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Introduction

Surface view of the Atlantic Ocean
Surface view of the Atlantic Ocean

The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Earth's water. In other words, an ocean is "any of the large bodies of water into which the great ocean is divided". Separate names are used to identify five different areas of the ocean: Pacific (the largest), Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic (the smallest). Seawater covers approximately 361,000,000 km2 (139,000,000 sq mi) of the planet. The ocean is the principal component of Earth's hydrosphere, and therefore integral to life on Earth. Acting as a huge heat reservoir, the ocean influences climate and weather patterns, the carbon cycle, and the water cycle. (Full article...)

Waves in Pacifica, California
Waves in Pacifica, California

The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean, is the body of salty water that covers approximately 71 percent of the Earth's surface. The word sea is also used to denote second-order sections of the sea, such as the Mediterranean Sea, as well as certain large, entirely landlocked, saltwater lakes, such as the Caspian Sea. (Full article...)

Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek ὠκεανός "ocean" and γράφω "write"), also known as oceanology, is the scientific study of the oceans. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers utilize to glean further knowledge of the world ocean, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. An oceanographer is a person who studies many matters concerned with oceans including marine geology, physics, chemistry and biology. (Full article...)

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The Portuguese invention of the caravel, which was maneuverable and able to undertake ocean voyages, was essential to European maritime exploration. The present image shows the "Caravela Vera Cruz", navigating the Tagus river, Lisboa.
The Portuguese invention of the caravel, which was maneuverable and able to undertake ocean voyages, was essential to European maritime exploration. The present image shows the "Caravela Vera Cruz", navigating the Tagus river, Lisboa.

The Age of Discovery (or the Age of Exploration) is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period, largely overlapping with the Age of Sail, approximately from the 15th century to the 17th century in European history, in which seafaring Europeans explored regions across the globe.

The extensive overseas exploration, with the Portuguese and the Spanish at the forefront, later joined by the Dutch, the English and the French, emerged as a powerful factor in European culture, most notably the European encounter and colonization of the Americas. It also marks an increased adoption of colonialism as a government policy in several European states. As such, it is sometimes synonymous with the first wave of European colonization. (Full article...)
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20 May 2022 – South China Sea dispute
The Philippines says that it has established coast guard outposts on three Filipino-controlled islands of the Spratlys in the South China Sea. (AP)
15 May 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
Russia launches missile strikes from the Black Sea on "military infrastructure" in Yavoriv Raion, Lviv Oblast, located near Ukraine's western border with Poland. The target was "completely destroyed", according to the region's governor Maksym Kozytskyy. (Reuters)
4 May 2022 – 2021–2022 North Korean missile tests
South Korea and the Japan Coast Guard both accuse North Korea of firing a ballistic missile from Sunan-guyok into the Sea of Japan. (France 24)
26 April 2022 – European migrant crisis
A person is killed and 24 are missing after a migrant vessel crashes off the coast of Spain's Canary Islands. (AP)
17 April 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
The Russian Armed Forces give an ultimatum to the last remaining holdout of Ukrainian troops and "foreign fighters" at the Azovstal iron and steel works plant in Mariupol to surrender. Defenders of the Azov Sea port ignore the ultimatum. (Reuters) (Al Jazeera)

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