Qin-Lian Yue
Hamlim Jijin / Hamlim Jujin
Native toChina
Native speakers
About 3,900,000 (2013)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
ISO 639-6qnli
Ping and Yue dialect map.svg
  Qin-Lian (lower left), among other Yue and Pinghua groups in Guangxi and Guangdong

The Qin–Lian language (Hamlim Jijin or Hamlim Jujin; Chinese: 欽廉语言; from the names of Qinzhou and Lianzhou) is a southern branch of Yue Chinese spoken in the coastal part of Guangxi, including 3 main cities: Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, and four subject counties: Hepu, Pubei, Lingshan, Dongxing.


Qin–Lian refers to Qinzhou (Hamzau/Yamchow) and Lianzhou (Limzau/Limchow), the latter being the former name of Hepu and the historical prefecture of Guangdong it commanded. Other collective names for these areas include 'Beihai-Qingzhou-Fangchenggang' (Chinese: 北欽防) and 'Beibu Gulf Area' (Chinese: 北部灣地區).


Middle Chinese had a series of voiced initials, but voicing has been lost throughout Yue and most other modern Chinese varieties apart from Wu and Old Xiang. The reflexes of the voiced stops and affricates are often used to classify Chinese varieties.

In most Qin–Lian varieties, these consonants develop into aspirates in all tones, a pattern also found in Wu–Hua Yue and Hakka,[2][3] which is also the traditional criterion of Qin-Lian Yue. However, in urban Qin–Lian varieties they yield aspirates in the level and rising tones, and non-aspirates in the departing and entering tones,[2] the same pattern found in the Guangfu, Siyi and Gao-Yang branches of Yue.[3] In spite of distinguishable but tiny differences on phonology and vocabulary, there is high mutual intelligibility and a great number of common colloquial words in the urban varieties and furthermore, in some varieties of Yong-Xun and Gao-Yang. Those features along with its scattered speaking zones may reflect the influence of intercity commercial communication in history, and lead to a lasting debate on its classification.[2]



The table below shows the differences in phonology among Cantonese varieties.

Sound changes IPA Qinzhou Fangcheng Lingshan Beihai
Vowel breaking
of "i"
/i/ > /ei/ no no some words yes
ou > au merger /ǝu/ > /ɐu/ yes yes no yes
oe > e merger /øɔ/ >
younger speakers some speakers yes yes
i > z shifting /i/ >
no some speakers, mainly young female no some speakers,

which might be influenced by other language.

Terminal consonants merger,

mix or miss

/-k/ >
no no no some younger speakers


  1. ^ Huang, Qiye 黄绮烨 (2013). Guǎngxī Fángchénggǎng yuèyǔ yǔyīn yánjiū 广西防城港粤语语音研究 [A phonetic study of Cantonese in Fangchenggang, Guangxi] (M.A. thesis). Jinan University.
  2. ^ a b c Lu, Bo 陆波 (2006). Guǎngxī Qīnzhōu Qīnlián piàn fāngyán yīnyùn yánjiū 广西钦州钦廉片方言音韵研究 [Study on the phonology of Qinlian dialect in Qinzhou of Guangxi] (M.A. thesis). Guangxi University.
  3. ^ a b Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. LINCOM Europa. p. 193. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.
  4. ^ a b c d Liang, Yougang 梁猷刚 (1986). "Guǎngxī Qīnzhōu dìqū de yǔyán fēnbù" 广西钦州地区的语言分布 [Guangxi Qinzhou dialect area]. Fangyan (3): 219–222.
  5. ^ de Sousa, Hilário (2016). "Language contact in Nanning: Nanning Pinghua and Nanning Cantonese". In Chappell, Hilary M. (ed.). Diversity in Sinitic Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–189. ISBN 978-0-19-872379-0. p. 162.