Public Holidays in India also known as Government Holidays colloquially, consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in India at the union or state levels.

Being a culturally diverse country, there are many festivals celebrated in various regions across the country. There are only three national holidays declared by Government of India: Republic Day (26 January), Independence Day (15 August), and Gandhi Jayanti (2 October). Apart from this, certain holidays which are celebrated nationally are declared centrally by the Union Government. Additionally, various state governments and union territories designate additional holidays on local festivals or days of importance as holidays as per section 25 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.

National holidays

National holidays are mandatory holidays declared by Government of India which is applicable for all states and union territories of India.

National holidays[1]
Date Name Type Details
January 26 Republic Day fixed Celebrates the 1950 adoption of the Constitution of India[2]
August 15 Independence Day fixed Celebrates the 1947 Independence from the British rule[3]
October 2 Gandhi Jayanti fixed Honors Mahatma Gandhi, who was born on October 2, 1869[4]

Central holidays

In addition to the three fixed national holidays, Union Government of India declares additional days as holidays which are largely followed by central government offices and affiliates. In addition to designated fixed holidays, few other days are designated optional from which select number of days can be chosen according to individual convenience.

Fixed

Central holidays:Fixed[5]
Date Name Type Details
AprilMay Buddha Purnima Floating Buddhist festival that celebrates Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism (c. 563-483 BC). It is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar.[6]
December 25 Christmas Day Fixed Christian festival that celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ, central figure of Christianity (c. 6to4BC–30or33AD) whose birth is commemorated on December 25[7]
SeptemberOctober Dussehra (Vijayadashami) Floating Hindu festival that celebrates the victory of good over evil. It is celebrated on the tenth day of Ashvin, the seventh month in the Hindu Calendar[8]
OctoberNovember Diwali Floating Hindu festival of lights. It is celebrated on the new moon day in the month of Ashvin or Kartika in the Hindu Calendar[9]
April Good Friday Floating Christian festival that commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus[10]
OctoberNovember Guru Nanak's Birthday Floating Sikh festival that celebrates the birth of the first Sikh guru, (1469).[11]
MarchApril Eid ul-Fitr Floating Muslim festival that celebrates of the day of breaking the fast. It is celebrated on the first day of Shawwal in the Islamic calendar.[12]
June Eid-ul Adha Floating Muslim festival that honours the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son, either Isaac or Ismail, as an act of obedience to God.[13]
MarchApril Mahavir Jayanti Floating Jain festival that celebrates the birth of Mahavira (599 BC), the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara (supreme preacher) of present Avasarpiṇī[14]
JulyAugust Muharram Floating Muslims mourn the killing of Husayn Ibn Ali , prophet Muhammad's family. Also marks parting of the Red Sea by Moses, salvation of the Israelites, Noah's disembarkment from the Ark.
September Mawlid Floating Muslim festival that celebrates the birth of Muhammad. It is celebrated in Rabi' al-Awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.[15]

