bank accounts). Bank money, whose value exists on the books of financial institutions and can be converted into physical notes or used for cashless payment, forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries. (Full article...)

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FRONT - 100 Pesos bank note of 1894 Banco Español de Puerto Rico.
FRONT - 100 Pesos bank note of 1894 Banco Español de Puerto Rico.

The currencies of Puerto Rico closely follow the historic development of Puerto Rico. As a Province of Spain (Autonomous Community) and a territory of the United States, Puerto Rico was granted the use of both foreign and provincial currencies. Following the Spanish colonization in 1502, Puerto Rico became an important port, with its own supply of gold. However, as the mineral reserves ran empty within the century, the archipelago's economy suffered. The Spanish Crown issued the Situado Mexicano, which meant that a semi-regular shipment of gold from the Viceroyalty of New Spain would be sent to the island, as a way to provide economic support. Between 1636 and 1637, Philip IV of Spain imposed a tax which had to be paid using a revenue stamp. Inspired by this, Puerto Rico began producing banknotes in 1766, becoming the first Overseas Province to print 8-real banknotes in the Spanish Empire and which in the Spanish government's approval of subsequent issues.

The situado was discontinued during the 19th century, creating an economic crisis, as a result of Mexico gaining its independence from Spain. Salvador Meléndez Bruna, the colonial governor in office, ordered the issue of provincial banknotes, creating the Puerto Rican peso. However, printing of these banknotes ceased after 1815. During the following decades, foreign coins became the widespread currency. In the 1860s and 1870s, banknotes reemerged. On February 1, 1890, the Banco Español de Puerto Rico was inaugurated and began issuing banknotes. The bank designed four series and placed three in circulation under Spanish rule. In 1895, a Royal Decree ordered the production of provincial peso coins. (Full article...)
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Rouble-1961-Paper-1-Obverse.jpg

The rouble, or ruble (Russian: рубль) was the currency of the USSR, introduced in 1922, replacing the Imperial Russian ruble. One ruble was divided into 100 kopecks (копейка, pl. копейкиkopeyka, kopeyki). Soviet banknotes and coins were produced by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise (or Goznak) in Moscow and Leningrad.

In addition to regular cash rubles, other types of rubles were also issued, such as several forms of convertible ruble, transferable ruble, clearing ruble, Vneshtorgbank cheque, etc.; also, several forms of virtual rubles (called "cashless ruble", безналичный рубль) were used for inter-enterprise accounting and international settlement in the Comecon zone. (Full article...)

