Pukapukan
RegionPukapuka and Nassau islands, northern Cook Islands; some in Rarotonga; also New Zealand and Australia
Native speakers
450 in Cook Islands (2011 census)[1]
2,000 elsewhere (no date)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pkp
Glottologpuka1242
ELPPukapuka

Pukapukan is a Polynesian language that developed in isolation on the island of Pukapuka in the northern group of the Cook Islands. As a "Samoic Outlier" language with strong links to western Polynesia, Pukapukan is not closely related to any other languages of the Cook Islands, but does manifest substantial borrowing from some East Polynesian source in antiquity.

Recent research suggests that the languages of Pukapuka, Tokelau and Tuvalu group together as a cluster, and as such had significant influence on several of the Polynesian Outliers, such as Tikopia and Anuta, Pileni, Sikaiana (all in the Solomon Islands) and the Takuu Atoll in Papua New Guinea. There is also evidence that Pukapuka had prehistoric contact with Micronesia, as there are quite a number of words in Pukapukan that appear to be borrowings from Kiribati (K. & M. Salisbury conference paper, 2013).

Pukapukan is also known as "te leo Wale" ('the language of Home') in reference to the name of the northern islet where the people live. The atoll population has declined from some 750 in the early 1990s to less than 500 since the cyclone in 2005. Literacy in the Pukapukan language was introduced in the school in the 1980s, resulting in an improvement in the quality of education on the atoll.

The majority of those speaking the language live in a number of migrant communities in New Zealand and Australia. A bilingual dictionary was started by the school teachers on the island and completed in Auckland within the Pukapukan community there.[2][3] An indepth study of the language has resulted in a reference grammar (Mary Salisbury, A Grammar of Pukapukan, University of Auckland, 2003 700pp.). The most significant publication in the Pukapuka language will be the "Puka Yā" (Bible), with the New Testament expected to be completed for publishing in 2019.

History

Pukapukan is the language spoken on the coral atoll of Pukapuka, located in the northern section of the Cook Islands (Beaglehole 1906–1965). Pukapukan shares minor intelligibility with its national language of Cook Islands Maori, and bears strong links to its neighboring Western Polynesian cultures specifically Samoa. The island of Pukapuka is one of the most remote islands in the Cook Islands. There is evidence that humans have inhabited the atoll for about 2000 years, but it is not clear whether it has been continuously inhabited. It may be certain that a final settlement took place around 1300 AD from Western Polynesia. Local oral tradition records that huge waves generated by a severe cyclone washed over the island and killed most of the inhabitants except for 15–17 men, 2 women and an unknown number of children. Recent interpretation of genealogies suggests that this catastrophe occurred about 1700 AD. It was from these survivors that the island was repopulated.

The island was one of the first of the Cook Islands to be discovered by the Europeans, on Sunday 20 August 1595 by the Spanish Explorer Álvaro de Mendaña.

Population

The language of Pukapukan is not only spoken on the island of Pukapuka but on the neighboring Cook Islands as well as New Zealand and Australia. Today the population of Pukapuka has diminished with only a few hundred native speakers. From a 2001 census there were only about 644 speakers on Pukapuka and its plantation island of Nassau. As of a 2011 census, there are now only 450 speakers due to a devastating cyclone that hit the island of Pukapuka in 2005. There are a total of 2,400 speakers worldwide, including those who live on Pukapuka and the 200 speakers on Rarotonga, the most populous island of the Cook Islands.

Classification

Pukapukan is an Austronesian language of the Nuclear Polynesian branch.[4] Though grouped with the Cook Islands the language shows influence from both Eastern and Western Polynesia.

Phonology

Alphabet

There are 15 letters in the Pukapukan alphabet – five vowels and 10 consonants. The digraph ⟨ng⟩ occurs in the place that ⟨G⟩ occupies in the English alphabet. ⟨a, e, ng, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, t, u, v, w, y⟩

Consonants

The consonant phonemes in Pukapukan are: / p, t, k, v, w, θ, m, n, ŋ, l / (Teingoa 1993).

The letters ⟨y⟩ and ⟨w⟩ are not in the Cook Islands Maori language but are additions to Pukapukan. The semivowel /w/ and the palatalised dental spirant /θʲ/, in general, regularly reflect *f and *s, respectively. The ⟨y⟩ sound in Pukapukan actually acts somewhat differently and is difficult for non native speakers to pronounce. It is pronounced like ⟨th⟩ in English "this, other".

