The M62 motorway is a west–east trans-Pennine motorway in northern England, connecting the cities of Liverpool and Hull. The road also forms part of the unsigned Euroroutes E20 (Shannon to Saint Petersburg) and E22 (Holyhead to Ishim). The road is 107 miles (172 km) long; however, for seven miles (11 km), it shares its route with the M60 motorway around Manchester.
The motorway, which was first proposed in the 1930s, and originally conceived as two separate routes, was built in stages between 1971 and 1976, with construction beginning at Pole Moor and finishing in Tarbock. Adjusted for inflation to 2007, the motorway cost approximately £765 million to build. The motorway is relatively busy, with an average daily traffic flow of 100,000 cars in Yorkshire, and has several areas prone to gridlock, in particular, between Leeds and Huddersfield in West Yorkshire.
The road passes the cities of Salford, Manchester, Bradford and Leeds. Between Liverpool and Manchester, and east of Leeds, the terrain of the road is relatively flat, while between Manchester and Leeds, the road crosses the hilly Pennines to its highest point on Saddleworth Moor, which is also the highest point of any motorway in the United Kingdom, at 1,221 feet (372 m) above sea level. (read more . . . )
Gerard (died 21 May 1108) was Archbishop of York between 1100 and 1108 and Lord Chancellor of England from 1085 until 1092. A Norman, he was a member of the cathedral clergy at Rouen before becoming a royal clerk under King William I of England and subsequently his son King William II Rufus. Gerard was appointed Lord Chancellor by William I, and he continued in that office under Rufus, who rewarded him with the Bishopric of Hereford in 1096. Gerard may have been with the king's hunting party when William II was killed, as he is known to have witnessed the first charter issued by the new king, Henry I of England, within days of William's death.
Soon after Henry's coronation Gerard was appointed to the recently vacant see of York, and became embroiled in the long-running dispute between York and the see of Canterbury concerning which archbishopric had primacy over England. Gerard managed to secure papal recognition of York's claim to jurisdiction over the church in Scotland, but he was forced to agree to a compromise with his counterpart at Canterbury, Anselm, over Canterbury's claims to authority over York, although it was not binding on his successors. In the Investiture Controversy between the king and the papacy over the right to appoint bishops, Gerard worked on reconciling the claims of the two parties; the controversy was finally resolved in 1107.
Gerard was a patron of learning, to the extent that he urged at least one of his clergy to study Hebrew, a language not commonly studied at that time. He himself was a student of astrology, which led to suggestions that he was a magician and a sorcerer. Partly because of such rumours, and his unpopular attempts to reform his cathedral clergy, Gerard was denied a burial inside York Minster after his sudden death in 1108. His successor as archbishop subsequently had Gerard's remains moved into the cathedral church from their initial resting place beside the cathedral porch.
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Hull City Association Football Club, an English association football club based in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, was founded in 1904. The team's first competitive matches came in the FA Cup, being beaten 4–1 by Stockton in a replay following a 3–3 draw, before they were elected to the Football League Second Division ahead of the 1905–06 season. Hull missed out on promotion in the 1909–10 season, having an inferior goal average to Oldham Athletic and finishing in third. The 1929–30 season saw Hull relegated to the Third Division North after 21 seasons in the Second Division while reaching the semi-final of the FA Cup, where they were beaten by Arsenal after a replay. Promotion back to the Second Division was achieved three years later, with the Third Division North championship becoming the club's first major honour. However, they were relegated in the 1935–36 season and it was 13 years before another return to the Second Division was made, when, under the player-management of former England international Raich Carter, the Third Division North title was won. Relegation back to this division came in the 1955–56 season and following League reorganisation implemented for the 1958–59 season Hull won promotion in the Third Division's inaugural season, although they were relegated after one year.
The Third Division championship was won in the 1965–66
season and Hull remained in the Second Division for 12 years before relegation in 1978. Hull reached the semi-final of the Watney Cup
in the tournament's inaugural staging in 1970, where they were beaten by Manchester United
in a penalty shoot-out
; this was the first game in English football to be decided by this method. The Final of this competition was reached in 1974, where Hull were beaten by Stoke City
. Relegation to the Fourth Division
for the first time in the club's history came in 1981 and a return to the Third Division was secured two years later in the 1982–83
season. The season after, Hull reached the final
of the Associate Members' Cup
in its inaugural season and were beaten by AFC Bournemouth
. Promotion to the Second Division came the following season, although relegations in the 1990–91
seasons saw the club return to the fourth tier. (Full article...