Optional

Central holidays:Optional[5]
Date Name Type Details
MarchApril Holi Floating Hindu festival of colors to celebrate the victory of good over evil (Specifically the death of the evil Holika, aunt of Prahlad, an ardent devotee of Vishnu) and arrival of spring, celebrated on full-moon day in the month of Phalguna in the Hindu calendar[16]
AugustSeptember Krishna Janmastami Floating Hindu festival to celebrate the birth of Lord Krishna and celebrated on eighth day of Krishna Paksha in the month of Shravana in the Hindu calendar
MarchApril Ram Navami Floating Hindu festival to celebrate the birth of Lord Rama celebrated on the ninth day of Shukla Paksha in the month of Chaitra in the Hindu calendar
FebruaryMarch Maha Shivaratri Floating Hindu festival to celebrate the wedding of Lord Shiva with Parvati, celebrated on the fourteenth day of Krishna Paksha in the month of Phalguna or Magha in the Hindu calendar[17]
AugustSeptember Ganesh Chaturthi Floating Hindu festival as a tribute to Lord Ganesha, celebrated on the fourth day of Krishna Paksha in the month of Bhadrapada in the Hindu calendar[18]
January Makar Sankranti / Pongal Floating Hindu festival marking the transition of the sun from Sagittarius to Capricorn and dedicated to the solar deity Surya.[19]
JuneJuly Rath Yatra Floating Hindu festival involving a public procession of chariots with the deities Jagannath, Balarama and Subhadra celebrated in Ashadha month of Hindu calendar
AugustSeptember Onam Floating Hindu harvest festival celebrated by the people of Kerala commemorating the visit of Mahabali and celebrated in Chingam, the first month of Malayalam Calendar
JanuaryFebruary Basant Panchami Floating Hindu festival dedicated to Goddess Saraswati, that marks the preparation for the arrival of spring and celebrated on the fifth day of Magha, the eleventh month of Hindu calendar
April Vishu Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Malayali New Year[20]
April Vaisakhi Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Solar new year in North India and spring harvest on the first day of the month of Vaisakh in the Hindu calendar
April Bohag Bihu Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Assamese New Year
April Ugadi Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Telugu and Kannada New Year
April Cheti Chand Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Sindhi New Year
April Gudi Padwa Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Marathi and Konkani New Year
March Nauroz Floating Celebrates the beginning of the Persian New Year
OctoberNovember Chhath Floating Hindu harvest festival dedicated to Sun God Surya, celebrated in North and East India on the sixth day of the month of Kartika
SeptemberOctober Navratri Floating Hindu festival celebrating the first day of the Hindu Vikram Samvat calendar
OctoberNovember Karva Chauth Floating Hindu festival celebrated by women to pray for the longevity of their husbands, observed on the fourth day after the full moon in the month of Kartika

State holidays

In addition to the above, various state governments and union territories designate additional holidays on local festivals or days of importance as holidays as per section 25 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.[1]

Harvest festivals

State holidays:Harvest festivals[21]
Date Name State/UT
January 13January 14 Bhogi Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala
March 6 Chapchar Kut Mizoram
January 16January 17 Kanum Pongal Tamil Nadu
OctoberNovember Kati Bihu Assam
January 13January 14 Lohri Punjab
January 14January 15 Magh Bihu Assam
January 14January 15 Maghi Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, Punjab
January 14January 15 Sankranti Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Sikkim, Telangana, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Uttarakhand, Punjab, West Bengal
AugustSeptember Onam Kerala
January 14January 15 Pongal Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
AugustSeptember Thiruvonam Kerala
January 15January 16 Uzhavar Thirunal Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
SeptemberOctober Wangala Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland

New year

State holidays:New year's days[21]
Date Name State/UT
April 13April 14 Bohag Bihu Assam
MarchApril Gudi Padwa Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Maharashtra
August Losoong Sikkim
FebruaryMarch Losar Ladakh
January 1 New Year's Day Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Puducherry, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Telangana
December 31 New Year's Eve Manipur
April 13April 14 Pana Sankranti Odisha
March 20March 21 Parsi New Year Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Gujarat, Maharashtra
April 14April 15 Pohela Boishakh Tripura, West Bengal
April 13April 14 Puthaandu Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
MarchApril Sarhul Jharkhand
MarchApril Sajibu Nongma Panba Manipur
MarchApril Ugadi Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana
April 13April 14 Vaisakhi Jharkhand, Punjab
April 14April 15 Vishu Kerala
November Vikram Samvant New Year Gujarat, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

State days

State holidays:State days[21]
Date Name State/UT
November 1 Andhra Pradesh Day Andhra Pradesh
February 20 Arunachal Pradesh Statehood Day Arunachal Pradesh
December 2 Asom Day Assam
March 22 Bihar Day Bihar
November 1 Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava Chhattisgarh
December 19 Goa Liberation Day Goa
May 2 Gujarat Day Gujarat
November 1 Haryana Day Haryana
April 15 Himachal Day Himachal Pradesh
October 26 Jammu and Kashmir Accession day Jammu and Kashmir
November 1 Kannada Rajyothsava Karnataka
May 1 Maharashtra Day Maharashtra
February 20 Mizoram State Day Mizoram
December 1 Nagaland State Inauguration Day Nagaland
April 1 Odisha Day Odisha
August 16 Puducherry De Jure Transfer Day Puducherry
November 1 Puducherry Liberation Day Puducherry
May 16 Sikkim State Day Sikkim
June 2 Telangana Formation Day Telangana
September 17 Hyderabad-Karnataka Liberation Day Karnataka

