Primula vulgaris
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae
Genus: Primula
Species:
P. vulgaris
Binomial name
Primula vulgaris
Synonyms[1]
  • Primula acaulis (L.) Hill
  • Primula atropurpurea Pax
  • Primula bicolor Raf.
  • Primula breviscapa Clairv.
  • Primula calycantha Retz.
  • Primula grandiflora Lam.
  • Primula hybrida Schrank
  • Primula inodora Hill
  • Primula minima Hablitz
  • Primula odorata Gilib.
  • Primula pseudoacaulis Schur
  • Primula sylvestris Scop.
  • Primula uniflora C.C.Gmel.
  • Primula variabilis Bastard
  • Primula vernalis Salisb.

Primula vulgaris, the common primrose, is a species of flowering plant in the family Primulaceae, native to Eurasia.[2][3] The common name is primrose,[4] or occasionally common primrose or English primrose to distinguish it from other Primula species referred to as primroses.

Description

Primula vulgaris is a perennial growing 10–30 centimetres (4–12 inches) tall, with a basal rosette of leaves which are more-or-less evergreen in favoured habitats. The leaves are 5–25 cm (2–10 in) long and 2–6 cm (1–2+12 in) broad, often heavily wrinkled, with an irregularly crenate to dentate margin. The leaf blade is gradually attenuated towards the base and unevenly toothed. The single stem, extremely short, is hidden in the centre of the leaf rosette.[5]

Blooming in early spring in the Northern Hemisphere (February–April), the delicately scented flowers are 2–4 cm in diameter, borne singly on short slender stems.[5] They are typically pale yellow, though white or pink forms are often seen in nature. The flowers are actinomorphic with a superior ovary which later forms a capsule opening by valves to release the small black seeds. The flowers are hermaphrodite but heterostylous; individual plants bear either pin flowers (longuistylous flower: with the capita of the style prominent) or thrum flowers (brevistylous flower: with the stamens prominent). Fertilisation can only take place between pin and thrum flowers. Pin-to-pin and thrum-to-thrum pollination is ineffective.[6][7]

Taxonomy

Subspecies

Primula vulgaris subsp. sibthorpii

Three subspecies are accepted by some sources:[2][7]

Plants of the World Online accepts only one subspecies in addition to the nominate subsp. vulgaris:[1]

The primrose is distinguished from other species of Primula by its pale yellow (in the nominate subspecies) flowers produced singly on long flower stalks which are covered in rather shaggy hairs. The flowers open flat rather than concave as in the case of Primula veris, the cowslip.

A pink form is widely seen, growing amongst the much more common yellow forms; this may be a genetic variant rather than a garden escape.[8][9] Occasional red forms are more likely to be naturalised from garden varieties.[6]

Etymology

The scientific name Primula is a diminutive of the Latin primus, "prime", alluding to the fact that this flower is among the first to appear in spring.[10] The vernacular name has the same meaning: primrose derives from a late Latin form prima rosa, consisting of prima, "first" (feminine), and rosa, "rose".[11]

The Latin specific epithet vulgaris means "common", in the sense of "widespread".[12]

Distribution and habitat

The native range of P. vulgaris encompasses western and southern Europe. In the north, the distribution area extends from central Norway near the Faroe Islands via the British Isles, Denmark, northern Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France to southern Portugal in the south and the tip of North Africa in Algeria. To the east, the range extends through the southern European peninsulas to the Crimea, Balkans, Syria, Turkey, and Armenia.

In appropriate conditions, P. vulgaris can cover the ground in open woods and shaded hedgerows. It is found mainly by streams, under bushes, in orchards and clear, moist deciduous forests. Occasionally it also appears in meadows. In Central Europe plants thrive best on nutrient-rich, but lime-poor, humus-rich, loose and often stony loam soils in winter-mild situations. In more populated areas it has sometimes suffered from over-collection and theft so that few natural displays of primroses in abundance can now be found. However it is common on motorway verges and railway embankments where human intervention is restricted. To prevent excessive damage to the species, picking of primroses or the removal of primrose plants from the wild is illegal in many countries, e.g. the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.[13]

Ecology

Most (90%) individuals are heterostylous, the minority monostylous. The flowers of the species are visited by a variety of insects, such as butterflies (Lepidoptera), Hymenoptera, beetles (Coleoptera) and Diptera. Which visitors pollinate plants is not fully established. However, good pollinators are said to be bumblebees and hairy flies of the genus Bombylius. However, the most common visitors to the flowers are small beetles of the genus Meligethes – often there are up to 12 or more pollen-covered individuals in a single flower. The beetles also fly from flower to flower and, at least theoretically, are well suited as pollinators.[14]

Primrose flowers, and the flowers of related members of the Primulaceae are often removed from their stalks and scattered on the ground by green finches apparently consuming the ovaries and nectaries.[15]

The seeds have an elaiosome and are spread by ants (myrmecochory).

