Public holidays in India, also known as statutory holidays, consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in India at the union or state levels. While many of these holidays are honoured and acknowledged nationwide, State legislation varies in regard to which are officially recognized.

India, being a culturally diverse society, celebrates many holidays and festivals, but there are only three national holidays: Republic Day (26 January), Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti (2 October).[1][2]

States have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular Hindu festivals of Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Maha Shivratri, Onam, Janmashtami, Saraswati Puja, Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Raksha Bandhan, Holi, Durga Puja, Dussehra and Diwali; Jain festivals are Mahavir Janma Kalyanak and Paryushan; Sikh festivals like Guru Nanak Jayanti and Vaisakhi; Muslim festivals of Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Mawlid, Muharram; Buddhist festivals like Ambedkar Jayanti, Buddha Jayanti, Dhammachakra Pravartan Day and Losar; Parsi Zoroastrian holidays such as Nowruz, and Christian festivals of Christmas and Easter as well as days of observances such as Good Friday are observed throughout India.

National holidays

Soldiers of the Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Parade in 2004
Soldiers of the Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Parade in 2004

National holidays are observed in all states and union territories.

India has three national days.

They are:

Date English name Commemorates
26 January Republic Day Adoption of the Constitution of India[3] (1950)
15 August Independence Day Independence from the United Kingdom (1947)
2 October Gandhi Jayanti Birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869)
14 April Ambedkar Jayanti Birthday of Ambedkar Jayanti (1891)

Other notable holidays

States generally adopt the same holidays as the union government with some variations. In addition to the official holidays, many religious, ethnic, and other traditional holidays, as well as observances proclaimed by officials populate the calendar. At the discretion of the employer, other holidays are common additions to the list of paid holidays.

Date Holiday Observed in
1 January New Year's Day Most of India
13–17 January Sankranthi/Pongal Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu
14 January Uttarayan Gujarat
23 January Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose's Jayanti (Parakram Divas) Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Assam
30 January Mahatma Gandhi's Death Anniversary All of India
August or September Onam Kerala, Pondicherry
19 February Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti Maharashtra
20 February Arunachal Pradesh

(statehood day)

26 February Hazrat Ali Jayanti Most of India
1st Day of Chaitra, March/April Ugadi Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana
1st Day of Chithirai, March/April Vishu / Varusha Pirappu or Puthandu
(Malayali and Tamil New Year)
Kerala, Tamil Nadu
2nd Day of Chaitra, March/April Cheti Chand
(Sindhi New Year)
Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
15 March Kanshi Ram's Jayanti Uttar Pradesh
22 March Bihar Day Bihar
30 March Rajasthan Day Rajasthan
1 April Utkala Dibasa
(Odisha day)
Odisha
13/14 April Pana Sankranti (Maha Vishuva Sankranti)
(Odia New Year)
Odisha
14 April Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar's Jayanti Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
14 April Samrat Ashoka's Jayanti
(Birthday of Emperor Ashoka)
Bihar
14/15 April Puthandu
(Tamil New Year)
Tamil Nadu
14/15 April Pohela Boishakh
(Bengali New Year)
Tripura, West Bengal
15 April Bihu
(Assamese New Year)
Assam
1 May Labour Day[4][5] Assam, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal, Odisha, Rajasthan, Punjab
1 May Maharashtra Day Maharashtra
1 May Gujarat Day Gujarat
9 May Rabindra Jayanti West Bengal
16 May Annexation Day Sikkim
2 June Telangana Formation Day Telangana
15 June Maharana Pratap Jayanti Rajasthan
Purnima of Ashvin Valmiki Jayanti Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka
26 October Accession Day Jammu and Kashmir
31 October Sardar Patel Jayanti Gujarat
1 November Karnataka Rajyotsava Karnataka
1 November Andhra Pradesh Raashtra Avatharana Dinotsavam (State Formation Day) Andhra Pradesh
1 November Haryana Foundation Day Haryana
1 November Madhya Pradesh Foundation Day Madhya Pradesh
1 November Kerala Foundation Day Kerala
1 November Chhattisgarh Foundation Day Chhattisgarh
3rd day of Kartika Krishna Paksha Kanaka Jayanti Karnataka
7 December Armed Forces Flag Day Indian military

Holidays with religious significance

In India, people from various religions coexist together. Religious and cultural holidays are characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. People from different religions celebrate their festivals. It is not that a particular festival is celebrated by the people of only a particular religion but, people from other religions also play a great role in the celebration of the festival of other religions.[citation needed]

Hindu holidays

People celebrating Holi in Delhi.
People celebrating Holi in Delhi.

