Qin-Lian Yue
Hamlim Jijin / Hamlim Jujin
Native toChina
RegionGuangxi
Native speakers
About 3,900,000 (2013)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
ISO 639-6qnli
Glottologqinl1235
Linguasphere79-AAA-mf
Ping and Yue dialect map.svg
  Qin-Lian (lower left), among other Yue and Pinghua groups in Guangxi and Guangdong

Qin–Lian Languages Group (Chinese: 欽廉语言, romanization of 'Qin–Lian' in native languages is Hamlim, literally 'Qinzhou and Lianzhou', a historical region) is a southern branch of Yue Chinese spoken in the coastal part of Guangxi, including 3 main cities: Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, and 4 subject counties: Hepu, Pubei, Lingshan, Dongxing.

Etymology

Qinlian (Hamlim) is an abbreviation from Qinzhou (Hamzau/Yamchow) and Lianzhou (Limzau/Limchow), a historical region, 'Hepu Commandery' (Chinese: 合浦郡) since 111 BC, 'Lianzhou Fu' (Chinese: 廉州府) in Ming and Qing dynasties, 'Qinzhou-Lianzhou Areas' (Chinese: 欽廉地區) during the ROC, 'Qinzhou-Lianzhou-Lingshan-Fangcheng' (Chinese: 欽廉靈防) in the middle of 20th century, 'Beihai-Qingzhou-Fangchenggang' (Chinese: 北欽防) or 'Area of Northern Gulf' which is the formal name for Gulf of Tonkin by China (Chinese: 北部灣地區) are mostly used nowadays.

Criterion

Middle Chinese had a series of voiced initials, but voicing has been lost throughout Yue and most other modern Chinese varieties apart from Wu and Old Xiang. The reflexes of the voiced stops and affricates are often used to classify Chinese varieties.

In most Qin–Lian varieties, these consonants develop into aspirates in all tones, a pattern also found in Wu–Hua Yue and Hakka,[2][3] which is also the traditional criterion of Qin-Lian Yue. However, in urban Qin–Lian varieties they yield aspirates in the level and rising tones, and non-aspirates in the departing and entering tones,[2] the same pattern found in the Guangfu, Siyi and Gao-Yang branches of Yue.[3]

Subgroups

There are several branches of Qin-Lian.

Varieties of Cantoneses Language

Plain Speech (Chinese: 白話, Yale romanization: bàakwà; jyutping: baak6 waa6) are mostly spoken in the major urban areas of the cities Qinzhou (Hamzau), Beihai (Pakhoi), Fangchenggang (Fongsing), and the counties Dongxing (Dunghing) and Lingshan (Lingsaan).[4] They are very close to and highly similar with Standard Cantonese,[5] and sometimes they are definied as 'Cantonese (Yuehai variety) Languages in Qin-Lian area'. Each of them share highly close even same consonant shifting pattern at some point compared with Standard Cantonese. However, they are hard to be mutually intelligible with other Qin-Lian Yue Languages.

Here are some samples for the characters with 2 pronunciations in Pakhoi Cantonese:

Chinese
characters
Pakhoi Cantonese Limchownese Language
Limchownese-Cantonese pronunciation native Cantonese
pronunciation
Sothern accent
ipa specific phrases
with L-C pronunciation
ipa ipa
ʃɐt̚5 識破 (see through) ʃɪk̚5 ʃɐt̚3
ʃɐt̚5 ?嗇 (stingy) ʃɪk̚5 ʃɐt̚3
lɐn21 鄰舍 (neighbor) lɪŋ21 lɐn33
pʊo̯ŋ21 暗傍傍 (darkness) pʰɔŋ21 poŋ21
na33 㑚乸 (your mother) na24 na33

And some expressions are able to express by 2 different expressions in Pakhoi Cantonese (question marks mean that those vocabularies originate from Kra–Dai languages instead of Sintic languages, so there are not Chinese characters to represent):

vocabulary Pakhoi Cantonese
English Limchownese phrases native Cantonese phrases
(grand) mother
(grand) father
darkness 暗傍傍 黑孖孖
to give ?
home 屋頭 屋幾
kids ??? 細佬哥
to play
and
quick 快當 快脆
to call
small

In spite of distinguishable but tiny differences on phonology and vocabulary, there is high mutual intelligibility and a great number of common colloquial words in the urban varieties and furthermore, in some varieties of Yong-Xun and Gao-Yang. Those features along with its scattered speaking zones may reflect the influence of intercity commercial communication in history, and lead to a lasting debate on its classification.[2]

The table below shows the differences in phonology among four major urban varieties.

