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Psilocybe zapotecorum
Psilocybe zapotecorum Veracruz.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Hymenogastraceae
Genus: Psilocybe
Species:
P. zapotecorum
Binomial name
Psilocybe zapotecorum
Heim emend Guzman
Synonyms[1]

Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe aggericola var. alvaradoi Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe zapotecorum f. elongata R. Heim (1966)
Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán (1968)
Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán (1981)
Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán (1982)
Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosa Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe ramulosa Guzmán & Bononi (1995)
Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán (2000)
Psilocybe pseudozapotecorum Guzmán (2000)
Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, Escalona & Ram.-Guill. (2004)

Psilocybe zapotecorum
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
gills on hymenium
cap is conical or convex
hymenium is adnate or sinuate
stipe is bare
spore print is purple-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Psilocybe zapotecorum is a psilocybin mushroom which has psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds. It is in the section Zapotecorum.[1][2]

Etymology and history

It is named for the Zapotec Indians, who are native to the Sierra Madre mountains of Oaxaca Mexico, as well as the area they inhabited. According to Richard E. Schultes the Zapotec name translates as "Crown of thorns mushroom".[3] Other sources give the Zapotec name as badao zoo translated as "hongo borracho", "drunken mushroom".[4]

Description

Psilocybe zapotecorum has a farinaceous and raphanoid smell and taste.

Cap

The cap is 2–13 cm, conical to convex, and very rarely expanding to plane in age. The margin wavy sometimes with an acute papilla or mamilla, usually umbonate or with a depressed center. In young specimens the margin has a scalloped edge which sometimes curls upwards as the mushroom matures. The cap is yellowish brown to tan, fading to cream-yellow then brown and finally black through age. The flesh is originally white but soon changes to a cyan blue, then quickly to black.

Gills

Psilocybe zapotecorum gills are a cream color when young and violet brown in age, with an attachment that is sinuate or adnate, and sometimes subdecurrent.

Spores

The spores are dark violet brown, oblong to subellipsoid to subrhomboid, and thin-walled with a short apiculus and truncate germ pore. They measure (5) 6 - 7 (-8) by (3-) 3.5 - 4.5 (-5) x 3 - 4 µm.[1]

Stipe

The stipe is 3–26 cm long, and 0.5–1 cm thick. It is central, flexuous, cylindric or slightly flattened, and hollow. It can be white to grey, turning yellowish, blue, and black in age. The entire stem is covered with many white scales which are more pronounced in the lower part of the stipe. The partial veil is white and arachnoid, disappearing in age. Often a long pseudorrhiza can be found attached the base of the stipe. Strongly bruising blue then black where damaged.

Distribution and habitat

Psilocybe zapotecorum grows solitarily or gregariously, sometimes in cespitose clusters of around a 50 mushrooms. It is found near rivers, creeks and ravines, sometimes growing directly from steep mossy ravine walls. Psilocybe zapotecorum is also found in humid and shadowed places in mesophytic forests, oak-and-pine forests, or cloud forests.

Psilocybe zapotecorum is often found in subtropical forests containing Alnus sp., Magnolia sp., Fraxinus sp., Quercus sp., large pines, and blackberry bushes.

Psilocybe zapotecorum grows in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Ecuador.[1]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d Guzmán, Gastón (2012). "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on Psilocybe S.S. From Mexico, Africa and Spain" (PDF). Acta Botanica Mexicana. 100: 79–106. doi:10.21829/abm100.2012.32.
  2. ^ Ramírez-Cruz, Virginia; Guzmán, Gastón; Villalobos-Arámbula, Alma Rosa; Rodríguez, Aarón; Matheny, Brandon; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura (2013). "Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe sensu lato (Agaricales)". Botany. 91 (9): 573–591. doi:10.1139/cjb-2013-0070.
  3. ^ Schultes, Richard Evans (1993). "The Botanical Sources of New World Narcotics". In Leary, Timothy; Metzner, Ralph; Weil, Gunther M. (eds.). The Psychedelic Reader: Classic Selections from the Psychedelic Review. Citadel Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8065-1451-2.
  4. ^ Orijel, Roberto Garibay (2009). "Los nombres zapotecos de los hongos". Revista Mexicana de Micología Versión Impresa. 30. ISSN 0187-3180.