Vowels

The vowels in Pukapukan are respectively /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels have two sounds, a long sound and a short sound. A vowel's length is indicated by writing a macron above each vowel.

In Pukapukan it is safe to say that every syllable ends with a vowel, every vowel is pronounced, and there are no diphthongal sounds.

Grammar

Basic word order

Pukapukan uses the two distinctive word orders of verb-subject-object and Verb-Object-Subject, although it is clear that VSO is used more commonly. Adjectives always follow their nouns in Pukapukan. Waka- is often used as a causative prefix in Austronesian languages, but in Pukapukan it has various functionalities. Due to Rarotongan influence ‘waka-’ is shortened to ‘aka-’, whereas ‘waka-’ is seen to be more formal (Teingoa 1993). Nouns prefixed by waka- become verbs with similar meanings:

Adjectives prefixed by waka become transitive verbs:

Some verbs prefixed by waka- have specialized meanings that become somewhat difficult to predict from the base meaning.

Reduplication

Like many other Polynesian languages, Pukapukan uses a lot of full and partial reduplication, some times to emphasize a word or to give it new meaning.

Numerals

  1. tayi “one”
  2. lua “two”
  3. tolu “three”
  4. wa “four”
  5. lima “five”
  6. ono “six”
  7. witu “seven”
  8. valu “eight”
  9. iva “nine”
  10. katoa/laungaulu “ten”

Pukapukan uses two different counting systems in the language; the ‘one unit’ and the ‘two unit’. Numeral classifiers are also used as prefixes for numbers over ten and different objects. The ‘one unit’ uses its word for ten ‘laungaulu’ and adds the ‘one unit’ number (Teingoa 1993).

For numbers above nineteen the single unit numbers are used.

The ‘two unit’ is derived from the ‘one unit’.

Demonstratives and Spatial Deictics

Different form classes

Demonstrative pronouns

Much like other Oceanic languages, Pukapukan has a three-way distinction of positional demonstrative particles that relate to the position of the speaker and addressee.[5] In Pukapukan, these include nei ‘near to the speaker,’ ‘near to addressee and ‘away from both the speaker and addressee.’ Pukapukan also has the demonstrative particle ia meaning ‘aforementioned.’ [6] These demonstrative particles form compounds with the singular articles te and e and with the preposition ki ‘to.’ [7]

The definite demonstrative pronouns are formed by adding the singular specific article te-. For example, when adding te-, nei becomes tēnei ‘this (by me),’ becomes tēnā ‘that (by you),’ becomes tēlā ‘that (over there)’ and ia becomes teia ‘this (being demonstrated or mentioned previously).’ These demonstrative pronouns only occur as subjects of nominal predicates and as represented below can be equated with personal pronouns (example 1), pronouns (examples 2–3) or definite common noun phrases (examples 4–5).[7]

(1)

Ko

PRD

oku

I

tenei

this

ko

PRD

Vakayala.

Vakayala

Ko oku tenei ko Vakayala.

PRD I this PRD Vakayala

This is me, Vakayala.

(2)

Ko

PRD

koe

you

koia

exactly

tēnā

that

na

TAM

langaina

uproot-CIA

toku

my

kongá?

place-DA

Ko koe koia tēnā na langaina toku kongá?

PRD you exactly that TAM uproot-CIA my place-DA

Was that indeed you who uprooted my garden?

(3)

Ko

PRD

ai

ANAPH.PN

tēlā

that

e

TAM

yaelé.

walk-DA

Ko ai tēlā e yaelé.

PRD ANAPH.PN that TAM walk-DA

Who is that walking over there?

(4)

Ko

PRD

tona

his

teina

brother

teia.

this

Ko tona teina teia.

PRD his brother this

This is his brother.

(5)

Ko

PRD

te

ART

lili

anger

teia

this

o

POSS

te

ART

all

lōpā.

youth

Ko te lili teia o te wī lōpā.

PRD ART anger this POSS ART all youth

This was [why] all the youths were angry.

The demonstrative subject may separate the head from the possessive phase when the nominal predicate is a complex phrase whose head is modified by a postposed possessive phrase, as shown in example 6 below.[8]

(6)

Ko

TOP

te

ART

kau

group

teia

here

o

POSS

tona

his

vaka

canoe

Ko te kau teia o tona vaka

TOP ART group here POSS his canoe

These are the people belonging to his canoe.

