Raymond Dodge (1871–1942) was an American experimental psychologist. He was educated at Williams College and the University of Halle. In 1896 he was appointed professor of philosophy at Ursinus College. The following year became associated with Wesleyan University, and was made full professor there in 1902. Dodge was the 25th president of the American Psychological Association in 1916.

Early life

Raymond Dodge was born in and grew up in Woburn, Massachusetts. [1] Dodge was the youngest of two sons born to George, an apothecary, and Anna Dodge.[2] Raymond has a brother, Ernest Dodge, who was ten years older than him. Ernest was an artist and etcher.[2] As Dodge was growing up, it is said to physically resemble him mother and resemble his father's temperament and intellect.[2] As a child, Dodge's father took him under his wing. Two places that often Dodge and his father often spent time together were his father's store and library.[2] Dodge often helped his father out in his father's store. While spending time with his father, Dodge's was introduced to topics like medicine, physiology, philosophy, and religion in their library.[2] With this early introduction to philosophy, it should not be surprising that Dodge went on to study it at Williams College.


As a freshman at Williams College Dodge studied philosophy. During Dodge's schooling, he ran into a financial problem. Dodge's father had to sell his store, due to his failing health. Luckily, Dodge found a job at the college library, that gave him the financial support and ample resources for class.[2] Even with some limitations throughout his college career, this did not set him back from his peers. In 1893, Dodge graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree.[2] Following his undergraduate, Dodge continued to work as an assistant librarian to pay for graduate school.[2] Dodge had intended to go to either Harvard or Columbia, but was rejected by both schools. The rejected did not dishearten Dodge, he continued his schooling at the University of Halle, in Germany.


While studying at the University of Halle, Dodge studied psychology under Professor Benno Erdmann. Professor Erdmann expressed his frustrations concerning his need for a tachistoscope.[1] Erdmann explained that he needed a device that “could serve to exhibit a word or diagram all at once and in clear view for binocular reading or perception”.[2] Dodge set out to create just what Erdmann needed. With the help of other colleagues, Dodge's tachistoscope was built. With the use of this new apparatus, Erdmann and Dodge conducted experiments on reading and the researching the eye.[1] Raymond's earlier studies of eye movement led him to identify 5 types of eye movements. These eye movements are the saccadic and pursuit, convergence, reflex compensatory, and the backswing.[1] After studying at the University of Halle, Dodge returned to the states.


Upon returning to the states, Dodge started his professional career at Ursinus College at the young age of 26. Dodge was appointed as a professor of philosophy at Ursinus College in 1896. Dodge started teaching at Wesleyan University and was made a full-time professor in 1902. Dodge was elected to conduct experiments on the psychology of nutrition at the Carnegie Institute laboratory (1913–1914), and became the editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology (1916) and of the Journal of Comparative Psychology (1921). He was the author of numerous scientific monographs and papers on the psychology of language, vision, eye movement, and dynamic psychology in general. Dodge was also the 25th president of the American Psychological Association in 1916. Dodge retired from academic work in 1936 and lived out his retirement in Tryon, North Carolina.[2]

Personal Life

Dodge married Henrietta Cutler, in August 1897.[2] Dodge and his wife, did not have any children. While teaching at Wesleyan, he and his wife opened their home to the boys attending Wesleyan.[2]


Six years after Dodge's retirement, he died on April 8, 1942.


  1. ^ a b c d Woodworth, R. S. (1942). "Raymond Dodge, 1871-1942". Psychological Review. 49 (5): 395–402. doi:10.1037/h0058785. ISSN 0033-295X.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Miles, W. (1956). "Raymond Dodge". Biographical Memoirs.