Hindus celebrate a number of festivals all through the year. Hindu festivals have one or more of religious, mythological and seasonal significance. The observance of the festival, the symbolisms used and attached, and the style and intensity of celebration vary from region to region within the country. A list of the more popular festivals is given below.

Main article: Hindu festivals

Holiday Observed in
Bhogi/Lohri Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra (as Bhogi), Punjab (as Lohri)
Makar Sankranti/Sankranthi/ Maghi/Magh Bihu/Pongal Andaman & Nicobar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam (as Magh Bihu), Gujarat (as Uttarayan), Karnataka, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal (as Makar Sankranti), Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (Sankranthi) Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh (as Sangrand), Rajasthan (as Makar Sankranti), Pongal / Tamilar Thirunaal (Tamil Nadu)
Vishu Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Vasant Panchami (Aka, Saraswati Puja) Telangana, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra
Ratha Saptami Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka
Maha Sivarathri Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chandigarh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
Holi (aka, Dol) All states and territories except Kerala, Nagaland, Mizoram, Goa, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Dhulivandan Maharashtra[6]
Ugadi/Gudhi Padwa/Puthandu (Hindu New Year) Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Pudhucherry, (Ugadi), Maharashtra, Goa (Gudi Padwa) Pudhucherry, Tamil Nadu (Puthandu)
Rama Navami Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Hanuman Jayanti Maharashtra, Odisha, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh (as Bada Mangal), Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Akshaya Tritiya/Maharishi Parashurama Jayanti Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh
Rath Jatra Odisha, Gujarat
Naga Panchami or Guga-Navami All states and territories except Goa
Raksha Bandhan(Aka, Rákhi Pourńimá) Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Haryana, Odisha, Punjab, Maharashtra (Raksha Bandhan), Telangana, Andhra Pradesh (Rakhi Purnima)
Krishna Janmashtami/Krishnashtami (a.k.a. Gokulashtami) Andhra Pradesh,Telangana (Krishnashtami), Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal (Krishna Janmashtami)
Ganesh Chaturthi/Vinayaka Chavithi (a.k.a. Ganeshotsav) Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (Vinayaka Chavithi), Pudhucherry (Vinayaka Chavithi/ Vinayaga Chavithi), Tamil Nadu (Vinayaga Chavithi), Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab (Ganesh Chaturthi)
Raja Parba Odisha
Mahalaya Karnataka, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha
Navaratri All states for 10 days till Dussehra
Dussehra/Durga Puja All states and territories (holiday for 2 days in Andhra Pradesh, mainly in Telangana (after Bathukamma), Bihar, Kerala, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh; holiday for 3 days in Odisha, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, and Tripura holiday for 6 days in West Bengal; 11th day Bhashani Utchhav in Odisha)
Kumara Purnima (a.k.a. Kojaagari Pornima) Maharashtra (as Kojaagari Pornima), Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal
Diwali/Deepavali All states and territories (observed for 2 days in Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Odisha; observed for 5 days in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh and Delhi; observed for 6 days in Maharashtra)
Vasu Baras / Vagh Baras (a.k.a. Govatsa Dwadashi) – Maharashtra, Gujarat
Dhanteras (a.k.a. Dhanatrayodashi) – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar
Naraka Chaturdashi – all states except Tamil Nadu
Lakshmi Puja – Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, West Bengal and Tripura, Telangana
Balipratipada, Govardhan Puja– all states except Tamil Nadu
Hindu New Year- Gujarat, Maharashtra
Bhai Duj (Aka, Bhau-beej, Yama Dwitiya, Bhai Phota) Maharashtra, Goa, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar,
Devotthan Ekadashi Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and some parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
Hartalika Teej Maharashtra, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Jagaddhatri Puja West Bengal
Vishwakarma Puja Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal.
Nuakhai Odisha
Chhath Puja Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh
Bathukamma Telangana
Bonalu Telangana

Islamic holidays

Mawlid or Eid-e-Milād-un-Nabī being celebrated in a town in Uttar Pradesh.
Mawlid or Eid-e-Milād-un-Nabī being celebrated in a town in Uttar Pradesh.
Holiday Day and month of Hijri Observed in
Day of Ashura 10th Muharram. Death of Imam Hussain ibn Ali All states and territories
Mawlid Rabi' al-awwal All states and territories
Birthday of Ali ibn Abi Talib 13th Rajab in the Islamic Calendar Uttar Pradesh and Bihar
Shab-e-Barat 15th Sha'ban Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Jumat-ul-Wida
Alvida
Last Friday in Ramadan Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh
Eid ul-Fitr 1st Shawwal All states and territories
Eid-e-Ghadeer 18 Dhu al-Hijjah Telangana
Eid al-Adha 10 Dhu al-Hijjah All states and territories[7]

Sikh holidays

A number of Sikh holidays are Gurpurbs, anniversaries of a guru's birth or death; marked by the holding of a festival.

