R-29RMU2 Sineva
Sineva launched on 12 December 2015
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2007–present
Used byRussian Navy
Production history
DesignerMakeyev Rocket Design Bureau
Mass40.3 tonnes
Length14.8 m
Diameter1.9 m
Warhead4 MIRV with a yield of 500 kiloton each or 10 MIRV with 100 kiloton yield[1][2]

EngineThree-stage liquid-propellant rocket[3]
8,300 km (max range),[4]
Astroinertial, GLONASS
Accuracy250-500 m[5]

The R-29RMU2 Sineva (Russian: Синева, lit. "blueness"), code RSM-54, is a Russian liquid-fueled submarine-launched ballistic missile with GRAU index 3M27, designation SS-N-23A Skiff.[citation needed] It can carry four warheads and is designed to be launched from Delta IV-class submarines, which are armed with 16 missiles each. As of 2017, there are 96 launchers deployed on the submarines.[6]

The first full-range test was reportedly conducted on October 11, 2008; the reported range was 11,547 kilometres (7,175 mi). The R-29RMU2 entered service in 2007 and is expected to remain in service until at least 2030.[citation needed]

Current plans call for the construction of approximately 100 such missiles.[7]

The Sineva missile has reportedly been modified into R-29RMU2 Layner missile as of 2012.[8]


At its height in 1984, the Soviet Navy conducted over 100 SSBN patrols.[9] The Russian Navy declined during the 1990s, with no SSBN patrols carried out in 2001–2002.[9] The development of the Sineva is part of a program tasked with "preventing the weakening of Russia's nuclear deterrent."[10]

The R-29RMU2 Sineva is seen as a rival to the solid propellant Bulava SLBM. Originally, the Russian Navy was slated to receive the Sineva missile in 2002, but the first test was conducted only in 2004. The missile was eventually commissioned in 2007.[citation needed] The missile was reported to carry new nuclear warheads.[11]


Initial launch failures

Failed Sineva test launches took place during the strategic command exercise “Security-2004” (held 10–18 February 2004), which also included the launch of a Molniya communication satellite and an R-36 missile. The launch failures involving nuclear submarines Novomoskovsk and Karelia may have been caused by a military satellite blocking the launch signal; this incident did not lead to any serious consequences for the K-407 Novomoskovsk strategic nuclear submarine. March 1, 2004 saw then Russian president Vladimir Putin instructing the acting defence minister to carry out an investigation in order to determine the reason of the launch failures of the three RSM-54 missiles in mid-February.

Successful launches

On 17 March 2004 Novomoskovsk of the Russian Northern Fleet performed a successful launch of the RSM-54 Sineva. The missile's two warheads reportedly hit their targets. President Vladimir Putin and Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov observed a successful test launch of the Sineva missile from K-84 Yekaterinburg. Further successful launches were conducted by Yekaterinburg on 8 September 2006. The missile was launched from an ice-covered polar region toward the Chizha test site at the Kanin Peninsula. The three warheads were reported to have successfully reached their targets.

Another successful launch was performed on 4 March 2010 from the Barents Sea. This was followed by more launches on 6 August 2010, when K-114 Tula fired two missiles towards the Kura Test Range. Two more launches were carried out on 20 May 2011 and 27 July 2011, both successful.[12]

On 5 November 2014, Tula hit targets at the Kura Test Range firing from the Barents Sea.[13]

The 27th underwater launch occurred on 12 December 2015; the Russian Ministry of Defence shared video on official YouTube site,[14] and major Russian news channels.[15]

Another successful launch was conducted on 12 October 2016 and one more on 24 August 2019.[16] Five more launches took place on 17 October 2019, 9 December 2020, 19 February 2022, 26 October 2022 and 25 October 2023.[17][18][19][20]



See also


  1. ^ "Tula" repaired and ready for battle" (in Russian). 28 December 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  2. ^ "SINEVA" (RSM-54 AND R-29RMU2)" (in Russian). 22 October 2010. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  3. ^ Defense Intelligence Ballistic Missile Analysis Committee. "Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat". www.nasic.af.mil. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18.
  4. ^ RIR (7 April 2014). "Russian submarines armed with new lethal ballistic missile".
  5. ^ "Проект 667БДРМ (NATO - "Delta IV")" [Project 667BRDM (NATO - "Delta IV")] (in Russian).
  6. ^ Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat (Report). Defense Intelligence Ballistic Missile Analysis Committee. June 2017. p. 25. NASIC-1031-0985-17. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  7. ^ Missile balistique Sineva: tir de test réussi, RIAN, 2010-03-04
  8. ^ "Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: Срок службы подлодок проекта "Дельфин" продлят до 35 лет". Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  9. ^ a b "the nuclear information project: Soviet/Russian nuclear submarine patrols". Nukestrat.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  10. ^ "BMD Focus: Sineva launch success". Spacedaily.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  11. ^ Podvig, Pavel (24 July 2007). "R-29RM Sineva missile officially accepted for service". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.
  12. ^ "Нпсфхе: Блт Пняяхх Опнхгбек Сяоеьмши Гюосяй "Яхмебш"". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  13. ^ "АПЛ "Тула" успешно выполнила пуск баллистической ракеты "Синева"". РИА Новости. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  14. ^ "Пуск МБР"Синева" РПКСН "Верхотурье" из подводного положения "Синева"". YouTube. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  15. ^ "АПЛ "Верхотурье" успешно выполнила пуск баллистической ракеты "Синева"". РИА Новости. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  16. ^ Podvig, Pavel (12 October 2016). "Three ballistic missiles launched in one day". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.
  17. ^ "Russia's top brass uploads video with missile launches in strategic nuclear forces' drills".
  18. ^ "Sineva Ballistic Missile Launch Footage Released by Russian MoD". YouTube.
  19. ^ "Russia Carries Out Ballistic Missile Test at Sea During Military Exercise". 26 October 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  20. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2023-10-25). "Annual exercise of strategic forces". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 2023-11-05.

External sources