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Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University Seal.svg
Quinnipiac University Seal
Former name
Connecticut College of Commerce (1929–1951)
Quinnipiac College (1951–2000)
MottoQui Transtulit Sustinet (Latin)[1]
Motto in English
"He who transplants, sustains"[1]
TypePrivate university
Established1929; 93 years ago (1929)
AccreditationNECHE
Academic affiliations
NAICU
NEASC
Endowment$545.1 million (2020)[2]
PresidentJudy D. Olian
Academic staff
350 full-time
Students9,744 (2020)[3]
Undergraduates6,841 (2020)[3]
Postgraduates2,903 (2020)[3]
Location,
U.S.
CampusSuburban
Colors    Navy, gold, sky blue[4][5][6]
NicknameBobcats
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division IMAAC ECAC Hockey Big East – field hockey
MascotBoomer the Bobcat
Websitewww.qu.edu

Quinnipiac University (/ˈkwɪnɪpiˌæk/[7]) is a private university in Hamden, Connecticut. The university grants undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through its College of Arts and Sciences, School of Business, School of Engineering, School of Communication, School of Health Sciences, School of Law, School of Medicine, School of Nursing, and School of Education. The university also hosts the Quinnipiac University Polling Institute.

History

The Mount Carmel campus, from atop Sleeping Giant, April 2009.
The Mount Carmel campus, from atop Sleeping Giant, April 2009.

What became Quinnipiac University was founded in 1929 by Samuel W. Tator,[8] a business professor and politician. Phillip Troup, a Yale College graduate, was another founder, and became its first president[8] until his death in 1939. Tator's wife, Irmagarde Tator, a Mount Holyoke College graduate, also played a major role in the fledgling institution's nurturing as its first bursar. Additional founders were E. Wight Bakke, who later became a professor of economics at Yale, and Robert R. Chamberlain, who headed a furniture company in his name.[8]

The new institution was conceived in reaction to Northeastern University's abandonment of its New Haven, Connecticut, program at the onset of the Great Depression. Originally, it was located in New Haven and called the "Connecticut College of Commerce". On opening its doors in 1929, it enrolled under 200, and its first graduating class comprised only eight students. At the time, it awarded only associate's degrees. In 1935, the college changed its name to the "Junior College of Commerce".

From 1943 to 1945, the college closed, as nearly its entire student body was drafted into World War II. Upon re-opening, the college's enrollment nearly quadrupled to approximately 800 students.

In 1951, the institution was renamed "Quinnipiac College", in honor of the Quinnipiac Indian tribe that once inhabited Greater New Haven. That same year, Quinnipiac began to confer bachelor's degrees. In 1952, Quinnipiac expanded its curriculum, relocated to a larger campus in New Haven, and also assumed administrative control of Larson College, a private women's college.

In 1966, having outgrown its campus in New Haven, Quinnipiac moved to its current campus in the Mount Carmel section of Hamden, Connecticut, at the foot of Sleeping Giant Park.[9] During the 1970s, Quinnipiac began to offer master's degrees in a variety[which?] of disciplines.

Until the 1990s, Quinnipiac remained primarily a commuter college with only a regional reputation; however, that changed during the next decade. In 1995, the University of Bridgeport's law school migrated to Quinnipiac, and the Quinnipiac School of Law Center was dedicated.[citation needed]

Quinnipiac's Arnold Bernhard Library and clock tower, focus of main campus quadrangle, August 2008
Quinnipiac's Arnold Bernhard Library and clock tower, focus of main campus quadrangle, August 2008

On July 1, 2000, the college officially changed its name to "Quinnipiac University" to reflect its relatively new breadth in academic offerings. That same year, Quinnipiac University received accreditation by AACSB.[citation needed]

Student journalism controversy

This section may be too long and excessively detailed. Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed.

In 2007 and 2008, Quinnipiac briefly drew national attention over the university's control over student publications and students' speech. In the fall 2007 semester, junior Jason Braff, then-editor of the Quinnipiac Chronicle, the official newspaper of the school, openly criticized a university policy that forbade the Chronicle from publishing news online before the content was published in the weekly print edition. Braff wrote an editorial about the policy and also gave an interview to the local Waterbury paper, Republican-American, criticizing it. Manuel Carreiro, Quinnipiac's vice president and dean of students, then sent a letter to Braff in November, telling him that his public disagreement with school policies would "seriously place your position and organization at risk with the university." Braff received an $8,000 annual stipend for his position, and the university said that its employees have more of a responsibility than other students to uphold policies. However, Lynn Bushnell, QU's vice president for public affairs, denied threatening to fire Braff for disagreeing with school policies. Braff and the Chronicle staff were also openly critical of a public relations policy requiring all news media inquiries and questions (including those from the Chronicle) for administrators to be sent, via e-mail, to the university's public relations department.[10]

Quinnipiac officials eventually decided that making the Chronicle independent from the university was the best idea. The school set forth a plan of action, which included the university appointing editors for the 2008–2009 academic year. Angry with this plan, Braff and other staff agreed to leave the Chronicle at the end of the spring 2008 semester, and all applicants for the editor positions withdrew their applications.

