President of Serbia and Montenegro
Председник Србије и Црне Горе
Predsednik Srbije i Crne Gore
Flag of the President of Yugoslavia (1993–2003).svg
Standard of the President
Coat of arms of Yugoslavia (1992–2003).svg
Longest serving
Zoran Lilić

25 June 1993 – 25 June 1997
ResidenceWhite Palace, Belgrade
PrecursorPresident of the Presidency of Yugoslavia
Formation15 June 1992 (15 June 1992)
First holderDobrica Ćosić
Final holderSvetozar Marović
Abolished3 June 2006 (3 June 2006)
Superseded byPresident of Serbia
President of Montenegro

The President of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе, romanizedPredsednik Srbije i Crne Gore) was the head of state of Serbia and Montenegro. From its establishment in 1992 until 2003, when the country was reconstituted as a confederacy (state union) via constitutional reform, the head of state was known as the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Председник Савезне Републике Југославије). With the constitutional reforms of 2003 and the merging of the offices of head of government and head of state, the full title of the president was President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе / Председник Савета министара Србије и Црне Горе). In 2006 the office was abolished as the state union was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro becoming independent countries and was followed by Kosovo in 2008 although it received limited international recognition.

Authority

As head of state, the president had the power to

In 2003, the powers of the president were extended to include the right to chair the Council of Ministers and propose the composition of the Council of Ministers to the parliament, effectively merging the powers of the head of government into the office. However, although the president became de jure both head of state and head of government, his role was largely limited because all the institutions were indirectly elected by confederal parliament, which was itself elected by parliaments of member states.

Elections

See also: 2000 Yugoslavian general election

Under the 1992 constitution, the president was elected by the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia for a four-year term. After the constitutional amendments of 2000, direct elections for the office of President were introduced. Under the 2003 constitution, the president was elected at the proposal of the president and vice president of the Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro for a four-year term. The president of Serbia and Montenegro was a member of the Supreme Defence Council together with the president of Serbia and the president of Montenegro.

The results of the direct presidential elections of 2000 were as follows:

CandidateParty28 September figures10 October figures
Votes%Votes%
Vojislav KoštunicaDemocratic Opposition of Serbia2,474,39250.382,470,30451.71
Slobodan MiloševićSPSJULSNP1,951,76139.741,826,79938.24
Tomislav NikolićSerbian Radical Party292,7595.96289,0136.05
Vojislav MihailovićSerbian Renewal Movement146,5852.98145,0193.04
Miodrag VidojkovićAffirmative Party46,4210.9545,9640.96
Total4,911,918100.004,777,099100.00
Valid votes4,911,91897.324,777,09997.19
Invalid/blank votes135,3712.68137,9912.81
Total votes5,047,289100.004,915,090100.00
Registered voters/turnout7,249,83169.626,871,59571.53
Source: CESID, IFES

Presidents

There were six presidents of FR Yugoslavia (two acting) after its assertion of independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in 1992 up until its dissolution in 2003. Svetozar Marović of the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro was the only President of the FR Yugoslavia after its constitutional reforms and reconstitution as a confederacy. He was inaugurated on March 7, 2003. After the declaration of independence of Montenegro, on June 3, 2006, the president announced on June 4, 2006 the termination of his office.[1]

  Socialist Party of Serbia
  Democratic Party of Serbia
  Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
  Independent
No. Portrait Name
(Lifespan)
Representing Term of office Political party Note
Took office Left office Time in office
Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1992–2003
1
Dobrica Ćosić
Dobrica Ćosić
(1921–2014)
Serbia15 June 19921 June 1993351 daysIndependent
Miloš Radulović
Miloš Radulović
(1929–2017)
Acting
Montenegro1 June 199325 June 199324 daysDPS
2
Zoran Lilić
Zoran Lilić
(born 1953)
Serbia25 June 199325 June 19974 years, 0 daysSPS
Srđa Božović
Srđa Božović
(born 1955)
Acting
Montenegro25 June 199723 July 199728 daysDPS
3
Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
(1941–2006)
Serbia23 July 19977 October 20003 years, 76 daysSPSForced to step down in the Bulldozer Revolution.
4
Vojislav Koštunica
Vojislav Koštunica
(born 1944)
Serbia7 October 20007 March 20032 years, 151 daysDSSThe only president elected in direct election.
President of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
2003–2006
5
Svetozar Marović
Svetozar Marović
(born 1955)
Montenegro7 March 20033 June 20063 years, 88 daysDPSAlso head of government as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (offices merged).

Timeline

Svetozar MarovićVojislav KoštunicaSlobodan MiloševićZoran LilićMiloš Radulović (politician)Dobrica Ćosić

Living former presidents

As of August 30, 2022, there were three living former presidents of Serbia and Montenegro (until 2003 Yugoslavia). The most recent death of a former president was that of Dobrica Ćosić (1992–1993), on May 18 2014. The living former presidents, in order of service, are:

See also

References