Protectorate General to Pacify the East
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese安東都護府
Simplified Chinese安东都护府
Korean name
Hangul안동도호부
Hanja安東都護府

The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East (simplified Chinese: 安东都护府; traditional Chinese: 安東都護府; pinyin: Āndōng Dūhùfǔ) was a protectorate established by the Tang dynasty in the northeast after defeating the kingdom of Goguryeo. In the place of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang created the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, Ungjin Commandery and Gyerim Territory Area Command.

History

Goguryeo-Tang wars.
Goguryeo-Tang wars.

After the Tang dynasty conquered Goguryeo in 668, the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, otherwise known as the Andong Protectorate, was created in Pyongyang and supposedly stationed with 200,000 soldiers. The protectorate was divided into 9 commanderies, 42 prefectures, and 100 counties.[1][2][3]

In 669 the people of Goguryeo revolted in response to Tang governance. In response the Tang forcibly deported 78,000 households and resettled them in empty areas south of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huai River, each in contemporary China. The weak and poor were left behind and assigned to guard duty in service of the protectorate.[2]

From 670 to 673 the rebels launched an uprising every year, the last of which lasted for four years. The Goguryeo loyalists were aided by the kingdom of Silla, who were angered by Emperor Gaozong of Tang. Originally Emperor Taizong of Tang promised to exchange Baekje and the lands south of Pyeonyang in return for Silla's military cooperation. However Taizong died before the conquest of Goguryeo was completed, and his successor Gaozong reneged on the promise.[4]

In 675 the Tang attacked Silla and defeated them in Gyeonggi. In response Munmu of Silla dispatched a tributary mission to Tang with apologies. Gaozong accepted Munmu's apologies and withdrew Tang troops to deal with the Tibetan threat in the west. Seeing the Tang's strategic weakness, Silla renewed the advance on Tang territory.[5]

By 676 the Tang were forced to retreat and relocate the protectorate seat to the more easily defendable city of Liaoyang.[6][3][7]

In 677 the seat was moved to Xincheng, in modern Fushun, Liaoning.[6][3][7]

In 667 the deposed Bojang of Goguryeo was designated "Liaodong Commander King of Joseon" (Korean요동주도독 조선왕; Hanja遼東州都督朝鮮王). Upon arriving in Liaodong, he plotted with the Mohe people to revive Goguryeo. News of his intentions reached the Tang, and Bojang was banished to southwestern China in 681.[8]

In 714, the seat was moved to Pingzhou, in modern Lulong County, Qinhuangdao, Hebei.[9][8][3]

In 736, the Tang formally recognized Silla's control of Korea south of the Taedong River.[8] In 743, the seat was moved to the Old City of Liaoxi, possibly Ying Prefecture (modern Chaoyang, Liaoning).[9][8][3]

The Protectorate General to Pacify the East, otherwise known as the Andong Protectorate, was abandoned in 756 or ended in 761.[8][3]

List of protector generals

Protectorate General to Pacify the East
Protectorate General to Pacify the East
Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East is marked as Andong (安东都护府).
Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East is marked as Andong (安东都护府).

Administrative area

Administratively, it was intended to oversee nine commanderies, 42 prefectures (later reorganized into 14) and 100 counties.

Nine commanderies

14 prefectures (州)

See also

References

  1. ^ "舊唐書". 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 安東都護府總章元年九月,司空李勣平高麗。高麗本五部,一百七十六城,戶六十九萬七千。其年十二月,分高麗地為九都督府,四十二州,一百縣,置安東都護府於平壤城以統之。In the ninth month of the first year of the Zongzhang era [668], the Minister of Works Li Ji pacified Goguryeo. Originally Goguryeo had 5 regions, 176 cities, and 697,000 households. In the twelfth month of that year, Goguryeo’s territory was divided into 9 commanderies, 42 prefectures, and 100 counties. The Andong Protectorate was situated at Pyeongyang to govern it.
  2. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 81.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Xiong 2008, p. 43.
  4. ^ Wang 2013, p. 82.
  5. ^ Wang 2013, p. 83-84.
  6. ^ a b "舊唐書". 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 上元三年二月,移安東府於遼東郡故城置。儀鳳二年,又移置於新城。In the second month of the third year of the Shangyuan era [676], the seat of Andong was moved to the Old City of Liaodong. In the second year of the Yifeng era [677], it was move again, this time to Xincheng.
  7. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 84.
  8. ^ a b c d e Wang 2013, p. 85.
  9. ^ a b "舊唐書". 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 開元二年,移安東都護於平州置。天寶二年,移於遼西故郡城置。In the second year of the Kaiyuan era [714], the Andong Protectorate was moved to Ping Prefecture. In the second year of the Tianbao era [743], it was moved to the old commandery seat of Liaoxi.

Bibliography