Former Chronicle staff members came back in fall 2008 with Quad News, an independent newspaper with only a website and no print edition. Plans were to incorporate Quad News as its own business venture run on advertising revenue. Quad News immediately faced opposition from the university. Staff members learned in September that university officials had instructed all varsity coaches, staff and athletes not to speak to Quad News reporters. Shortly after, officials threatened to shut down the university's chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ), claiming that they violated school policy by using their meetings as a cover for Quad News meetings. The Quad News staff had met at two SPJ meetings,[11] after the university took away the meeting reservation for Quad News, citing the fact that the organization was not a university-recognized club. Quad News promptly stopped their meetings with SPJ.[12] The move prompted a public letter from national SPJ leaders, expressing concern over the university's actions. Both staffs recognized the other publication as legitimate.[13]

2010 title IX discrimination case

On July 21, 2010, a federal judge ruled that Quinnipiac violated Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by failing to provide equal treatment to women's athletic teams. The judge, Stefan Underhill, determined that Quinnipiac's decision to eliminate the women's volleyball team as well as its attempt to treat cheerleading as a competitive sport and its manipulation of reporting with regard to the numbers of male and female athletes amounted to unlawful discrimination against female students. Underhill ruled that competitive cheerleading was currently too underdeveloped and unorganized and then ordered that the school maintain its volleyball program for the 2010–11 season.[14][15]

2015 ADA discrimination case

In January 2015, Deirdre M. Daly, United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut, and Acting Assistant Attorney General Vanita Gupta of the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division, announced that the government had reached a settlement with Quinnipiac University to resolve allegations that the university violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by placing a student who had been diagnosed with depression on a mandatory medical leave of absence without first considering options for the student’s continued enrollment.  Quinnipiac University is a private, coeducational university located in Hamden, Connecticut.

This matter stemmed from a complaint from a Quinnipiac University (“Quinnipiac”) student who had been removed from the university after she sought mental health counseling at the university.  The complainant also alleged that, after she had been removed, Quinnipiac had denied her request to refund her tuition.

Title III of the ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability, including depression, by places of public accommodation.

The investigation determined that Quinnipiac discriminated against the complainant by placing her on mandatory medical leave because of her depression, and failed to consider modifying its mandatory medical leave policy to permit the complainant to complete her coursework while living off campus by attending classes either online or in person.

Under the settlement agreement, Quinnipiac had agreed to pay to the complainant $17,000 to compensate her for emotional distress, pain and suffering, and $15,126.42 to pay off the loan she obtained to pay tuition to Quinnipiac.  Quinnipiac also had agreed to implement a policy stating that it will not discriminate against applicants or students on the basis of disability, including persons with mental health disabilities, and to examine what modifications it can make to allow students with mental health disabilities to continue to participate in educational programs and attend their classes while seeking treatment for mental health conditions.  The university also provided training on Title III of the ADA, with a focus on mental health-related disability discrimination, to all staff.[16]

2022 Department of Justice Request to Investigate QU Physician Assistant Program for Discrimination

On May 13, 2022 a group of current and former Quinnipiac University Physician Assistant students and their families sent a letter to the Department of Justice to investigate claims of discrimination. The letter was addressed to the Chief of the Civil Division’s Defensive Unit Michelle McConaghy of the Connecticut US Attorney’s Office. It referenced two articles that were recently published by a student run newspaper, the QU Chronicle, with the following titles: “Former PA student sues Quinnipiac for discrimination against her mental disabilities and Ukrainian nationality” and “Recent lawsuit spotlights mental health unease within Quinnipiac PA program.”

The group of students cited concerns regarding ADA violations, disparate treatment, retaliation, and breach of contracts within the PA Program. They further mentioned that the administration has been aware of multiple complaints of discrimination but does nothing due to the national ranking and influence of the Program. Included in their claims is the unfair ruling by the PA disciplinary committee, and that students with accommodations are punished harshly, their right to privacy violated, and ultimately dismissed more than the rest of their class.