The nonspecific article e and the positional demonstrative particles can also be combined to form indefinite demonstrative pronouns. These include ēnāi ‘this (by me),’ ēnā ‘that (by you),’ ēlā ‘that (over there)’ and eia ‘here with (being demonstrated).’ These demonstrative pronouns constitute the nucleus of indefinite nominal predicates and are normally followed by their subjects as shown in examples 7–10 below.[8]

(7)

Ēnāi

This

toku

my

manako,

thought

ka

TAM

go.PL

tāua

we.DU

ki

G

te

ART

keonga,

point

tunu

cook

i

ACC

a

POSS

tāua

we.DU

manu

bird

nei.

here

Ēnāi toku manako, ka wō tāua ki te keonga, tunu i a tāua manu nei.

This my thought TAM go.PL we.DU G ART point cook ACC POSS we.DU bird here

This is my idea, let's go to the point and cook our birds.

(8)

Ēnā

that

ake

DIR

te

ART

puká.

book-Da

Ēnā ake te puká.

that DIR ART book-Da

Please pass that book there.

(9)

Ēlā

that

te

ART

weke

octopus

koa

TAM

lele

run

ki

G

loto

inside

o

POSS

te

ART

pū.

hole

Ēlā te weke koa lele ki loto o te pū.

that ART octopus TAM run G inside POSS ART hole

Over there's an octopus fleeing to his hole.

(10)

Eia

here.with

tau

your

kapu

cup

kaope.

coffee

Eia tau kapu kaope.

here.with your cup coffee

Here is your cup of coffee [handing it over]

The demonstrative particles can also form compounds with the preposition ki- ‘to.’ These compounds can be used as a substitute (pro-form) for locational nouns. These type of demonstrative pronouns in Pukapukan include, kinea ‘to here,’ kinā ‘to there, by you,’ kilā ‘to over there’ and kiai ‘to there,’ in which kiai is an anaphoric form.[9]

These demonstrative pronouns occur as the head of a locative predicate as demonstrated in examples 11–13 below.[9]

The compound kiai is formed by joining the case marker ki (meaning ‘to’) to the anaphoric pronoun ai. Kiai may replace a personal pronoun or a proper locational noun. This can be seen in example 13 in which the locational noun wale ‘home’ is replaced with kiai in the following constituent.[9]

(11)

TAM

i

LOC

kinei

here

oki

also

te

ART

tele

tour.group

i

LOC

te

ART

taime

time

ia.

AF

Nā i kinei oki te tele i te taime ia.

TAM LOC here also ART tour.group LOC ART time AF

The tour group was here at that time.

(12)

Ko

TAM

i

LOC

kinā

there

Q

ia

ART

Kalaka

Kalaka

ma

and

Pilipa.

Pilipa

Ko i kinā mō ia Kalaka ma Pilipa.

TAM LOC there Q ART Kalaka and Pilipa

Kalaka and Pilipa are where you are, aren't they?

(13)

Angatu

go

atu

DIR

au

I

ki

G

wale,

home

ko

TAM

i

LOC

kiai

there

ia

ART

Pāpā

Father

mā.

etc.

Angatu atu au ki wale, ko i kiai ia Pāpā mā.

go DIR I G home TAM LOC there ART Father etc.

When I got home, Father and the others were there.

These forms can also be used to substitute a noun phrase which has been marked for case by a preposition. For example:[9]

(14)

Ka

TAM

lōmamai

come.PL

ai

ANAPH.PN

ia

ART

Ngake

Ngake

ki

G

kinei

here

angaanga.

REDUP-work

Ka lōmamai ai ia Ngake ki kinei angaanga.

TAM come.PL ANAPH.PN ART Ngake G here REDUP-work

The whole of Ngake will come here to work.

(15)

Ko

PRD

te

ART

tokatolu

PRE-three

over

kilā

there

Ko te tokatolu lā kilā

PRD ART PRE-three over there

The three of them over there.

Demonstrative modifiers

Pukapukan has several classes of modifiers.[10] In particular, the directional and positional modifiers help indicate spatial and temporal directions and positions from the speaker and/or addressee.[10]

Directionals [11]
mai 'towards speaker'
atu 'away from speaker'
ake 'upwards,' 'oblique to speaker'; 'please'
io '?downwards,' 'misfortune'

According to Clark (1976),[12] cognates of the directional particles of Pukapukan are found in all Polynesian languages.

The directional particles tend to modify verbs more frequently than nouns and are often associated with verbs that denote movement, as well as verbs that denote speech, perception, cognition and social interaction.[13]

Mai indicates real or implied movement in the direction of the speaker, for example:[14]

(16)

Teketeke

REDUP-move

mai

DIR

kai

G-ART

aku

I

nei.

here

Teketeke mai kai aku nei.

