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Official nameAcharya Rajendrasuri
Ratna Raj

(1827-12-03)3 December 1827
Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India
Died21 December 1906(1906-12-21) (aged 80)
Mohankheda, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh
ParentsRishabhadas Parakh, Keshardevi
Notable work(s)Abhidhānarājaindrakōśa
Religious career
Vaishakh Shukla 5 Vikram Samvat 1904 ( 1848 CE)
by Hemavijay

Acharya Rajendrasuri was a Svetambara Jain monk and reformer of monk traditions of the 19th century. He wrote many books on Jainism including Abhidhānarājaindrakōśa, a dictionary of Prakrit defining 60,000 terms used in Jain works.

Early life

Acharya Rajendrasuri was born to businessman Rishabhadas Parakh and Keshardevi. His birth name was Ratna Raj. He was born on 3 December 1827. He had 1 sister and 1 brother[better source needed] at Bharatpur, Rajasthan.[1][2][3]

Ascetic life

He was initiated as a Jain yati (a Jain monk who stays in the same place) by Hemavijay at Udaipur on Vaishakh Shukla 5 Vikram Samvat 1904 (in 1848 CE) and given a new name, Ratnavijay. He was the first yati initiated in the 19th century.[2] Later his name was changed to Rajendrasuri upon his elevation to acharya rank.[3]

He studied under Pramodsuri and Jain yati monk Sagarchand. Dharanendrasuri, impressed by his scholarship, appointed him as his daftari. Ratnavijay was disappointed with the luxurious life of Dharanendrasuri and left him in 1864 AD. Later he became the leader of Tapa Gaccha.[3][4]

He led a movement in 1880 to reform yati tradition at Jaora, resulting in near extinction of it. He opposed the luxurious life of the Jain yatis, contradictory to Jain principles of non-possession and non-violence. He issued a nine-point manifesto known as Nav-kalama. He explained nine principles to reform Jain yati tradition. His manifesto was accepted after some initial opposition. Many leading yati and monks gave up their luxurious life and started following Jain principles. He established Agama or Samakit Gaccha, later known as Tristutik Gaccha.[2][3][4]

He restored and reconstructed some Jain temples and consecrated 1023 icons of Tirthankaras.[2] He visited Rajasthan and Malwa where he delivered religious discourses in Malwi, Marwari languages. He also opposed worship of other gods and goddesses over the worship of Tirthankars.[3]

Rajendrasuri died on 21 December 1906[2] (Vikram Samvat 1963 Pous Shukla Saptami) at Mohankheda, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh. Later, Mohankheda became a centre for learning and a tirtha around 1940.[1][4]


Shrine dedicated to Rajendrasuri at Santhu
Shrine dedicated to Rajendrasuri at Santhu

Rajendrasuri wrote, collected and edited some Jain works. He compiled the Prakrit dictionary, Abhidhānarājaindrakōśa, in seven volumes with 9,200 pages describing 60,000 terms.[2][3]

His works include:[citation needed]

  1. Abhidhānarājaindrakōśa
  2. Prakrit Vyakruti (Commentary on Grammar)
  3. Kalpasutra Prabodhini (Commentary on the Kalpasutra)
  4. Khartar Taskar Prabandh (Unpublished)
  5. Bhagawati Sutra Sateek
  6. Gachchhar Payanna
  7. Terapanth Prashnottar Vichara
  8. Mahanishitha Sutra (fifth)
  9. Brahata sangrihani
  10. Upasaka Dashanga Sutra
  11. Prakrit Shabda Rupawali
  12. Deepmalika Katha (Story of Diwali)
  13. Holika Katha (Story of Holi)
  14. Gandhara vad
  15. Karma Vichar (Unpublished)
  16. Tatva Vichar (Unpublished)
  17. Kalpasutra Balavabodh
  18. Jinupadesh Manjiri
  19. Kalyanmandir Stotra (Commentary)
  20. Jyotirya Kalpalata
  21. Swarodhya-gyan and Yantravali
  22. Vichar-sar Prakranam
  23. Sanskrit Vyakarnam (Sanskrit grammar)
  24. Laghu Sanghgrahani
  25. Amarkosh (Original)
  26. Navpad Puja Prasnothar
  27. Upadhan Vidhi
  28. Sratakatriyam (Bhatruhari)
  29. Chandrika Vyakaranam
  30. Kavyaprakash Mulamam
  31. Varnamala
  32. Upasaka Dashang Sutra
  33. Ek Sou Aath bol
  34. Upadesh Ratna saara
  35. Treloyaka Deepika Yantravali
  36. Karna Granth (four)
  37. Saptati Shatasthan Yantravali
  38. Dwashisth Margana Yantravali
  39. Shada Dravya Vichara
  40. Siddhanta Prakash
  41. Asthanhika Vyakhyana
  42. Sindura Prakara-satika
  43. Bhayhara Stotra

The original copy of these books are stored in libraries of Ahor, Rajasthan; Jaora; Mohankheda, Madhya Pradesh; Tharad and Ahmedabad in Gujarat.


Shrines dedicated to him were erected at several places in India including Mohankheda, Bhinmal, Dhanera, Jalore, Bangalore, Bijapur, Ahemdabad, Tharad, Bharatpur, Indore, Ratlam, and Santhu, Kachrod etc. His death centenary was celebrated in 2006 at Mohankheda.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b "Main Monks of Tradition" (PDF). (in Gujarati). p. 2. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Shah, Natubhai (2004). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Vol. 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 65. ISBN 9788120819382.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Acharya Rajendrasuri: Biography". Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b c "Acharya Rajendrasuri". 23 April 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.