In response to the negative publicity, the Dean of School of Health Sciences Janelle Chiasera stated her and Program Chair Tim Ferrarotti “always want to hear from students, whether it’s to share feedback, concerns or ideas on how to enhance their learning experience. Quinnipiac’s PA program is committed to giving all of its students the support they need and delivering a high-quality academic experience and clinical training that will position them to be exemplary PAs and PA leaders upon successful completion of the program,” Chiasera said.

“The discriminatory treatment, including the culture of mental health stigma created by the PA  faculty, has been a destructive force for these students and their families, penalizing them with  immense student debt and loss of career upon their dismissal. This does not include the  investment of years of preparation in order to be selected for this competitive program and  school. They end up with lasting trauma that worsens their mental health for years to come.  Consequently, students are denied equal opportunity to participate in or benefit from the goods,  services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations provided by the university.”[17]

Academics

Quinnipiac offers 58 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs, and a Juris Doctor program. Its Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine admitted 60 students to its first class in 2013.[18] Quinnipiac University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education.[19]

In 2021, 72.5% of undergraduate applicants were accepted with matriculated students having an average GPA of 3.47. Quinnipiac is “test optional” for standardized tests for undergraduate applicants, but encourages submitting SAT or ACT scores, or both. For those submitting scores, the average SAT score was 1175 and average ACT score was 26. Test scores are required for Quinnipiac's Accelerated Dual-Degree Bachelor's/JD (3+3) and Dual-Degree BS/MHS in Physician Assistant (4+27 months) programs, or for those that have been homeschooled.[20][21]

The university operates several media outlets, including a professionally run commercial radio station, WATX, founded by journalist and Quinnipiac professor Lou Adler. The university also operates a student-run FM radio station WQAQ, which concurrently streams on the Internet. An award-winning[22] student-run television station, Q30 Television, is streamed online. Also, a student-produced newspaper, the Chronicle, established in 1929, publishes 2,500 copies every Wednesday. Students also run a literary magazine, the Montage, a yearbook, the Summit, the Quinnipiac Bobcats Sports Network (an online sports-focused broadcast), and the Quinnipiac Barnacle[23] (a parody news organization). Unaffiliated with the school, but run by students, is also an online newspaper, the Quad News.[24]

Quinnipiac is home to one of the world's largest collections of art commemorating the Great Irish Famine. The collection is contained in Ireland’s Great Hunger Museum (Músaem An Ghorta Mhóir) just off the Mount Carmel Campus.[25]

In May 2014, Quinnipiac laid off 16 full-time but non-tenured faculty, with 11 of those from the College of Arts and Sciences, with no advance notice of the staff reduction. The cuts followed several years of a "stalled hiring" and a faculty salary freeze. The layoffs were mostly in departments that had experienced reduced enrollment in recent years, and enrollment was expected to be down by 12 percent in the fall 2014 term.[26]

Rankings

Academic rankings
National
Forbes[27]215
THE / WSJ[28]261
U.S. News & World Report[29]153
Washington Monthly[30]283

Quinnipiac is 153rd in the U.S. News & World Report 2020 rankings of national universities.[31] For 2021, U.S. News & World Report ranked the physician assistant school 15th nationwide, the law school 122nd, the medical school 94–122, and the business school 99–131.[32]

Zippia name Quinnipiac University as the No. 1 college in the United States for getting a job in 2021.[33]

Campuses

Quinnipiac University consists of three campuses: the Mount Carmel campus off of Mount Carmel Avenue in Hamden; the York Hill campus off of Sherman Avenue in Hamden, and the North Haven Campus in North Haven, just north of New Haven, Connecticut.

The oldest of these campuses is the Mount Carmel Campus, at the foot of Sleeping Giant State Park. The Arnold Bernhard Library, Carl Hansen Student Center, university administration, and many of the student residences are found on this campus.