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The following are images from various currency-related articles on Wikipedia.
  • Image 1Tibetan kong par tangka, dated 13-45 (= AD 1791),reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan kong par tangka, dated 13-45 (= AD 1791),reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 2A person counts a bundle of different Swedish banknotes. (from Money)
    A person counts a bundle of different Swedish banknotes. (from Money)
  • Image 3Athens coin (c. 500/490-485 BC) discovered in Pushkalavati. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east. (from Punch-marked coins)
    Athens coin (c. 500/490-485 BC) discovered in Pushkalavati. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east. (from Punch-marked coins)
  • Image 4Tibetan undated silver tangka, struck in 1953/54, reverse. (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan undated silver tangka, struck in 1953/54, reverse. (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 5A hoard of mostly Mauryan  punch-marked coins (from Punch-marked coins)
    A hoard of mostly Mauryan punch-marked coins (from Punch-marked coins)
  • Image 6A 1914 British gold sovereign (from Money)
    A 1914 British gold sovereign (from Money)
  • Image 7Tibetan undated silver tangka, struck in 1953/54, obverse. (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan undated silver tangka, struck in 1953/54, obverse. (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 8Undated Kelzang tangka (1910), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Undated Kelzang tangka (1910), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 9Printing paper money at a printing press in Perm (from Money)
    Printing paper money at a printing press in Perm (from Money)
  • Image 10Tenga of Muhammad Khudayar Khan, struck at the Kokand mint, dated 1862–1863 (from Kokand tenga)
    Tenga of Muhammad Khudayar Khan, struck at the Kokand mint, dated 1862–1863 (from Kokand tenga)
  • Image 11Tibetan kong par tangka, dated 13-45 (= AD 1791),obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan kong par tangka, dated 13-45 (= AD 1791),obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 12A sample picture of a fictional ATM card. The largest part of the world's money exists only as accounting numbers which are transferred between financial computers. Various plastic cards and other devices give individual consumers the power to electronically transfer such money to and from their bank accounts, without the use of currency. (from Money)
    A sample picture of a fictional ATM card. The largest part of the world's money exists only as accounting numbers which are transferred between financial computers. Various plastic cards and other devices give individual consumers the power to electronically transfer such money to and from their bank accounts, without the use of currency. (from Money)
  • Image 13Punch-marked coins discovered from Chandraketugarh. (from Punch-marked coins)
    Punch-marked coins discovered from Chandraketugarh. (from Punch-marked coins)
  • Image 14Tibetan silver tangka with Ranjana (Lantsa) script, dated 15-28 (= AD 1894), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan silver tangka with Ranjana (Lantsa) script, dated 15-28 (= AD 1894), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 15Gold coins are an example of legal tender that are traded for their intrinsic value, rather than their face value. (from Money)
    Gold coins are an example of legal tender that are traded for their intrinsic value, rather than their face value. (from Money)
  • Image 16Tibetan "gaden" Tangka, undated (ca. AD 1840), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan "gaden" Tangka, undated (ca. AD 1840), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 17Huizi currency, issued in 1160 (from Money)
    Huizi currency, issued in 1160 (from Money)
  • Image 18Tibetan "gaden" Tangka, undated (ca. AD 1840), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan "gaden" Tangka, undated (ca. AD 1840), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 19Paper money from different countries (from Money)
    Paper money from different countries (from Money)
  • Image 20Sino Tibetan silver tangka, dated 58th year of Qian Long era, reverse. Weight 5.57 g. Diameter: 30 mm (from Tibetan tangka)
    Sino Tibetan silver tangka, dated 58th year of Qian Long era, reverse. Weight 5.57 g. Diameter: 30 mm (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 21Money Base, M1 and M2 in the U.S. from 1981 to 2012 (from Money)
    Money Base, M1 and M2 in the U.S. from 1981 to 2012 (from Money)
  • Image 22Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money (from Money)
    Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money (from Money)
  • Image 23A check, used as a means of converting funds in a demand deposit to cash (from Money)
    A check, used as a means of converting funds in a demand deposit to cash (from Money)
  • Image 24Tibetan undated silver tangka (2nd half of 18th century) with eight times the syllable "dza" in vartula script,reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan undated silver tangka (2nd half of 18th century) with eight times the syllable "dza" in vartula script,reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 25US dollar banknotes (from Money)
    US dollar banknotes (from Money)
  • Image 26Banknotes of different currencies with a face value of 5000 (from Money)
    Banknotes of different currencies with a face value of 5000 (from Money)
  • Image 27Tibetan silver tangka with Ranjana (Lantsa) script, dated 15-28 (= AD 1894), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan silver tangka with Ranjana (Lantsa) script, dated 15-28 (= AD 1894), reverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 28In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner. (from Money)
    In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner. (from Money)
  • Image 29Undated Kelzang tangka (1910), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Undated Kelzang tangka (1910), obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 30President J. K. Paasikivi illustrated in a former Finnish 10 mark banknote from 1980 (from Money)
    President J. K. Paasikivi illustrated in a former Finnish 10 mark banknote from 1980 (from Money)
  • Image 31A 640 BC one-third stater electrum coin from Lydia (from Money)
    A 640 BC one-third stater electrum coin from Lydia (from Money)
  • Image 32"Bent bar" minted under Achaemenid administration, Gandhara, c.350 BC. (from Punch-marked coins)
    "Bent bar" minted under Achaemenid administration, Gandhara, c.350 BC. (from Punch-marked coins)
  • Image 33Sino Tibetan silver tangka, dated 58th year of Qian Long era, obverse. Weight 5.57 g. Diameter: 30 mm (from Tibetan tangka)
    Sino Tibetan silver tangka, dated 58th year of Qian Long era, obverse. Weight 5.57 g. Diameter: 30 mm (from Tibetan tangka)
  • Image 34Tibetan undated silver tangka (2nd half of 18th century) with eight times the syllable "dza" in vartula script,obverse (from Tibetan tangka)
    Tibetan undated silver tangka (2nd half of 18th century) with eight times the syllable "dza" in vartula script,obverse (from Tibetan tangka)

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