In mathematics, a **prime power** is a positive integer which is a power of a single prime number.
For example: 7 = 7^{1}, 9 = 3^{2} and 64 = 2^{6} are prime powers, while
6 = 2 × 3, 12 = 2^{2} × 3 and 36 = 6^{2} = 2^{2} × 3^{2} are not.

The sequence of prime powers begins:

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 32, 37, 41, 43, 47, 49, 53, 59, 61, 64, 67, 71, 73, 79, 81, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 121, 125, 127, 128, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 169, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199, 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241, 243, 251, …

(sequence A246655 in the OEIS).

The prime powers are those positive integers that are divisible by exactly one prime number; in particular, the number 1 is not a prime power. Prime powers are also called **primary numbers**, as in the primary decomposition.

Prime powers are powers of prime numbers. Every prime power (except powers of 2) has a primitive root; thus the multiplicative group of integers modulo *p*^{n} (i.e. the group of units of the ring **Z**/*p*^{n}**Z**) is cyclic.

The number of elements of a finite field is always a prime power and conversely, every prime power occurs as the number of elements in some finite field (which is unique up to isomorphism).

A property of prime powers used frequently in analytic number theory is that the set of prime powers which are not prime is a small set in the sense that the infinite sum of their reciprocals converges, although the primes are a large set.

The totient function (*φ*) and sigma functions (*σ*_{0}) and (*σ*_{1}) of a prime power are calculated by the formulas:

All prime powers are deficient numbers. A prime power *p ^{n}* is an