The York Hill Campus, located on a hill about a half-mile from the Mount Carmel Campus, began with the development of the People's United Center. In 2010 this was joined by a new student center as well as expanded parking and residence facilities as part of a $300 million expansion of the 250-acre (1.0 km2) campus.[34] York Hill is a "green" campus, making use of renewable energy and environmentally friendly resources, including one of the first major wind farms integrated into a university campus.[35]

For statistical reporting purposes, the Mount Carmel and York Hill campuses were listed together as the Quinnipiac University census-designated place prior to the 2020 census.[36]

In 2007, Quinnipiac acquired a 100-acre (0.40 km2) campus in North Haven, Connecticut, from Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, and has been gradually converting it for use by graduate programs at the university.[37]

Quinnipiac University opened the Frank H. Netter M.D. School of Medicine in 2013.[38]

Buildings and landmarks

Campus and Lender School of Business Center, with Sleeping Giant in background, April 2005
Campus and Lender School of Business Center, with Sleeping Giant in background, April 2005

The current buildings on the Mount Carmel campus are:

Quinnipiac Polling Institute

Main article: Quinnipiac University Polling Institute

Quinnipiac's polling institute receives national recognition for its independent surveys of residents throughout the United States. It conducts public opinion polls on politics and public policy as a public service as well as for academic research.[41] The poll has been cited by major news outlets throughout North America and Europe, including The Washington Post,[42] Fox News,[43] USA Today,[44] The New York Times,[45] CNN,[46] and Reuters.[47]

The polling operation began informally in 1988 in conjunction with a marketing class.[41] It became formal in 1994 when the university hired a CBS News analyst to assess the data being gained.[41] It subsequently focused on the Northeastern states, gradually expanding during presidential elections to cover swing states as well.[41] The institute receives funding from the university,[41] with its phone callers generally being work study students or local residents. The polls have been rated highly by FiveThirtyEight for accuracy in predicting primary and general elections.[48] In 2018 Politico called the Quinnipiac poll "the most significant player among a number of schools that have established a national polling footprint."[49]

Greek life

Quinnipiac is home to seven fraternities and nine sororities.[50]

Fraternities

Sororities

The National Panhellenic Conference is an umbrella organization which was created in 1902 for 26 women's sororities. The National Panhellenic Conference at Quinnipiac University serves as an advocate for the sororities involved in the conference with the campus and community. The Panhellenic Conference at Quinnipiac University includes Alpha Chi Omega, Alpha Delta Pi, Kappa Alpha Theta, Phi Sigma Sigma, Kappa Delta, and Chi Omega.

Athletics

Main article: Quinnipiac Bobcats

The Quinnipiac Bobcats, previously the Quinnipiac Braves, comprise the school's athletic teams. They play in NCAA Division I in the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference, except for the men's and women's ice hockey teams, which are part of ECAC Hockey, and the women's field hockey team, which joined Big East Conference starting with the 2016 season.[51]

A baseball game between Quinnipiac and Army in 2011
A baseball game between Quinnipiac and Army in 2011

There are seven men's varsity sports and 14 women's varsity sports,[52] with no football team.[52]

The team with the largest following on campus and in the area is the men's ice hockey team under established coach Rand Pecknold,[53] which has been nationally ranked at times; during the 2009–2010 season they entered the top ten of the national polls for the first time.[54] The team was the number-one nationally ranked hockey program for parts of the 2012–2013 season, reaching the Frozen Four for the first time in the program's history. They advanced to the national championship, ultimately falling to rival Yale.

The Quinnipiac women's ice hockey program had their most success in the 2009–10 NCAA Division I women's ice hockey season. Quinnipiac University added a women's golf and women's rugby team in the 2010–11 academic year.[52]

In the late 2000s the men's basketball team gained a greater following under new head coach Tom Moore, a disciple of UConn Huskies men's basketball coach Jim Calhoun.[53] Both men's and women's ice hockey and basketball teams play at the $52 million People's United Center, opened in 2007.[53] The women's lacrosse team has also been quite strong. Men's cross country captured 4 NEC titles in 5 years between 2004 and 2008. The athletics program has been under pressures common to other universities, and at the close of the 2008–2009 academic year, men's golf, men's outdoor track, men's indoor track and women's volleyball were dropped as a cost-cutting measure, although the last of these was restored (as a result of a Title IX suit[55]).