REDUP-move DIR G-ART I here

Move a little closer to me.

(17)

Auwē

NEG.IMP

koe

you

e

TAM

tāpitāpi

sprinkle

mai,

DIR

ka

TAM

yuyū

wet

toku

my

kākawu.

clothes.

Auwē koe e tāpitāpi mai, ka yuyū toku kākawu.

NEG.IMP you TAM sprinkle DIR TAM wet my clothes.

Don't splash water on me in case my clothes get wet.

Atu can indicate physical movement away from the speaker, as in:[14]

(18)

Yoloyolo

REDUP-move

atu

DIR

koe

you

ki

G

te

ART

toe

other

kaokao.

side

Yoloyolo atu koe ki te toe kaokao.

REDUP-move DIR you G ART other side

Move away from me to the other side.

and for verbs of perception and communication can also indicate direction away from the deictic centre, for example:[14]

(19)

Ko

TAM

tātā

write

atu

DIR

iāna

he

kia

G-ART

koe?

you

Ko tātā atu iāna kia koe?

TAM write DIR he G-ART you

Does he write to you?

Atu can also encode temporal progression away from the present.[14]

(20)

Wea

what

atu

DIR

ai

ANAPH.PN

koe?

you

Wea atu ai koe?

what DIR ANAPH.PN you

What did you do then?

Mai and atu can co-occur when modifying the same verb, when one has a directional meaning and the other has a temporal or aspectual meaning.[15]

Ake mostly functions as a politeness marker, but the directional particle ake now has meanings 'upwards' and 'oblique to speaker,' which appears to be a one-particle combination of Proto-Polynesian's hake 'upwards' and aŋe 'oblique to speaker.'[13][16] Hence, it can function similar to atu and mai in term of denoting temporal and aspectual meanings. However, these forms are rarely used in present day.[16]

In saying that, io is found to be used even less. Reflexes of its Proto-Polynesian form have traditionally been glossed 'downwards,' but this meaning is hardly apparent in Pukapukan and is more often associated with meaning 'misfortune coming upon one.'[16]

Positionals[11]
nei 'near to speaker'
'near to addressee'
'away from both, 'intensifier'
-V definitive accent: 'away from both'
ia 'aforementioned'

The positional modifiers indicate location in space or time relative to the speaker or to the deictic centre of the discourse.

Nei 'near to speaker' can modify a noun in a noun phrase or a locative phrase. Doing so indicates that the entity encoded by the noun is within sight of or in the general locality of the speaker. For instance, in example 21 below, the speaker is likely pointing to a 'word' near them while asking the question.[17]

(21)

E

PRD

wea

what

te

ART

ingoa

name

nei?

here

E wea te ingoa nei?

PRD what ART name here

What is this word?

'near to addressee' only occurs in noun phrases and can denote a position near to the addressee (example 22), something belonging to the addressee or a characteristic behavior pattern or inherent quality of the addressee (example 23) or, in long-distance communication can indicate that the addressee is anticipated to be in a certain place at the time of reading the letter or story or answering the phone call during the long-distance communication (example 24).[18]

(22)

Aumai

bring

ake

DIR

taku

my

pāla

knife

.

there

Aumai ake taku pāla .

bring DIR my knife there

Please pass my knife [that you have].

(23)

Kokoto

R-grunt

ake

DIR

POSS

kōtou

you

īmene

song

there

ke

C

langona.

hear

Kokoto ake tā kōtou īmene ke langona.

R-grunt DIR POSS you song there C hear

Please start your song so [we] can hear [it].

(24)

Auwā

probably

ko

TAM

lelei

good

wua

just

kōtou

you

i

LOC

Wale

home

.

there.

Auwā ko lelei wua kōtou i Wale .

probably TAM good just you LOC home there.

I hope you are all well there in Pukapuka [where you are].

'away from both speaker and addressee; intensifier' may only occur with a directional meaning in verb phrases, not in noun phrases. often modifies motion verbs and can take on the directional meaning of 'there, yonder.'[19] For example:

(25)

Luku

dive

there

koe

you

ki

G

te

ART

watu.

stone

Luku koe ki te watu.

dive there you G ART stone

Dive down to the rock.

Demonstrative predicates

In Pukapukan, demonstrative predicates take on a number of roles and functions.