Sound changes IPA Hamzau Fongsing Lingsaan Pakhoi
Vowel breaking
of "i"
/i/ > /ei/ no no some words yes
ou > au merger /ǝu/ > /ɐu/ yes yes no yes
oe > e merger /øɔ/ >
/eɐ/
younger speakers some speakers yes yes
i > z shifting /i/ >
/ɿ/
no some speakers, mainly young female no some speakers,

which might be influenced by other language.

Terminal consonants merger,

mix or miss

/-p/
/-t/
/-k/ >
/-ʔ/
no no no some younger speakers

Limchownese Language

Limchownese Language (Chinese: 廉州話, ipa: [liːm˧ ʧɐʊ˦˥ ʋaː˨˩]), has been named by the Town of Lianzhou, the capital of County of Hepu, which was the central and capital town for several modern cities nearby in early history. Or Hoppo Language (Chinese: 合浦話, ipa:[hɐp̚˨ pʰʊ˨˦ ʋaː˨˩]), has been named by the County of Hepu, which was the major city in Gulf of Tonkin of ancient China. Or Rural Language (Chinese: 村下話, ipa: [ʧʰʊːn˦˥ haː˨˦ ʋaː˨˩]), literally speaking, the language was most widely used until the Cantonese and Tanka immigrants from the zone of Pearl River - capital district of Province of Guangdong with their Cantonese Language have been dominating South of Hepu - modern District of Haicheng, focal point of Beihai, where downtown has been moved to from Town of Lianzhou since 19th century after Chefoo Convention which demanded Beihai as a treaty port. Or Jute-planter Language (Chinese: 麻佬話, ipa: [maː˨˩ lɐʊ˨˦ ʋaː˨˩]), whose name was from 'jute-planter' (Chinese: 麻佬) is used to describe the Limchownese-speaking people tend to broadly plant jute. The term is widely used in East of Hepu. Limchownese is mostly widely used in Beihai, and regarded as the first language and mother tongue by the most of native. People in County of Hepu and District of Yinhai only speak Limchownese as monolingual (only regional languages are listed, or as 'dialects' regarded by Government of China, Mandarin that is national language of China isn't counted here). However, citizens in District of Haicheng - the zone of chief administration mostly speak it as bilingual, Pakhoi Cantonese is more mainstream here, the elder are mostly proficient for the 2 languages, the young might only speak the latter and are mostly able to listen, understand and simulate the former language.

Nga Language

Nga Language (Chinese: 我話, ipa: [ŋaː˨˦ waː˧], literally 'my language') named by the pronunciation of 'I' (Chinese: ) /ŋa/, some call Coastal Language (Chinese: 海邊話, ipa: [haːi˧ piːn˥ waː˧]), another elder speakers call Hoppo Language (Chinese: 合浦話, ipa: [hɐp̚˧ pʰʊː˨˩ waː˧]), for distinguishing themselves from sharing the same name with Limchownese Language, so they name Limchownese (accent) a specific name - 'Outer Language' (Chinese: 坡外話, ipa: [pʰoː˥ waːi˧ waː˧]). Linguistically, Nga Language is closely related to Limchownese Language, sometimes regarded as a dialect of Limchownese. Nga Language is mostly spoken in District of Tieshangang, and some in District of Yinhai and Town of Zakou border on Tieshangang. Nga Language and Limchownese Language are able to be talked each other in some extent (approximately 50-60 percent and more), but a little confusion about understand and tone. And it's easy to learn and simulate Limchownese for the people speaking Nga Language. Historical name for Tieshangang was 'pearl pool' (Chinese: 珠廠, ipa: [ʧʊː˨˦ ʃe̞ːŋ˧]), so the many ancient people who spoke this language called 'pearl fishers' (Chinese: 珠民, ipa: [ʧʊː˨˦ mɐn˧]) in historical information. The pearl played the most significant role in Beihai's ancient history.

