|Mission type||ISS resupply|
|Mission duration||161 days|
|Spacecraft type||Progress MS|
|Launch mass||7000 kg|
|Payload mass||2460.5 kg|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||15 February 2021,|
|Launch site||Baikonur, Site 31|
|Contractor||Progress Rocket Space Centre|
|End of mission|
|Decay date||26 July 2021, 14:51 UTC|
|Reference system||Geocentric orbit|
|Regime||Low Earth orbit|
|Docking with ISS|
|Docking port||Zvezda nadir by Pirs nadir|
|Docking date||17 February 2021, 06:27 UTC |
|Undocking date||26 July 2021, 10:55 UTC|
|Time docked||159 days|
|Mass||2460.5 kg |
Progress MS-16 (Russian: Прогресс МC-16), Russian production No. 445, identified by NASA as Progress 77P, was a Progress spacecraft launched by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS). This was the 168th flight of a Progress spacecraft.
The Progress-MS is an uncrewed freighter based on the Progress-M featuring improved avionics. This improved variant first launched on 21 December 2015. It has the following improvements:
A Soyuz-2.1a launched Progress MS-16 to the International Space Station from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31 on 15 February 2021 following a two-day, 34-orbit rendezvous profile. Progress MS-16 was docked on 17 February 2021, 06:26:47 UTC, using manual docking system operated by Expedition 64 commander Sergey Ryzhikov to the Pirs module of the ISS, where it remained until 26 July 2021, 10:55 UTC.
On 4 February 2021, Roscosmos said that Progress MS-16 had been installed back into its processing stand inside the assembly building at Site 254 for final pre-launch operations and loading of fresh food items in its cargo bay. The ship's cargo included 600 kg of propellant for refueling, 420 kg of drinking water in the Rodnik system, 40.5 kg of pressurized gases with extra nitrogen supplies and 1,400 kg of various equipment and supplies, including the repair kit with reinforced glue patches for temporary sealing of the Transfer Chamber, PrK, in the Zvezda Service Module (SM).
The Progress MS-16 spacecraft was loaded with 2,460.5 kg (5,424 lb) of cargo, with 1,400 kg (3,100 lb) of this being dry cargo.
The Progress MS-16 was expected to remain docked at the station until 23 July 2021, 12:45 UTC, when it would depart with the Pirs module docked to it for destructive reentry four hours later over the South Pacific Ocean, which would also mark the 1st module to be decommissioned from use aboard the international space station. The Nauka module, which would replace pirs after it's fiery reentry and subsequent destruction, was launched on 21 July 2021 at 14:58:25 UTC, for docking on 29 July 2021, at 13:25 UTC. However, due to post-launch telemetry and propulsion issues with Nauka, the undocking of Progress MS-16 was delayed to 26 July 2021, at 10:55 UTC. The spacecraft, together with the Pirs module, was successfully deorbited on the same day at 14:51 UTC.