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Venezuela (/ˌvɛnəˈzwlə/; American Spanish: [beneˈswela] (listen)), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi), and its population was estimated at 28 million in 2019. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas.

The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba. Venezuela is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District and federal dependencies covering Venezuela's offshore islands. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north and in the capital.

Venezuela is a developing country and ranks 113th on the Human Development Index. It has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously, the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The excesses and poor policies of the incumbent government led to the collapse of Venezuela's entire economy. The country struggles with record hyperinflation, shortages of basic goods, unemployment, poverty, disease, high child mortality, malnutrition, severe crime and corruption. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country. By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. The crisis in Venezuela has contributed to a rapidly deteriorating human rights situation, including increased abuses such as torture, arbitrary imprisonment, extrajudicial killings and attacks on human rights advocates. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, Organization of American States (OAS), Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), ALBA, Mercosur, Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) and Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI). (Full article...)

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Venezuela was introduced to cinema as a for-profit industry in the 1890s, when the medium became international. There were at least eight national films made in the decade, by three groups of filmmakers — one of the groups was based in Maracaibo and one was based in Caracas. The first film screening in the nation may have taken place as early as 1894, but is generally reported as 1896, with this later date being the first scheduled public screening. (Full article...)

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San Carlos de la Barra Fort, Isla de San Carlos, Estado Zulia, Venezuela.jpg


The San Carlos de la Barra Fortress is a seventeenth century star fort protecting Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela, one of a number of coastal fortifications built by the Spanish in colonial times. It was built in 1623 with limestone rocks, brought from the Island of Toas, at the entrance to the Maracaibo bar.

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Rómulo Gallegos 1940s.jpg

Rómulo Ángel del Monte Carmelo Gallegos Freire (2 August 1884 – 5 April 1969) was a Venezuelan novelist and politician. For a period of nine months during 1948, he governed as the first freely elected president in Venezuela's history. He was removed from power by military officers in the 1948 Venezuelan coup.

Rómulo Gallegos is considered the most relevant Venezuelan novelist of the 20th century, and a prominent figure in Latin American literature. (Full article...)

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Laguna Victoria in the Sierra Nevada of Venezuela
Laguna Victoria in the Sierra Nevada of Venezuela

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Román Chalbaud has been working in Venezuelan film, television, and theatre since 1951, continuing to direct, write, and produce works to the present. Though most famous for his Golden Age films, he is also renowned in Venezuela as part of the "Holy Trinity" of theater for his contributions not only in playwriting, but also in direction and production. Besides these, he has written and created many television series and telenovelas, and has occasionally acted in both his own and his contemporaries' works. Chalbaud's continuing work into his old age may be due to his affiliation with the successive Venezuelan governments, which have funded his works since such programs began. (Full article...)

Current events

12 June 2022 –
Authorities in Argentina seize an Iranian Boeing 747 which was transferred to Venezuela last year. It is unclear if the impound is related to sanctions that have been imposed on both countries. (Reuters)
11 June 2022 – Iran–Venezuela relations
Top oil and petrochemicals producers Iran and Venezuela sign a 20-year economic cooperation agreement. (Reuters)
6 June 2022 – 9th Summit of the Americas
The Biden administration bans the presidents of Cuba, Venezuela, and Nicaragua from attending this year's Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles, United States. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador announces that he will personally boycott the meeting in response to the ban, sending Foreign Secretary Marcelo Ebrard to represent him at the summit. (Reuters)
25 May 2022 – Colombian conflict
Colombian and Venezuelan intelligence officials confirm the death of Miguel Botache Santillana, alias Gentil Duarte, the top leader of the FARC dissidents. (Caracol Radio)

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Venezuelan patrol boat Naiguatá
Venezuelan patrol boat Naiguatá

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  • Charolais cattle, Sierra Nevada, Venezuela
    Charolais cattle, Sierra Nevada, Venezuela
  • Colias dimera copulating
    Colias dimera copulating
  • Diaethria marchalii
    Diaethria marchalii
  • Kukenan Roraima GS
    Kukenan Roraima GS
  • Kukenan Tepuy at Sunset
    Kukenan Tepuy at Sunset
  • Marpesia zerynthia
    Marpesia zerynthia
  • Rana platanera - Hypsiboas crepitans
    Rana platanera - Hypsiboas crepitans
  • Teresa Carreño at the piano
    Teresa Carreño at the piano
  • VEN-4-United States of Venezuela (Treasury)-1 peso (1811, First Issue)
    VEN-4-United States of Venezuela (Treasury)-1 peso (1811, First Issue)
  • Venezuela - Caracas - Parque del Este (58)-Venezuela - Caracas - Parque del Este (72)-4
    Venezuela - Caracas - Parque del Este (58)-Venezuela - Caracas - Parque del Este (72)-4

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