Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
Molar mass 216.279 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Proxyfan is a histamine H3 receptor ligand which is a "protean agonist", producing different effects ranging from full agonist, to antagonist, to inverse agonist in different tissues, depending on the level of constitutive activity of the histamine H3 receptor. This gives it a complex activity profile in vivo which has proven useful for scientific research.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]


  1. ^ Morisset S, Rouleau A, Ligneau X, Gbahou F, Tardivel-Lacombe J, Stark H, Schunack W, Ganellin CR, Schwartz JC, Arrang JM. High constitutive activity of native H3 receptors regulates histamine neurons in brain. Nature. 2000 Dec 14;408(6814):860-4. PMID 11130725
  2. ^ Fox GB, Pan JB, Esbenshade TA, Bitner RS, Nikkel AL, Miller T, Kang CH, Bennani YL, Black LA, Faghih R, Hancock AA, Decker MW. Differential in vivo effects of H3 receptor ligands in a new mouse dipsogenia model. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2002 Jun;72(3):741-50. PMID 12175472
  3. ^ Gbahou F, Rouleau A, Morisset S, Parmentier R, Crochet S, Lin JS, Ligneau X, Tardivel-Lacombe J, Stark H, Schunack W, Ganellin CR, Schwartz JC, Arrang JM. Protean agonism at histamine H3 receptors in vitro and in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2003 Sep 16;100(19):11086-91. PMID 12960366
  4. ^ Baldi E, Bucherelli C, Schunack W, Cenni G, Blandina P, Passani MB. The H3 receptor protean agonist proxyfan enhances the expression of fear memory in the rat. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Feb;48(2):246-51. PMID 15695163
  5. ^ Krueger KM, Witte DG, Ireland-Denny L, Miller TR, Baranowski JL, Buckner S, Milicic I, Esbenshade TA, Hancock AA. G protein-dependent pharmacology of histamine H3 receptor ligands: evidence for heterogeneous active state receptor conformations. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2005 Jul;314(1):271-81. doi:10.1124/jpet.104.078865 PMID 15821027
  6. ^ Arrang JM, Morisset S, Gbahou F. Constitutive activity of the histamine H3 receptor. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 2007 Jul;28(7):350-7. PMID 17573125
  7. ^ Baker JG. Antagonist affinity measurements at the Gi-coupled human histamine H3 receptor expressed in CHO cells. BMC Pharmacology. 2008 Jun 6;8:9. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-8-9 PMID 18538007