Firstly, indefinite demonstrative pronouns can function as predicates which denote spatial or temporal location and are usually followed by their subjects as demonstrated in examples 7-10 above.[20]

When denoting temporal location, demonstrative predicates may do this specifically (as in example 26) or indirectly (as in example 27).

(26)

Ēnei

here

loa

INT

te

ART

taime

time

ko

TAM

velavela.

RR-hot

Ēnei loa te taime ko velavela.

here INT ART time TAM RR-hot

This is really the time when [the food] is hot.

(27)

Kalia

wait-CIA

wua,

just

ēnei

here

na

TAM

pau.

finish

Kalia wua, ēnei na pau.

wait-CIA just here TAM finish

Just wait, [I'm nearly] finished.

In narratives, demonstrative predicates may be used to set the scene for an imminent event, such as:

(28)

Ēnei

here

iki

carry

ART

vaka

canoe

Ēnei iki nā vaka

here carry ART canoe

Here [they were] carrying the canoes.

They may also function as an affirmation seeker or used to describe or explain an aside in real time to listeners and readers.

(29)

Ēnei,

here

na

TAM

tiketike

RR-high

ai

PRO

te

ART

langi

sky

ki

G

lunga

up

nei.

here

Ēnei, na tiketike ai te langi ki lunga nei.

here TAM RR-high PRO ART sky G up here

Thus, the sky is high up above.

(30)

Ēlā,

there

ko

TOP

te

ART

tangata

person

na

TAM

uwiuwia

RR-cover-CIA

na

ART

pulú,

husk-DA,

ko

PRD

Tepou.

Tepou

Ēlā, ko te tangata na uwiuwia na pulú, ko Tepou.

there TOP ART person TAM RR-cover-CIA ART husk-DA, PRD Tepou

You know, that person who was turning over those husks, it was Tepou.

In particular, eia can be used to set apart narrative clauses from backgrounding comments and is also used as a marker which concludes a narrative.

(31)

Eia,

so

Kave

take

loe

INT

INT

oki

also

lātou

they

ia

ART

Uyo

Uyo

ma

and

tana

his

lau.

men

Eia, Kave loe lā oki lātou ia Uyo ma tana lau.

so take INT INT also they ART Uyo and his men

So, then they took Uyo and his men.

(32)

Eia,

so

pau

finish

atu

DIR

ai

PRO

taku

my

tala

story

ia.

AF

Eia, pau atu ai taku tala ia.

so finish DIR PRO my story AF

So, that's the end of my story.

Lastly, demonstrative predicates do not allow topicalisation of their subjects.

(33)

*Te,

ART

puka

book

ēnei.

here

*Te, puka ēnei.

ART book here

(Here is the book).

Demonstrative adverbs

Pukapukan has four demonstrative adverbs. These include pēnei ‘like this,’ pēnā ‘like that [by you],’ pē ‘like that [over there]’ and peia ‘like so [being demonstrated]’ can modify a predicate, function as verbs, denote modality, introduce direct or indirect speech or stand as a pro-form for a prepositional phrase. For example, peia functions as a verb meaning ‘carry on in like manner’ to the action or state described in a previous clause as seen in example 34 below.

(34)

[Nō

POSS

kiai

that

kake

climb

loa

INT

iāna

he

i

ACC

te

ART

niu

coconut

mua],

first

[kake

climb

i

ACC

te

ART

lua],

second

[pēia

like-so

wua

just

ai],

PRO

[oko

arrive

ki

G

te

ART

niu

coconut

openga].

last

[Nō kiai kake loa iāna i te niu mua], [kake i te lua], [pēia wua ai], [oko ki te niu openga].

POSS that climb INT he ACC ART coconut first climb ACC ART second like-so just PRO arrive G ART coconut last

So he climbed the first coconut, climbed the second, and carried on like that [until he] got to the last coconut.

Deictic distinctions

This demonstrative paradigm below shows the four deictic patterns found in Pukapukan.

Pukapukan Demonstrative Paradigm[21]
Postposed Positionals Subject Pronouns Nominal Predicate Heads Similative Pro-verbs Locative Pronouns
Pattern 1 nei tēnei ēnei pēnei kinei
Pattern 2 tēnā ēnā pēnā kinā
Pattern 3 -V tēlā ēlā pēlā kilā
Pattern 4 ia teia eia peia kiai

Pattern 1 generally corresponds to ‘near speaker, or deictic centre.’[22] For example:

(35)

Ko

TAM

i

LOC

loto

inside

o

POSS

te

ART

pia

box

nei.

here.