Here are some samples of Limchownese - Nga Languages (question marks mean that those vocabularies originate from Kra–Dai languages instead of Sintic languages, so there are not Chinese characters to represent):

Vocabulary IPA
English Chinese
characters
Limchownese
w-accent
(downtown)
Limchownese
w-accent
(hinterland)
Limchownese
s-accent
Nga
wide accent
I/me ŋo24 ŋo24 ŋo24 ŋa24
you (single) ni24 ni24 ni24 ni213
he/she 33 33 33 55
we/us ʋɐn45 ʋɒ45 ʋa45 wo213
you (plural) nɐn45 45 na45 na55
those persons
(they/them)
?人 ni45 ȵɐn33 ni45 ȵɐn33 ni45 ȵɐn33 ni55 ȵɐn33
these persons
(they/them)
?人 ki45 ȵɐn33 ki45 ȵɐn33 ki45 ȵɐn33 ki55 ȵɐn33
self 自家 ʃʰi2145 ʧʰi2145 ʧʰi21 ka45 ʃʰi33 ka213
child ?? ne̞21 ʔe̞45 ne̞21 ʔe̞45 21 ʔɛ45 no213 ʔe̞55
father 老㸙 lɐʊ24 ʧɒ45 lɐʊ24 ʧa45 lɐʊ24 ʧa45 lɐʊ33 ʧa55
mother 老乸 lɐʊ2445 lɐʊ24 na45 lɐʊ24 na45 lɐʊ33 na55
how 怎子 ʧʰɐn45 ʧi24 ʧʰɐn45 ʧi24 ʧʰɐn45 ʧi24 ʧʰɐn55 ʧi21
what 物底 mɐt̚3 tɐi45 mɐt̚3 tɐi45 mɐt̚3 tɐi45 mɐt̚5 tɐi213
these/here 個? 33 ki45 ko33 ki45 ko33 ki45 ko33 ki55
those/there 那? 33 ni45 no33 ni45 no33 ni45 no33 ni55
where 哪? 21 ni45 no21 ni45 no21 ni45 no21 ni55
and lɐʊ45 lɐʊ45 lɐʊ45 laʊ24
is/are ʃi21 ʃi21 ʃi21 ʃi21
be in/doing ɐi45 ɐi45 ɐi45 kɐi213
to do ʧʊ33 ʧʊ33 ʧʊ33 ʧʊ21
to go 33 33 33 21
to say kæŋ24 kɛaŋ24 kaŋ24 kaŋ21
to see hʊn33 hʊn33 hʊn33 han21
to eat hɐt̚3 hɐt̚3 hat̚3 hɐt̚3
to give hɐi33 hɐi33 hɐi33 hɐi21

Costal Language

Costal Language (Chinese: 海邊話), also named Civilian Language (Chinese: 百姓話) is spoken in Town of Shatian Beihai. This language is debatable which languages group it belongs to, sometimes it will be stated as Min Language. However, it shares many indigenous words with Limchownese Language and Nga Language.

Lingsaan Language

Lingsaan Language (Chinese: 靈山話) are widely spoken in the countryside of Lingshan and Pubei Qinzhou.[4]

Sliugong Language

Sliugong Language (Chinese: 小江話) is spoken in Xiaojiang (Sliugong) - the downtown of Pubei.[4]

Slanlap Language

Slanlap Language (Chinese: 新立話) is spoken in District of Qinbei - North of Qinzhou. 'Slanlap' (Chinese: 新立) is a historical name in northern Qinzhou.

References

  1. ^ Huang, Qiye 黄绮烨 (2013). Guǎngxī Fángchénggǎng yuèyǔ yǔyīn yánjiū 广西防城港粤语语音研究 [A phonetic study of Cantonese in Fangchenggang, Guangxi] (M.A. thesis). Jinan University.
  2. ^ a b c Lu, Bo 陆波 (2006). Guǎngxī Qīnzhōu Qīnlián piàn fāngyán yīnyùn yánjiū 广西钦州钦廉片方言音韵研究 [Study on the phonology of Qinlian dialect in Qinzhou of Guangxi] (M.A. thesis). Guangxi University.
  3. ^ a b Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. LINCOM Europa. p. 193. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.
  4. ^ a b c Liang, Yougang 梁猷刚 (1986). "Guǎngxī Qīnzhōu dìqū de yǔyán fēnbù" 广西钦州地区的语言分布 [Guangxi Qinzhou dialect area]. Fangyan (3): 219–222.
  5. ^ de Sousa, Hilário (2016). "Language contact in Nanning: Nanning Pinghua and Nanning Cantonese". In Chappell, Hilary M. (ed.). Diversity in Sinitic Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–189. ISBN 978-0-19-872379-0. p. 162.
  6. ^ "national identities and language in South of Guangxi (Simplified Chinese)". Archived from the original on 2021-10-31. Retrieved 2021-10-31.