This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Swedish. (January 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Swedish article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 815 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Swedish Wikipedia article at [[:sv:Hathors Prästinna]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|sv|Hathors Prästinna)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Priestess of Hathor or Prophetess of Hathor was the title of the Priestess of the goddess Hathor in the Temple of Dendera in Ancient Egypt.[1]

Title

The title is known to be given during the Old Kingdom of Egypt, and was at that point very powerful and prestigious. The mummies of the priestesses testify that they were decorated with a religious tattoo, covering the stomach around the area of the uterus.[2] After the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the title was often irregularly awarded the women of the royal family, typically princesses.

History

The rise, fall & extinction of the priestesses of Hathor are seen in ancient Egyptian culture. The women who wanted to become socially powerful usually took refuge in religion & took the charge of priesthood.[3][4]

Ancient Egyptian society took women's empowerment much more loosely than ancient Greece & ancient Rome. There women were given the right to their own property. However, after becoming a priestess, a woman is seen not only as an important figure in ancient Egyptian society, but also a living symbol of divinity.[3]

Role

The priestesses of Hathor were called hm ntr hthr & they were one of the most respected people in Egypt. But After the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the title was often irregularly awarded only to the women of the royal family, typically princesses. This includes the daughter of Ramesses II. At one time their names were completely erased from history.[4][3]

Egyptologysts have shown that in early days only women of aristocratic lineage could be appointed to the priesthood of Hathor. They were called Badak-Purohit or God's Consort (Hmt nTr). They performed dances and songs during the sacred rites. Because of their menstruation and ability to give child-birth, they were considered unholy, which is why they could not perform sacred duties like dressing up the sacred image of deity.[5][3]

Origin

The first woman to be mentioned as a priestess of Hathor is Neferhetepes. She was the daughter of Pharaoh Djedefre. However, it's worth mentioning that the name of Goddess Hathor is not found in earlier history of Egypt.[3]

Worship

Priestesses of Hathor worshipped the Goddess in her main shrine which was known as the temple of Hathor, located near Nile basin. It is estimated that about four hundred priestesses were employed for her. There improvement was the greatest during the reign of Pharaoh Menkaure. Archaeologists have unearthed several colourful paintings depicting the Goddess and Menkaure. He had also established the priestesses of Hathor in other places. It is seen in the royal stamp that he himself used to worship Hathor.[3]

Goddess worship was the most prevalent during the fifth dynasty. At this time her shrines were established in Userkaf and other places. her idol was also placed in the royal funeral temple. Two main places of her worship were in Giza Necropolis, South of Memphis. However, the researcher speculated that the two were interconnected.[4]

Rise & fall

During the sixth dynasty, the administrative system of the priests underwent several changes, as power was in the hands of the ministers, the number of priests increased during the reign of Pepi I. However during the twelfth dynasty most of the female priests and temple gradually became extinct.[3]

Decline & disappearance

The last notable Priestess of Hathor, was the wife of Senusret I, an important minister of that time. There were several more priestesses at the time, but the numbers were rapidly decreasing. Later their names were completely erased from history.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ Gillam, R. (1995). Priestesses of Hathor: Their Function, Decline and Disappearance. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 32, 211-237. doi:10.2307/40000840
  2. ^ Robert Bianchi, ‘Tattooing and Skin Painting in the Ancient Nile Valley’, in Celenko, T. (ed.) Egypt in Africa , (1996), Indianapolis University Press
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Zahan, S. (2018). Mishor (Egypt : Myths-Legends-Deities). Kolkata, India: Aranyaman. pp. 45–48.
  4. ^ a b c d Gillam, Robyn A. "Priestesses of Hathor: Their Function, Decline and Disappearance". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 32: 211. ISSN 0065-9991.
  5. ^ "Archaeologists discover the 4,400-year-old tomb of a high ranking Egyptian priestess". ZME Science. 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2021-06-08.