Notable alumni

References

  1. ^ a b QU Graphic Guide (PDF), Quinnipiac University, archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2014, retrieved July 9, 2013
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c As of October 15, 2020. "Student Consumer Information". Quinnipiac University. November 15, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  4. ^ "Quinnipiac University Graphic Standards Manual 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  5. ^ "PMS Color Chart". Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  6. ^ "Quinnipiac — Story". Pentagram.
  7. ^ "Quinnipiac". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "Catalog for Day and Evening Divisions, 1946–1947" (PDF). The Junior College of Commerce. 1946. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015.
  9. ^ "The Sleeping Giant Park Association". www.sgpa.org. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  10. ^ Holtz, Jeff (December 2, 2007). "A Student Editor Finds Himself at the Center of the News". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  11. ^ [1] Archived October 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "The Quinnipiac Student Journalism Showdown". US News. September 22, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  13. ^ "Quinnipiac officials threaten to ban campus SPJ chapter after helping independent newspaper". Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2008.
  14. ^ "A Title IX decision that discounts competitive cheerleading as a sport at Quinnipiac University is strong evidence that it's time to change the law". Sports.espn.go.com. July 27, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  15. ^ "QUINNIPIAC TITLE IX CASE: School must maintain women's volleyball program (document)". Nhregister.com. July 21, 2010. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  16. ^ "Justice Department Settles Americans With Disabilties Act Case With Quinnipiac University". www.justice.gov. March 18, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  17. ^ Langley, Katie. "PA community urges Connecticut DOJ to investigate discrimination claims within program". The Quinnipiac Chronicle. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  18. ^ "Conntact.com". www.conntact.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
  19. ^ Connecticut Institutions – NECHE, New England Commission of Higher Education, retrieved May 26, 2021
  20. ^ "Undergraduate Admissions - Admission Requirements". qu.edu. Quinnipiac University. November 5, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  21. ^ "Quinipiac Requirements for Admission". prepscholar.com. PrepScholar. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  22. ^ "College Media Association". College Media Association. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  23. ^ [2] Archived January 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ [3] Archived February 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Ireland's Great Hunger Museum, Quinnipiac University, 2012, archived from the original on February 8, 2013, retrieved April 28, 2013
  26. ^ Flaherty, Colleen (May 14, 2014). "Jobless in Two Days". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  27. ^ "America's Top Colleges 2021". Forbes. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  28. ^ "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings 2022". The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  29. ^ "2022 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  30. ^ "2021 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  31. ^ "U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings - Quinnipiac University". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  32. ^ "U.S. News Graduate School Rankings - Quinnipiac University". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  33. ^ "The Best College In Each State For Getting A Job 2022 – Zippia". Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  34. ^ "York Hill Campus Expansion | New York Construction | McGraw-Hill Construction". New York Construction. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  35. ^ "School Colors: Green and Greener". The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  36. ^ "Quinnipiac University Census Designated Place". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  37. ^ [4] Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "School of Medicine | Quinnipiac University Connecticut". Quinnipiac.edu. August 17, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  39. ^ "'Tonight Show' sidekick Ed McMahon dies at 86". Nhregister.com. June 23, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  40. ^ [5] Archived August 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ a b c d e Lapidos, Juliet (October 16, 2008). "What's With All the "Quinnipiac University" Polls? How an obscure school in Connecticut turned into a major opinion research center". Slate.
  42. ^ "Polls: Menendez Leads Kean in N.J. Race". The Washington Post. October 31, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  43. ^ "Poll: Lieberman Leads Challenger Lamont in Connecticut Senate Race". Fox News. August 17, 2006.
  44. ^ "Quinnipiac Poll: Giuliani still leads GOP hopefuls, but by much less …". usatoday.com. June 25, 2007. Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  45. ^ Kapochunas, Rachel (July 13, 2007). "Poll Tests 'New York-New York-New York' Race in Ohio". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  46. ^ Jeremy Diamond (February 3, 2015). "Poll: Clinton sweeps GOP foes save Bush tie in Florida". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  47. ^ "Obama leads in four battleground states: poll". Reuters. June 26, 2008.
  48. ^ Silver, Nate (March 25, 2021). "Pollster Ratings - Quinnipiac University". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
  49. ^ Shepard, Steven (December 12, 2018). "The Poll That Built a University". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  50. ^ "Verification | Quinnipiac University Connecticut". Quinnipiac.edu. August 17, 2015. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  51. ^ "BIG EAST Adds Liberty, Quinnipiac For Field Hockey" (Press release). Big East Conference. December 8, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  52. ^ a b c QuinnipiacBobcats.com. "Quinnipiac University's Official Athletics Site". Quinnipiac University. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  53. ^ a b c Weinreb, Michael (December 26, 2007). "New Quinnipiac Coach Is Expected to Build a Winner". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2009.
  54. ^ QuinnipiacBobcats.com (November 23, 2009). "Men's Ice Hockey Ranked In Top 10 Nationally For First Time In Program History" (Press release). Quinnipiac University.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ [6] Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Berg, Jenny (February 6, 2019). "Did Any of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills Go to College?". Bravo TV Official Site. Retrieved November 1, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  57. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (March 22, 2012). "Murray Lender, Who Gave All America a Taste of Bagels, Dies at 81". New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2012.

Coordinates: 41°25′13″N 72°53′40″W / 41.42014°N 72.89454°W / 41.42014; -72.89454