Birth and anniversary days

State holidays:Birth and anniversary days[21]
Date Name State/UT
April 14 Ambedkar Jayanti Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
April 5 Babu Jag Jivan Ram's Birthday Bihar
April 23 Basava Jayanti Karnataka
July 13 Bhanu Jayanti Sikkim
February 19 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti Maharashtra
December 18 Guru Ghasidas Jayanti Chandigarh
February Guru Ravidass Jayanti Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
September 23 Heroes' Martyrdom Day Haryana
September 26 Janmotsav Assam
June 4 Kabir Jayanti Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab
November 15 Kanakadasa Jayanthi Karnataka
May 25 Kazi Nazrul Islam Jayanti Tripura
October 15 Maharaja Agrasen Jayanti Haryana
September 23 Maharaja Hari Singh Ji's Birthday Jammu and Kashmir
May 9 Maharana Pratap Jayanti Rajasthan
July 13 Martyrs' Day Jharkhand
January 23 Netaji's Birthday Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal
December 12 Pa Togan Sangma Meghalaya
May 7 Rabindranath Tagore's Birthday West Bengal
September 26 Ramdev Jayanti Rajasthan
March 23 Shaheedi Diwas Punjab
October 31 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel's Birthday Gujarat
December 26 Shaheed Udham Singh Jayanti Haryana
July 31 Shaheed Udham Singh Martyrdom day Haryana
August 20 Sree Narayana Guru Jayanthi Kerala
September 20 Sree Narayana Guru Samadhi Kerala
January 12 Swami Vivekananda's Birthday West Bengal
January 15January 16 Thiruvalluvar Day Tamil Nadu
December 18 U Soso Tham Death Anniversary Meghalaya
December 30 U Kiang Nangbah Meghalaya
July 17 U Tirot Sing Day Meghalaya

Religious days

State holidays:Religious days[21]
Date Name Type State/UT
JuneJuly Akshaya Tritiya Hindu
OctoberNovember Ayudha Puja Hindu Tamil Nadu
SeptemberOctober Bathukamma Hindu Telangana
November Bhai Dooj Hindu Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh   
June Bonalu Hindu Telangana
OctoberNovember Chhath Hindu Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh
March Dol Jatra Hindu West Bengal
October Durga Puja Hindu West Bengal
AugustSeptember Ganesh Chaturthi Hindu Andhra Pradesh, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Puducherry, Telangana, Tamil Nadu  
OctoberNovember Ghatasthapana Hindu Rajasthan
April Garia Puja Hindu Tripura
November Govardhan Puja Hindu Haryana
April Hanuman Jayanti Hindu
AugustSeptember Hartalika Teej Hindu Chandigarh, Sikkim
SeptemberOctober Haryali Teej Hindu Haryana
MarchApril Holi Hindu Pan India except Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Manipur, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
March Holika Dahan Hindu Rajasthan
AugustSeptember Jhulan Purnima Hindu Odisha
November Kali Puja Hindu West Bengal
November Kartika Purnima Hindu Odisha, Tamil Nadu
July Ker Puja Hindu Tripura
June Kharchi Puja Hindu Tripura
AugustSeptember Krishna Janmashtami Hindu Andaman and Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
October Lakshmi Puja Hindu Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal
OctoberNovember Maha Astami Hindu Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Telangana, West Bengal
MarchApril Maha Navami Hindu Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
OctoberNovember Maha Saptami Hindu Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal  
FebruaryMarch Maha Shivaratri Hindu Pan India except Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Puducherry, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal  
October Mahalaya Hindu Karnataka, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal
October Maharishi Valmiki Jayanti Hindu Chandigarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab
April Nag Panchami Hindu Maharashtra
AprilMay Maharshi Parasuram Jayanti Hindu Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
June Raja Parba Hindu Odisha
August Raksha Bandhan Hindu Chandigarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
MarchApril Ram Navami Hindu Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Daman and Diu, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
November Rahasa Purnima Hindu Odisha
JuneJuly Rath Jatra Hindu Odisha
February Ratha Saptami Hindu Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra
SeptemberOctober Teja Dashmi Hindu Rajasthan
JanuaryFebruary Thaipusam Hindu Tamil Nadu
JanuaryFebruary Vasant Panchami Hindu Haryana, Odisha, Punjab, Tripura, West Bengal
September Vishwakarma day Hindu Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
February Dosmoche Buddhist Ladakh
July Drupka Teshi Buddhist Ladakh
November Lhabab Duchen Buddhist Sikkim
December Pang-Lhabsol Buddhist Sikkim
August Chehlum Muslim Bihar, Uttar Pradesh
April Jumat-ul-Vida Muslim Jammu and Kashmir
January 28 Mohm Hajarat Ali Muslim Bihar
April Shab-I-Qadr Muslim Jammu and Kashmir
December Feast of St. Francis Xavier Christian Goa
April Easter Christian Kerala
January 11 Missionary Day Christian Meghalaya
January 5 Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti Sikh Chandigarh, Haryana
June 19 Guru Hargobind Ji's birthday Sikh Jharkhand
August 28 Parkash Utsav Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Sikh Punjab
June 3 Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji's Martyrdom Day   Sikh Punjab
November 28 Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji's Martyrdom Day Sikh Punjab
August Samvatsari Jain Gujarat
July Behdienkhlam Indigenous Meghalaya
November Chapchar Kut Indigenous Mizoram
December Indigenous Faith Day Indigenous Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
January Gaan-Ngai Indigenous Assam, Manipur, Nagaland
January Imoinu Iratpa Indigenous Manipur
October Indrajatra Indigenous Sikkim
February Lui Ngai Ni Indigenous Manipur
January Me-Dam-Me-Phi Indigenous Assam
November Ningol Chakouba Indigenous Manipur
September Nuakhai Indigenous Odisha
August Tendong Lho Rumfaat Indigenous Sikkim
March Yaosang Indigenous Manipur