Ko i loto o te pia nei.

TAM LOC inside POSS ART box here.

[It] is inside the box [that I am holding].

Pattern 2 generally corresponds to ‘near the addressee.’[22]

(36)

Ko

TAM

i

LOC

loto

inside

o

POSS

te

ART

pia

box

there.

Ko i loto o te pia

TAM LOC inside POSS ART box there.

[It] is inside the box [that you are holding].

Pattern 3 generally corresponds to ‘away from both speaker and addressee.’[22]

(37)

Ko

TAM

i

LOC

loto

inside

o

POSS

te

ART

piá.

box-DA

Ko i loto o te piá.

TAM LOC inside POSS ART box-DA

[It] is inside the box over there.

Pattern 4 generally corresponds to ‘aforementioned or being demonstrated.’[22]

(38)

Ko

TAM

i

LOC

loto

inside

o

POSS

te

ART

pia

box

ia.

AF

Ko i loto o te pia ia.

TAM LOC inside POSS ART box AF

[It] is inside the box [that we mentioned, or that I am giving to you].

Vocabulary

Indigenous vocabulary

Loanwords

Pukapukan is not closely related to other Cook Islands languages but it does show substantial borrowing from Eastern Polynesian languages, such as Rarotongan. In fact, because there is no ‘r’ in Pukapukan ‘l’ takes its place in Rarotongan borrowings (Teingoa 1993).

Pukapukan Rarotongan
Rarotonga Lalotonga Rarotonga
torch lama rama
hurry limalima rimarima
angry lili riri
pour lilingi riringi

Homophones

Pukapukan uses many homophones in its vocabulary usually to give names to new words or items with similar origin meanings (Beaglehole 1906–1965).

kapa

  1. v. to clap hands in rhythm
  2. v. to cry loudly
  3. n. corner

ata

  1. n. an emotional shock
  2. n. shadow
  3. n. Dawn
  4. v. to change color
  5. Verbal prefix: good at, skilled in

lulu

  1. v. to tie up
  2. n. Bundle, village, group, team
  3. n. Name of a taro preparation
  4. n. Name of a bird

Endangerment

Materials

There is a limited list when it comes to the language of Pukapukan. Although, today speakers of the language, locals of Pukapuka, and especially teachers on the island are working to put together books and resources dedicated to the teaching and structure of Pukapukan. Collaboratively the locals of the island are also working to bring back to their own community since the devastating Cyclone Percy in 2005. Since 2005 it has taken nearly 6 years to rebuild their communities (Pasifika 2009). Currently there are a select number of manuscripts and dictionaries on the language of Pukapukan, but their culture is kept alive through music and dance collaborations across the pacific and websites like YouTube.

Vitality

According to Ethnologue Pukapukan is considered to be a threatened language and its “Intergenerational transmission is in the process of being broken, but the child-bearing generation can still use the language so it is possible that revitalization efforts could restore transmission of the language in the home.[23] Speakers of Pukapukan especially children are multilingual in English and Cook Islands Maori, but English is rarely spoken outside of schools and many classes are actually taught in Pukapukan. Today, revitalization efforts of Pukapuka and its language is underway (Pasifika 2009).

Per the Te Reo Maori Act, Pukapukan is deemed to be a form of Cook Islands Māori for legal purposes.

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b Pukapukan at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Douglas, Briar (13 August 2013). "Pukapuka dictionary goes live". Cook Islands News. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  3. ^ "Te Pukamuna - Pukapuka Dictionary". 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2020). "Pukapuka". Glottolog 4.2.1. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Lynch, J., Ross, M., & Crowley, T. (2002). The Oceanic Languages. Richmond UK: Curzon. p. 38
  6. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 261
  7. ^ a b Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 205
  8. ^ a b Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 206
  9. ^ a b c d Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 202
  10. ^ a b Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 235
  11. ^ a b Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 235
  12. ^ Clark, Ross. (1976). Aspects of Proto-Polynesian syntax. Te Reo Monograph. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand
  13. ^ a b Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 241
  14. ^ a b c d Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 242
  15. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 246
  16. ^ a b c Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 247
  17. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 261
  18. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 263
  19. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 275
  20. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 343
  21. ^ Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 213
  22. ^ a b c d Salisbury, M. C. (2002). A Grammar of Pukapukan. http://pukapuka.world/archive/Pukapukan-Grammar_Web.pdf. p. 214
  23. ^ "Pukapukan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 June 2020.