Inscription in honor of Straton, King of Sidon, giving him the title of proxenos: "Also Straton the king of Sidon shall be proxenos of the People of Athens, both himself and his descendants".[1] Acropolis of Athens. This indicates that relations of proxeny existed not only among Greek cities but also with non-Greeks (Phoenicians in this case).

Proxeny or proxenia (Greek: προξενία) in ancient Greece was an arrangement whereby a citizen (chosen by the city) hosted foreign ambassadors at his own expense, in return for honorary titles from the state. The citizen was called proxenos (πρόξενος; plural: proxenoi or proxeni, "instead of a foreigner") or proxeinos (πρόξεινος). The proxeny decrees, which amount to letters patent and resolutions of appreciation were issued by one state to a citizen of another for service as proxenos, a kind of honorary consul looking after the interests of the other state's citizens. A common phrase is euergetes (benefactor) and proxenos (πρόξεινος τε ειη και ευεργέτης).

A proxenos would use whatever influence he had in his own city to promote policies of friendship or alliance with the city he voluntarily represented. For example, Cimon was Sparta's proxenos at Athens and during his period of prominence in Athenian politics, previous to the outbreak of the First Peloponnesian War, he strongly advocated a policy of cooperation between the two states. Cimon was known to be so fond of Sparta that he named one of his sons Lacedaemonius (as Sparta was known as Lacedaemon in antiquity).[2][3]

Being another city's proxenos did not preclude taking part in war against that city, should it break out – since the proxenos' ultimate loyalty was to his own city. However, a proxenos would naturally try his best to prevent such a war and to resolve the differences that were threatening to cause it. And once peace negotiations were on the way, a proxenos' contacts and goodwill in the enemy city could be profitably used by his city.

The position of proxenos for a particular city was often hereditary in a particular family.

A 2024 study in the Journal of Economic History linked the presence of proxeny arrangements to increases in trade flows.[4]

See also


  1. ^ IGII2 141 Honours for Straton king of Sidon.
  2. ^ The History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, Donald Lateiner, Richard Crawley, page 33. ISBN 0-486-43762-0
  3. ^ Who's Who in the Greek World by John Hazel, page 56. ISBN 0-415-12497-2
  4. ^ Creanza, Pier Paolo (2024). "Institutions, Trade, and Growth: The Ancient Greek Case of Proxenia". The Journal of Economic History. doi:10.1017/S0022050723000505. ISSN 0022-0507.