Holiday Observed in
Guru Gobind Singh Ji Gurpurab Bihar, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji Punjab
Vaisakhi Andaman & Nicobar, Assam, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Guru Nanak Gurpurab All over India

Christian holidays

Shops selling Christmas decorations in Kolkata.
Shops selling Christmas decorations in Kolkata.
Holiday Observed in
Palm Sunday All states and territories
Maundy Thursday Meghalaya, Mizoram, Kerala, and Goa
Good Friday All states and territories
Easter Sunday All states and territories
Feast of Pentecost All states and territories
Feast of St. Thomas the Apostle Kerala
Fest of St. Theresa of Calcutta West Bengal
Feast of the Blessed Virgin Goa and Parts of Karnataka
All Saints Day Karnataka
All Souls Day Mizoram
Feast of St. Francis Xavier Goa
Christmas Day All states and territories
Boxing Day Telangana[8]
Feast of Holy Family Meghalaya

Buddhist holidays

Holiday Observed in
Buddha Purnima Andaman & Nicobar, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Punjab
Bizu Tripura
Dhammachakra Pravartan Day Maharashtra
Losar Sikkim, Ladakh

Jain holidays

Holiday Observed in
Mahavir Janma Kalyanak Andaman & Nicobar, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,
Paryushan Andaman & Nicobar, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,

Parsee (Zoroastrian) holidays

The Shahenshahi and Kadmi variants of the Zoroastrian calendar do not intercalate leap years and hence the day of the Gregorian calendar year on which these days are celebrated shifts ahead with time. The third variant of the Zoroastrian calendar, known as either Fasli (in India) or Bastani (in Iran), intercalcates according to Gregorian calendar rules and thus remains synchronous with the seasons. The Parsis in India use a Shahenshahi calendar, unlike the Iranian Zoroastrians who use a Kadmi calendar. The North American and European Parsis have adapted their own version of the Fasli calendar. This is, however, is looked down upon by many of the Parsis, who continue to use the Shahenshai calendar.[citation needed] These differences cause changes in the dates of the holidays. For example, the Zoroastrian New Year, Nowruz, falls in the spring for the Iranians but in the summer for the Parsis.

Holiday Observed in
Nowruz
(Parsee New Year)
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Pudhucherry, Punjab

Ravidassia holidays

Holiday Observed in
Guru Ravidass Jayanti Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh.

Ayyavazhi holidays

The Masi Procession to Swamithope Pathi during Ayya Vaikunda Avatar
The Masi Procession to Swamithope Pathi during Ayya Vaikunda Avatar
Holiday Observed in
Ayya Vaikunda Avataram Tamil Nadu[9]

Holidays in government offices

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Central and State governments in India issue annually a list of holidays to be observed in the respective government offices during the year.[10] The list is divided into two parts:

In addition, local administrations also issue a list of holidays, known as local holidays, which are observed at the district level.

Central government

The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (Department of Personnel and Training) on behalf of the Government of India issues a list of holidays to be observed in central government offices during the year. The list is divided in two parts i.e. Annexure I & Annexure

Annexure I

Annexure I, also known as Gazetted holidays, consists of a list of holidays that are mandatory once decided.[10] This list consists of two parts:

Paragraph 2

It consists of holidays that are observed compulsorily across India.[10] These holidays are:

  1. Republic Day
  2. Independence Day
  3. Gandhi Jayanti
  4. Mahavir Janma Kalyanak
  5. Buddha Purnima
  6. Christmas Day
  7. Dussehra
  8. Diwali (Deepavali)
  9. Good Friday
  10. Guru Nanak's Birthday
  11. Eid ul-Fitr
  12. Eid al-Adha (Bakrid)
  13. Muharram
  14. Prophet Muhammad's Birthday (Id-e-Milad)
Paragraph 3.1

In addition to the 14 compulsory holidays mentioned in paragraph 2, three holidays are chosen from the list below by the Central Government Employees Welfare Coordination Committee in the respective state capitals (if necessary, in consultation with Coordination Committees at other places in the State). The final list is applied uniformly across all Central Government offices within each state. They are notified after seeking the prior approval of the ministry, and no changes can be made thereafter. No change is permissible in regard to festivals and dates.[10]