Others

State holidays:Others[21]
Date Name State/UT
May 1 May Day Assam, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Puducherry, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal
July 6 MHIP day Mizoram
August 13 Patriot's day Manipur
April 24 Panchaytiraj Diwas Odisha
June 30 Remna Ni Mizoram
November 23 Seng Kut Snem Mizoram
June 15 YMA Day Mizoram

Others

Banks have specific holidays according to the various states or union territories in addition to every second and fourth Saturdays of the month.[22] Schools, colleges and other educational institutions have specific term holidays according to the state or board.

References

  1. ^ a b "Bank holidays in India". Forbes. 29 May 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  2. ^ Introduction to Constitution of India (Report). Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  3. ^ "Independence Day of India, 15 August 2020: History, Significance, Facts and Celebration". Times of India. 15 August 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  4. ^ "Gandhi Jayanti 2023: Date, history, significance and all you need to know about Mahatma Gandhi's birth anniversary". Hindustan Times. 2 October 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  5. ^ a b 2023 Holiday list (PDF) (Report). Government of India. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  6. ^ "Buddha Purnima 2023: Date, Timings, Story, Teachings and Significance". Times of India. 5 May 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  7. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Navratri". Britannica. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  9. ^ "Diwali". Britannica. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  10. ^ The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. 2002. p. 639. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  11. ^ "Guru Nanak Jayanti 2019: History, significance and traditions". Hindustan Times. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  12. ^ Elias, Jamal J. (1999). Islam. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-4152-1165-9.
  13. ^ "Id al-Adha". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  14. ^ (India), Gujarat (1975). Gazetteers: Junagadh. p. 13.
  15. ^ Schussman, Aviva (1998). "The Legitimacy and Nature of Mawid al-Nabī: (analysis of a Fatwā)". Islamic Law and Society. 5 (2): 214–234. doi:10.1163/1568519982599535.
  16. ^ "Holi". Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  17. ^ "Maha-shivaratri". Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  18. ^ "Ganesh Chaturthi". Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  19. ^ "Pongal". Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  20. ^ "Vishu". Britannica. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Bank holiday list". HDFC Bank. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  22. ^ "Saturday bank holidays". RBI. Retrieved 1 November 2023.