Cultivation

The wild primrose is a staple of cottage garden plantings, and is widely available as seeds or young plants. It grows best in moist but well-drained soil in light shade. It is increased by seed and division. The throat is usually coloured rich yellow.

Primrose breeding of named coloured varieties became popular in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.[16] Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden planting, often derived from subsp. sibthorpii or hybrids between the subspecies; these and other garden hybrids are available in a wide range of colours, including white, yellow and red, or brown and red in all gradations as well as dark red, pink, purple, dark brown and dark blue, and with an extended flowering season.[7]

The term Polyanthus, or Primula polyantha, refers to various tall-stemmed and multi-coloured strains of P. vulgaris × P. veris hybrids. Though perennial, they may be short-lived and are typically grown from seed or from young plants as biennials.

AGM cultivars

The following have received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Uses

Both flowers and leaves are edible, the flavour ranging between mild lettuce and more bitter salad greens. The leaves can be cooked in soup but preferably with other plants because they are sometimes a little strong. The leaves can also be used for tea, and the young flowers can be made into primrose wine. In the past the whole plant and especially the root were considered to have analgesic, anti-spasmodic, diuretic and expectorant properties. It contains small amounts of saponins, and was given for colds.[21] P. vulgaris foliage contains significant amounts of vitamin C.[22]

In culture

The primrose was Benjamin Disraeli's favourite flower; Primrose Day and the Primrose League were given their names in honour of this.

Primroses also appear as a charge in heraldry, for example the coat of arms of the Earl of Rosebery.

Italy chose a fuchsia primrose as the symbol of its 2020 COVID-19 vaccination campaign.[23]

The primrose is on one side of Austria's 5 euro cent coin.[24]

Primrose Yellow exists in some paint and color systems and is named after this flower.[25]

The primrose occurs frequently in Romantic poetry, and has been celebrated, among others, by poets such as Keats, Wordsworth, Wilde, Goldsmith and Chaucer. [26] In common parlance, the phrase "the primrose path" implies the thoughtless pursuit of pleasure, especially when it is seen to bring disastrous consequences. The original allusion is a reference in Shakespeare's Hamlet to "the primrose path of dalliance".[27]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Primula vulgaris Huds". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  2. ^ a b Flora Europaea: Primula vulgaris
  3. ^ "Primula vulgaris". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  4. ^ Natural History Museum: Primula vulgaris Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Manfred A. Fischer, Karl Oswald, Wolfgang Adler: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 3rd, improved edition. Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian Provincial Museums, Linz 2008, ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9 , p. 685 .
  6. ^ a b Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
  7. ^ a b c Huxley, A, ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  8. ^ Mabey, Richard: Flora britannica (Chatto & Windus, 1996). ISBN 1856193772
  9. ^ Clapham, A., Tutin, T., & Warburg, E. (1962). Flora of the Brish Isles.
  10. ^ François Couplan, Eva Styner, Guide to Wild Edible and Toxic Plants , Delachaux and Niestlé, coll. "The guides of the naturalist" ( ISBN 2-603-00952-4 )
  11. ^ Harper, Douglas. "primrose". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  12. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
  13. ^ Section 13, part 1b.
  14. ^ Dietmar Aichele, Heinz-Werner Schwegler: The flowering plants of Central Europe , Franckh-Kosmos-Verlag, 2nd revised edition 1994, 2000, Volume 3, ISBN 3-440-08048-X
  15. ^ Darwin, Charles (1874). "Flowers of the Primrose destroyed by Birds". Nature. 9 (482): 482. Bibcode:1874Natur...9Q.482D. doi:10.1038/009482a0.
  16. ^ "Primrose-tinted spectacles". Irish Times.
  17. ^ "Primula vulgaris". www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  18. ^ "Primula vulgaris subsp. sibthorpii". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Primula vulgaris subsp. vulgaris". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Primula vulgaris 'Taigetos'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  21. ^ SRJ Woodell: Natural Hybridization in Britain between Primula vulgaris Huds. (the primrose) and P. elatior (L.) Hill (the oxlip) . In: Watsonia . Volume 7 , No. 3 , 1969, pp. 115-127
  22. ^ The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume One.
  23. ^ Horowitz, Jason (2020-12-28). "Italy Turns to Flower Power to Help Spread Vaccine Message". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  24. ^ "Austria". European Commission. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  25. ^ "PANTONE 13-0755 TCX Primrose Yellow". Pantone. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  26. ^ "Famous Primrose Poems | Examples of Famous Primrose Poetry". PoetrySoup.com. Retrieved 2024-04-29.
  27. ^ "primrose". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2024-05-02.