  1. An additional day for Dussehra
  2. Holi
  3. Janamashtami (Vaishanvi)/Krishnashtami
  4. Rama Navami
  5. Maha Sivarathri
  6. Ganesh Chaturthi/Vinayak Chaturthi
  7. Makar Sankranti/Sankranthi
  8. Onam
  9. Sri Panchami/Basanta Panchami
  10. Vishu/Vaisakhi/Vaisakhadi/Bhag Bihu/Mashadi/Ugadi/Chaitra Sakladi/Cheti Chand/Gudhi Pada 1st Navratra/Nauraj

Annexure II

Annexure II also known as Restricted holidays, consists of a list of holidays which are optional. Each employee is allowed to choose any two holidays from the list of Restricted Holidays. The Coordination Committees at the State Capitals draw up a separate list of Restricted Holidays, keeping in mind the occasions of local importance, but the nine occasions left over, after choosing the three variable holidays in paragraph 3.1, are included in the list of restricted holidays.[10]

Central government organisations

Central Government Organisations, which include industrial, commercial and trading establishments, observe up to 16 holidays per year, including three national holidays, viz. Republic Day, Independence Day and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday, as compulsory holidays. The remaining holidays/occasions may be determined by such establishments/organisations themselves, subject to paragraph 3.2.[10]

Union territory administrations

Union territory administrations decide the list of holidays based on Ministry of Home Affairs letter No.14046/27 /83- GP-I dated 15 February 1984, by which they observe a total of 16 holidays, including the three National Holidays, viz. Republic Day, Independence Day and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday.[10]

Indian missions abroad

In respect of Indian missions abroad, the number of holidays is determined in accordance with the instructions contained in the Department of Personnel and Training's O.M. No.12/5/2002-JCA dated 17 December 2002. They have the option to select 11 (eleven) holidays of their own only after including the three National Holidays and Diwali, Milad-Un-Nabi or Id-E-Milad, Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, Idu'l Fitr, Dussehra (Vijaya Dasami), Guru Nanak's Birthday, Christmas Day as compulsory holidays falling on weekdays.[10]

Banks

Main article: Bank holidays in India

In respect to banks, the holidays are restricted to 15 days per year in terms of the instructions issued by the Department of Economic Affairs (Banking Division).[10]

  1. Bank Holiday
  2. Gandhi Jayanti
  3. Mahavir Janma Kalyanak
  4. Maharaja Agresen Jayanti
  5. Kashiram Death Anniversary
  6. Dussehra (Maha Navami)
  7. Dussehra (Vijaya Dashami)
  8. Dusshera (Maha Navaratri, Durgotsava, Durga Ashtami, Durga Ashtami)
  9. Deepawali
  10. Deepawali (Govardhan Puja)
  11. Bhai Duj/Chitragupt Jayanti
  12. Eid al-Adha (Bakrid)
  13. Guru Nanak's birthday/Kartik Poornima
  14. Dr. B R. Ambedkar's Nirwan Diwas
  15. Moharram
  16. Christmas
  17. New Year's Day
  18. International Women's Day
  19. Gudhi Padwa
  20. Guru Gobind Singh Ji Gurpurab
  21. Sankaranti
  22. Basanta Panchami
  23. Guru Ravidas Jayanti
  24. Chehalum
  25. Holi
  26. Easter Saturday
  27. Easter Monday
  28. Baishakhi
  29. Janmashtami
  30. Vishwakarma Pooja
  31. Eid ul fitr
  32. Ganesh Chaturthi
  33. Anant chaturdasi
  34. Dussehra (Maha Ashtami)
  35. Maharshi Balmiki Jayanti
  36. Deepavali (Narak Chaturdasi)
  37. Eid ul Adha (Bakrid)
  38. Guru Teg Bahadur Shahid Diwas
  39. Moharram
  40. Christmas
  41. second and fourth Saturday

See also

References

  1. ^ "National holidays". Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  2. ^ "National and Public holidays". Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  3. ^ "Introduction to Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice of India. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "पुढच्या वर्षी सुट्टयांचा पाऊस; १६ लॉन्ग विकेंड-Maharashtra Times". https://maharashtratimes.indiatimes.com. 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Dec.26 declared public holiday
  9. ^ Thousands take part in Ayya Vaikundar Avatar day - The Hindu Archived 11 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, India's National Daily, 04-03-2012, ' " The government had also declared a restricted holiday on Saturday, for the first time, in the State in view of Ayya Vaikundar Avatar day. " '
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Holidays to be observed in central government offices during 2017 Archived 12 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Note a new version of this document is released each year, and old versions may not be available beyond one or two years previous. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.