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Rama, known as Ram Avatar[note 1] or Raja Ram, had an important place in Sikhism.[1] Rama is mentioned as one among the 24 incarnations of Vishnu in the Chaubis Avtar, a composition in the Dasam Granth traditionally and historically attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. The discussion of Rama and Krishna is the most extensive in this section of the secondary Sikh scripture.[2][3][4] The composition is martial, stating that avatar of Vishnu appears in the world to restore good and defeat evil, but asserts that these avatars are not God, but agents of the God. God is beyond birth and death.[5]

There have been claims that the Ram in Sikhism is not related to the Rama described in the Ramayana.[6] In Guru Granth Sahib, there is difference between Ram Chander, the king of Ayodhya, and Ram, the all-prevailing God.[7]

Sources

Guru Granth Sahib

The word Rama (ˈraːmɐ) appears in the Guru Granth Sahib more than 2,500 times.[8] Although Guru Nanak rejected the concept of divine incarnation as present in Hinduism[9] but he used words like Ram, Mohan, Hari & Shiv as ways of referring to divine together with Islamic words like Allah & Khuda.[10] Bhagat Kabir makes it clear that there is difference between Ram Chander (King of Ayodhya) and Ram (all prevailing God).[11]

Kabeer, it does make a difference, how you chant the Lord's name, 'Raam'. This is something to consider. Everyone uses the same word for the son of Dasrath and the wondrous Lord. Kabeer, use the word 'Raam', only to speak of the all-pervading Lord. You must make that distinction.

Dasam Granth

Rama is mentioned as one among the 24 incarnations of Vishnu in the Chaubis Avtar, a composition in Dasam Granth traditionally and historically attributed to Guru Gobind Singh.[note 2][12][13] The composition is martial, stating that avatar of Vishnu appears in the world to restore good and defeat evil, but asserts that these avatars are not God, but agents of the God. God is beyond birth and death.[5] Although the compositions of the Dasam Granth are traditionally accepted to be written by Guru Gobind Singh, there have been questions of the authenticity of the entirety of Dasam Granth from time of compilation.[14]

Importance

Rama is considered an important figure in Sikhism and depicted as a source of inner peace, inspiration and bravery.[15][16]

Ram Mandir

As per Rajinder Singh, a Sikh expert who was consulted by the five-member bench Court in the Ram Mandir case and was described in the judgement as “a person having an interest in the study of religious, cultural and historical books of a Sikh cult”, the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, took a pilgrimage to the Ram Janmabhoomi in c. 1520. The judgement also states that Rajinder Singh attached various janam sakhis to support his statements. Others have discredited the statements of Rajinder Singh on the basis of the janam sakhis attached dating from 18th century and later, which is stated to be a time period when Brahminical revivalism became evident in such works.[17] The SGPC passed a resolution condemning this verdict. Sikh scholars have the view that Guru Nanak went to religious sites like Mecca & Ayodhya to preach and spread his message rather than for piligrimage.[18]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Rama is described as Ram Avatar in the Dasam Granth by the 10th Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh.(Singh (Guru) 2005, p. 7)
  2. ^ Beesvan Ram Avtar Kathan or Ram Avtar is a composition in the second sacred Granth of Sikhs i.e. Dasam Granth, which was written by Guru Gobind Singh, at Anandpur Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh was not a worshiper of Sri Rama, as after describing the whole Avtar he cleared this fact that ਰਾਮ ਰਹੀਮ ਪੁਰਾਨ ਕੁਰਾਨ ਅਨੇਕ ਕਹੈਂ ਮਤ ਏਕ ਨ ਮਾਨਯੋ॥. Ram Avtar is based on Ramayana, but a Sikh studies the spiritual aspects of this whole composition.

Sources

Citations

  1. ^ Swami, p. 9.
  2. ^ Rinehart, Robin (2011-02-02). Debating the Dasam Granth. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-984247-6.
  3. ^ Jakobsh 2010, p. 47-48.
  4. ^ Singh (Guru) 2005, p. intro..
  5. ^ a b SS Kapoor, Dasam Granth, Hemkunt Press, pages 68-74
  6. ^ Doniger, Wendy; Merriam-Webster, Inc (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions ; Wendy Doniger, consulting editor. Internet Archive. Springfield, Mass. : Merriam-Webster. pp. 503. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.
  7. ^ Singh, Surinder (1993). The Sikh and Sikhism. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 34. ISBN 9788126930968.
  8. ^ Judge & Kaur 2010, p. 219.
  9. ^ Wani, Abid Mushtaq (2018). Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism: A Comparative Study. Educreation Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 9781545718186.
  10. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  11. ^ a b Singh, Surinder (1993). The Sikh and Sikhism. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 34. ISBN 9788126930968.
  12. ^ Singh (Guru) 2005, p. chapter: xiii.
  13. ^ J Deol (2000), Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700713899, pages 31-33
  14. ^ McLeod, W. H. (2005). Historical dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8108-5088-0.
  15. ^ Mehta 1996.
  16. ^ Syan 2014, pp. 28–31.
  17. ^ "How a Third Dimension was Introduced to the Ayodhya Judgment". The Wire. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
  18. ^ "Reference to Guru Nanak's visit: SGPC House passes resolution condemning Ayodhya verdict". Hindustan Times. 2019-11-28. Retrieved 2022-03-25.

References